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[Prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias].

[Prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias]. Hypospadias is the most common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. After the heart and circulatory system, it is the second most common developmental disorder in males. It is due to a midline fusion defect of the male urethra, which results in a misplaced urethral meatus. Hypospadias may be distal, medial and proximal. It may occur as an isolated defect or it may develop together with other genital disorders (retention of testes in one or both sides, microphallus, bifid scrotum) or with malformation of other organs. In some cases syndromic forms may also occur. Genetic factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of early developmental defect, but endocrine and environmental factors may also be important in the aetiology of hypospadias. It may be associated with various sex and autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of hypospadias accounts for about in 30% of all cases, while genetic factors remain unknown in 70% of cases. The authors summarize the development of the male external genitalia, the prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias. They propose that better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease may contribute to the prevention and decreased prevalence of the disease. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Orvosi hetilap Pubmed

[Prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias].

Orvosi hetilap , Volume 155 (25): 8 – Aug 20, 2014

[Prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias].


Abstract

Hypospadias is the most common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. After the heart and circulatory system, it is the second most common developmental disorder in males. It is due to a midline fusion defect of the male urethra, which results in a misplaced urethral meatus. Hypospadias may be distal, medial and proximal. It may occur as an isolated defect or it may develop together with other genital disorders (retention of testes in one or both sides, microphallus, bifid scrotum) or with malformation of other organs. In some cases syndromic forms may also occur. Genetic factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of early developmental defect, but endocrine and environmental factors may also be important in the aetiology of hypospadias. It may be associated with various sex and autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of hypospadias accounts for about in 30% of all cases, while genetic factors remain unknown in 70% of cases. The authors summarize the development of the male external genitalia, the prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias. They propose that better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease may contribute to the prevention and decreased prevalence of the disease.

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ISSN
0030-6002
DOI
10.1556/OH.2014.29858
pmid
24936573

Abstract

Hypospadias is the most common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. After the heart and circulatory system, it is the second most common developmental disorder in males. It is due to a midline fusion defect of the male urethra, which results in a misplaced urethral meatus. Hypospadias may be distal, medial and proximal. It may occur as an isolated defect or it may develop together with other genital disorders (retention of testes in one or both sides, microphallus, bifid scrotum) or with malformation of other organs. In some cases syndromic forms may also occur. Genetic factors play a crucial role in the occurrence of early developmental defect, but endocrine and environmental factors may also be important in the aetiology of hypospadias. It may be associated with various sex and autosomal chromosomal abnormalities. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of hypospadias accounts for about in 30% of all cases, while genetic factors remain unknown in 70% of cases. The authors summarize the development of the male external genitalia, the prevalence and possible causes of hypospadias. They propose that better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease may contribute to the prevention and decreased prevalence of the disease.

Journal

Orvosi hetilapPubmed

Published: Aug 20, 2014

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