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Model for the phase transfer of nanoparticles using ionic surfactants.

Model for the phase transfer of nanoparticles using ionic surfactants. Ionic surfactants are widely used for the phase transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous to organic phases; however, a model that can be used to select ionic surfactants based on the nanoparticle solution properties has yet to be established. Here, we have studied the phase transfer of a variety of nanoparticles and have identified hydrophobicity, steric repulsion, and interfacial tension as key factors in determining whether or not phase transfer will occur. Based on these studies, we have developed a simple model for phase transfer wherein the success of the surfactant depends only on three criteria. The phase transfer agents must (i) efficiently load onto or cross the interface, (ii) solubilize the nanoparticles in the receiving phase, and (iii) sterically stabilize the nanoparticles to prevent aggregation due to van der Waals forces between the inorganic cores. Using these criteria, the effectiveness of ionic surfactants could be predicted based on their molecular geometry and the properties of the nanoparticle solutions. These rules provide a basis for choosing surfactants for phase transfer of spherical nanoparticles up to 16 nm in diameter and advances the development of a general model of nanoparticle phase transfer, which would include all nanoparticle shapes, sizes, and solvents. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Langmuir Pubmed

Model for the phase transfer of nanoparticles using ionic surfactants.

Langmuir , Volume 30 (46): -13793 – Jun 18, 2015

Model for the phase transfer of nanoparticles using ionic surfactants.


Abstract

Ionic surfactants are widely used for the phase transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous to organic phases; however, a model that can be used to select ionic surfactants based on the nanoparticle solution properties has yet to be established. Here, we have studied the phase transfer of a variety of nanoparticles and have identified hydrophobicity, steric repulsion, and interfacial tension as key factors in determining whether or not phase transfer will occur. Based on these studies, we have developed a simple model for phase transfer wherein the success of the surfactant depends only on three criteria. The phase transfer agents must (i) efficiently load onto or cross the interface, (ii) solubilize the nanoparticles in the receiving phase, and (iii) sterically stabilize the nanoparticles to prevent aggregation due to van der Waals forces between the inorganic cores. Using these criteria, the effectiveness of ionic surfactants could be predicted based on their molecular geometry and the properties of the nanoparticle solutions. These rules provide a basis for choosing surfactants for phase transfer of spherical nanoparticles up to 16 nm in diameter and advances the development of a general model of nanoparticle phase transfer, which would include all nanoparticle shapes, sizes, and solvents.

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ISSN
0743-7463
DOI
10.1021/la503574s
pmid
25347724

Abstract

Ionic surfactants are widely used for the phase transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous to organic phases; however, a model that can be used to select ionic surfactants based on the nanoparticle solution properties has yet to be established. Here, we have studied the phase transfer of a variety of nanoparticles and have identified hydrophobicity, steric repulsion, and interfacial tension as key factors in determining whether or not phase transfer will occur. Based on these studies, we have developed a simple model for phase transfer wherein the success of the surfactant depends only on three criteria. The phase transfer agents must (i) efficiently load onto or cross the interface, (ii) solubilize the nanoparticles in the receiving phase, and (iii) sterically stabilize the nanoparticles to prevent aggregation due to van der Waals forces between the inorganic cores. Using these criteria, the effectiveness of ionic surfactants could be predicted based on their molecular geometry and the properties of the nanoparticle solutions. These rules provide a basis for choosing surfactants for phase transfer of spherical nanoparticles up to 16 nm in diameter and advances the development of a general model of nanoparticle phase transfer, which would include all nanoparticle shapes, sizes, and solvents.

Journal

LangmuirPubmed

Published: Jun 18, 2015

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