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Ureteral metal stents: a tale or a tool?

Ureteral metal stents: a tale or a tool? There are four types of ureteral metal stents: self expandable, balloon expandable, covered, and thermoexpandable shape-memory. Insertion of metal stents requires expertise with transurethral and percutaneous techniques. The stricture is traversed with the aid of a guidewire via a percutaneous nephrostomy, and the stenotic segment is dilated using a high-pressure balloon catheter. The stent is then inserted over the guidewire, such that the upper end bypasses the obstruction by at least 3 to 4 cm, while the lower end extends intravesically for 0.5 to 1 cm from the ureteral orifice. If necessary, two or more stents are placed in sequence, overlapping by at least 2 to 3 cm. Metal stents were initially used for the relief of end-stage malignant disease, and their role in the treatment of benign ureteral strictures is still undefined. Patients often complain of abdominal discomfort and mild pain after stent insertion, which soon resolve spontaneously. Hematuria usually stops after a few days and does not necessitate any treatment. Mild urothelial hyperplasia in the stent lumen is common but usually regresses after 4 to 6 weeks. Many authors suggest the use of a double-pigtail catheter for the first 4 to 6 weeks to avoid narrowing of the ureteral lumen. The influence of stents on ureteral peristalsis is a major but poorly documented issue. Encrustation is a significant problem that needs to be addressed. The characteristics of both the patient and the stent influence its likelihood. Migration of coated metal stents was seen in 81% of patients at our center. Virtual endoscopy has recently been introduced as a tool for the follow-up of patients with stented ureters. Further design development is necessary to obtain the ideal ureteral metal stent. In a recent study in female pigs, paclitaxel-eluting metal stents engendered less inflammation and hyperplasia of the surrounding tissues. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of endourology Pubmed

Ureteral metal stents: a tale or a tool?

Journal of endourology , Volume 19 (8): -924 – Feb 7, 2006

Ureteral metal stents: a tale or a tool?


Abstract

There are four types of ureteral metal stents: self expandable, balloon expandable, covered, and thermoexpandable shape-memory. Insertion of metal stents requires expertise with transurethral and percutaneous techniques. The stricture is traversed with the aid of a guidewire via a percutaneous nephrostomy, and the stenotic segment is dilated using a high-pressure balloon catheter. The stent is then inserted over the guidewire, such that the upper end bypasses the obstruction by at least 3 to 4 cm, while the lower end extends intravesically for 0.5 to 1 cm from the ureteral orifice. If necessary, two or more stents are placed in sequence, overlapping by at least 2 to 3 cm. Metal stents were initially used for the relief of end-stage malignant disease, and their role in the treatment of benign ureteral strictures is still undefined. Patients often complain of abdominal discomfort and mild pain after stent insertion, which soon resolve spontaneously. Hematuria usually stops after a few days and does not necessitate any treatment. Mild urothelial hyperplasia in the stent lumen is common but usually regresses after 4 to 6 weeks. Many authors suggest the use of a double-pigtail catheter for the first 4 to 6 weeks to avoid narrowing of the ureteral lumen. The influence of stents on ureteral peristalsis is a major but poorly documented issue. Encrustation is a significant problem that needs to be addressed. The characteristics of both the patient and the stent influence its likelihood. Migration of coated metal stents was seen in 81% of patients at our center. Virtual endoscopy has recently been introduced as a tool for the follow-up of patients with stented ureters. Further design development is necessary to obtain the ideal ureteral metal stent. In a recent study in female pigs, paclitaxel-eluting metal stents engendered less inflammation and hyperplasia of the surrounding tissues.

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ISSN
0892-7790
DOI
10.1089/end.2005.19.934
pmid
16253054

Abstract

There are four types of ureteral metal stents: self expandable, balloon expandable, covered, and thermoexpandable shape-memory. Insertion of metal stents requires expertise with transurethral and percutaneous techniques. The stricture is traversed with the aid of a guidewire via a percutaneous nephrostomy, and the stenotic segment is dilated using a high-pressure balloon catheter. The stent is then inserted over the guidewire, such that the upper end bypasses the obstruction by at least 3 to 4 cm, while the lower end extends intravesically for 0.5 to 1 cm from the ureteral orifice. If necessary, two or more stents are placed in sequence, overlapping by at least 2 to 3 cm. Metal stents were initially used for the relief of end-stage malignant disease, and their role in the treatment of benign ureteral strictures is still undefined. Patients often complain of abdominal discomfort and mild pain after stent insertion, which soon resolve spontaneously. Hematuria usually stops after a few days and does not necessitate any treatment. Mild urothelial hyperplasia in the stent lumen is common but usually regresses after 4 to 6 weeks. Many authors suggest the use of a double-pigtail catheter for the first 4 to 6 weeks to avoid narrowing of the ureteral lumen. The influence of stents on ureteral peristalsis is a major but poorly documented issue. Encrustation is a significant problem that needs to be addressed. The characteristics of both the patient and the stent influence its likelihood. Migration of coated metal stents was seen in 81% of patients at our center. Virtual endoscopy has recently been introduced as a tool for the follow-up of patients with stented ureters. Further design development is necessary to obtain the ideal ureteral metal stent. In a recent study in female pigs, paclitaxel-eluting metal stents engendered less inflammation and hyperplasia of the surrounding tissues.

Journal

Journal of endourologyPubmed

Published: Feb 7, 2006

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