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R. Bailey, K. Schönrogge, J. Cook, G. Melika, G. Csóka, C. Thuróczy, G. Stone (2009)Host Niches and Defensive Extended Phenotypes Structure Parasitoid Wasp Communities
PLoS Biology, 7
W. Abrahamson, G. Melika, R. Scrafford, G. Csóka (1998)Gall-inducing insects provide insights into plant systematic relationships.
American journal of botany, 85 8
(2005)Árvores do Cerrado – guia de campo
A. Anderson, S. McCormack, A. Helden, H. Sheridan, A. Kinsella, G. Purvis (2011)The potential of parasitoid Hymenoptera as bioindicators of arthropod diversity in agricultural grasslands
Journal of Applied Ecology, 48
Justin Garson, Anshu Aggarwal, S. Sarkar (2002)Birds as surrogates for biodiversity: An analysis of a data set from southern Québec
Journal of Biosciences, 27
(1998)Flora vascular do Cerrado
P. Price (2005)Adaptive radiation of gall-inducing insects
Basic and Applied Ecology, 6
(2010)Update for a catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world
G. Stone, K. Schönrogge (2003)The adaptive significance of insect gall morphology
Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18
J. Felfili, Manoel Júnior, A. Sevilha, C. Fagg, Bruno Walter, P. Nogueira, A. Rezende (2004)Diversity, floristic and structural patterns of cerrado vegetation in Central Brazil
Plant Ecology, 175
Jamie Kirkpatrick, Mike Austin, Bob Pressey, Chris Margules, •. 80s90s, Nic Nichols, Dan Faith, Hugh Possingham, Ian Ball (2000)Systematic conservation planning
(2007)Hipóteses sobre a riqueza de insetos galhadores: uma revisão considerando os níveis intra-específico, interespecífico e de comunidade
K. Oyama, M. PÉREZ-PÉREZ, P. Cuevas‐Reyes, R. Luna-Reyes (2003)Regional and local species richness of gall-inducing insects in two tropical rain forests in Mexico
Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19
H. Godfray, Owen Lewis, Owen Lewis, Jane Memmott (1999)Studying insect diversity in the tropics.
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 354 1391
Y. Carmel, Liron Stoller-Cavari (2006)Comparing Environmental and Biological Surrogates for Biodiversity at a Local Scale
Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution, 52
M. Carneiro, C. Branco, Carlos Braga, E. Almada, Marina Costa, V. Maia, G. Fernandes (2009)Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) host-plant specialists?
Revista Brasileira De Entomologia, 53
P. Cuevas‐Reyes, M. Quesada, P. Hanson, R. Dirzo, K. Oyama (2004)Diversity of gall‐inducing insects in a Mexican tropical dry forest: the importance of plant species richness, life‐forms, host plant age and plant density
Journal of Ecology, 92
(1998)Flora vascular do Cerrado. In: Cerrado: ambiente e flora
P. Price (2002)Resource-driven terrestrial interaction webs
Ecological Research, 17
J. Ribeiro, B. Walter (1998)Fitofisionomias do bioma cerrado.
W. Araújo (2010)Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).
Revista de biologia tropical, 59 4
S. Gonçalves-Alvim, Tate Lana, B. Ranieri, F. Silveira, Vilmara Ribeiro, G. Fernandes (2010)Growth, defense and herbivory on young leaves of Qualea parviflora (Vochysiaceae) in three different Cerrado habitats
Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 5
M. Espírito-Santo, G. Fernandes (2009)How Many Species of Gall-Inducing Insects Are There on Earth, and Where Are They?
B. Walter (2006)Fitofisionomias do bioma Cerrado : síntese terminológica e relações florísticas
K. Blanche (2000)Diversity of insect‐induced galls along a temperature– rainfall gradient in the tropical savannah region of the Northern Territory, Australia
Austral Ecology, 25
J. Lawton (1983)Plant Architecture and the Diversity of Phytophagous Insects
Annual Review of Entomology, 28
Claudia Bräuniger, Sonja Knapp, I. Kühn, S. Klotz (2010)Testing taxonomic and landscape surrogates for biodiversity in an urban setting
Landscape and Urban Planning, 97
Ricardo Dalbem, M. Mendonça (2006)Diversity of galling arthropods and host plants in a subtropical forest of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.
Neotropical entomology, 35 5
M. Wright, M. Samways (1998)Insect species richness tracking plant species richness in a diverse flora: gall-insects in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa
J. Shorthouse, D. Wool, A. Raman (2005)Gall-inducing insects – Nature's most sophisticated herbivores
Basic and Applied Ecology, 6
S. Gonçalves-Alvim, G. Fernandes (2001)Comunidades de insetos galhadores (Insecta) em diferentes fisionomias do cerrado em Minas Gerais, Brasil
Revista Brasileira De Zoologia, 18
A. Lara, G. Fernandes, S. Gonçalves-Alvim (2002)Tests of hypotheses on patterns of gall distribution along an altitudinal gradient
Tropical Zoology, 15
R. Veldtman, M. McGeoch (2003)Gall‐forming insect species richness along a non‐scleromorphic vegetation rainfall gradient in South Africa: The importance of plant community composition
Austral Ecology, 28
Milton Souza (2007)Plant diversity and galling arthropod diversity searching for taxonomic patterns in an animal-plant interaction in the Neotropics
Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica, 42
Peter, W., Price, C., Wilson, Fernandes, Cwendol, Yn, L., W. ARINCl (1987)Adaptive Nature of Insect Galls
Environmental Entomology, 16
P. Cuevas‐Reyes, C. Siebe, M. Martínez‐Ramos, K. Oyama (2003)Species richness of gall-forming insects in a tropical rain forest: correlations with plant diversity and soil fertility
Biodiversity & Conservation, 12
(2005)100 Árvores do Cerrado – guia de campo
Galling insects are the only insects capable of manipulating plant tissues to form complex structures. The number of known species of galling insect is small compared to the large diversity that statistical estimates suggest for this group. The study of galling insect diversity can be a difficult task in mega-diverse environments such as in tropical regions, thus justifying the use of surrogates. This study investigated whether or not host plant richness and super-host taxa can be used as surrogates for galling insect diversity. Surveys were conducted in 15 areas of cerrado sensu stricto in different localities of the Brazilian Cerrado. The results showed that host plant richness was the main predictor of galling insect diversity. The plant genus Qualea (Vochysiaceae), with 18 galling species, was the super-host taxon used in the analyses. Despite the influence of genus on galling insect richness, the abundance of Qualea was not related to galling insect diversity. Surrogates can be a useful tool for estimating galling insect richness and diversity patterns, both of which are relevant for conservation assessments. Key words: galls, indicator groups, Cerrado, plant richness, super-host taxa Resumo Insetos galhadores são os únicos insetos capazes de manipular os tecidos das plantas para formar estruturas complexas. O número de espécies de galhadores conhecidas é pequeno comparado à grande diversidade que estimativas estatísticas sugerem para o grupo. O estudo da diversidade de galhadores pode ser uma difícil tarefa em ambientes mega-diversos com as regiões tropicais, justificando o uso de substitutos. Esse estudo investiga se a riqueza de plantas e os táxons super-hospedeiros podem ser usados como substitutos para a diversidade de insetos galhadores. Levantamentos foram feitos em 15 áreas de cerrado sensu stricto em diferentes localidades do Cerrado brasileiro. Os resultados mostram que riqueza de plantas foi o principal preditor da riqueza de galhas. O gênero de planta Qualea (Vochysiaceae), com 18 espécies de galhadores, foi o táxon super-hospedeiro utilizado nas análises. Apesar da influencia do gênero sobre a riqueza de insetos galhadores, a abundância de Qualea não esteve relacionada à diversidade de insetos galhadores. Substitutos de diversidade podem ser usados para estimar a riqueza e padrões de diversidade de galhadores, ambos os aspectos são importantes para desenvolver estratégias conservacionistas. Palavras-chave: Cerrado, galhas, grupos indicadores, riqueza de plantas, táxons super-hospedeiros Received: 5 May 2011; Accepted: 27 September 2011; Published: 12 December 2011. Copyright: © Walter Santos de Araújo. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ - The license permits any user to download, print out, extract, archive, and distribute the article, so long as appropriate credit is given to the authors and source of the work. The license ensures that the published article will be as widely available as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific archive. Open Access authors retain the copyrights of their papers. Open access is a property of individual works, not necessarily journals or publishers. Cite this paper as: Santos de Araújo, W. 2011. Can host plant richness be used as a surrogate for galling insect diversity? Tropical Conservation Science Vol. 4(4):420-427. Available online: www.tropicalconservationscience.org Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org 420 Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.4 (4):420-427, 2011 Introduction Galling insects are the most sophisticated herbivores in nature . Strongly influenced by resource availability , they are capable of manipulating plant tissues to form complex structures  that are efficient both for nutrition  and for defense against the natural enemies of these insects . All of these characteristics make this group one of the most diverse guilds of herbivorous insects . Espírito-Santo and Fernandes  estimated that there may be more than 132,000 species of galling insects. The paper by Price  also supports this idea and shows that, in the majority of galling taxa, adaptive radiation is an opportunistic event. Studying this great diversity can be a difficult and expensive task, requiring a large spatial, sampling and temporal effort . Thus, the use of indirect factors to predict the diversity of galling insects can be useful, especially for studies in regions with rich biodiversity, such as the vegetation of the tropics . In the case of galling, two factors may cause variations in the diversity patterns of these insects: host plant richness and super-host taxa [10-12]. The first indicates that galling insect diversity is strongly dependent on the number of host species , suggesting that each plant species represents a potential niche for galling insects . However, super-host taxa are species or genera of plants that have a high intrinsic diversity of galling insects , and their presence and abundance can affect the local diversity of insects independently of plant species richness . This study tested the correlation between these two factors and galling diversity, and investigated whether or not host plant richness and super-host taxa can be used as surrogates for measuring galling insect richness. Methods Study areas The surveys were conducted in 15 areas of the Brazilian Cerrado (Table 1, Fig. 1). This region presents a climate classified as Aw Köppen (tropical rain), with dry winters (April to September) and rainy summers (October to March) . The vegetation studied was neotropical savanna (cerrado sensu stricto), which can have different forms and subtypes of vegetation, such as sparse cerrado, typical cerrado, dense cerrado and cerrado with rocky outcrops . Fig. 1. Distribution map of sampling points in the Brazilian Cerrado. Legend: 1 = Fazenda Lageado, GO; 2 = Banana Menina, GO; 3 = Senador Canedo, GO; 4 = Residencial Itanhangá, GO; 5 = Cerrado Bela V ista, GO; 6 = Fazenda Bom Sucesso, GO; 7 = Reserva da UEG, GO; 8 = Pedreira, GO; 9 = Fazenda do Geraldo, GO; 10 = Cerrado Caldas Novas, GO; 11 = Caça e Pesca, MG; 12 = Floresta do Lobo, MG; 13 = APA Cafuringa, DF; 14 = Rebio Contagem, DF; 15 = Porto Real, TO. Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org 421 Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.4 (4):420-427, 2011 Sampling and data analyses Between February and May of 2010, we conducted inventories of galling insects and host plants from 10 plots (10 × 10m) randomly established in each study site. Sampling was performed once in each area and it involved only woody plants with a circumference greater than 15 cm at ground level. The plants were all identified in the field. Each plant included in the sample had the leaves, stems and flowers inspected to a height of 2.5 m in the search for galls. Gall morphotypes were used to survey the galling insects, assuming that each morphotype is unique (2) and that each galling species is specific to its host plant [16; 7; 17]. The morphological characteristics used in gall differentiation were gall occurrence, form, color, pubescence and size. In order to test for super-host taxa as surrogates for galling insect diversity, we used the genus Qualea (Vochysiaceae). This genus has 11 species in the Cerrado , and most of them are widely distributed throughout the biome, particularly in cerrado sensu stricto . Furthermore, a large diversity of galling insects has been documented associated with species of Qualea . Species such as Qualea grandiflora, Qualea multiflora, and Qualea parviflora, all presenting associated galling species, were present in the areas sampled (Fig. 2). The t test was used to test for effects of the presence and absence of Qualea on the local richness of galling insects. The abundance of individuals of the genus Qualea and the local richness of galling insects were correlated by linear regression. Linear regression analysis was used to correlate plant species richness with galling insect richness. Statistica 7.0 software was used for all tests. Table 1. Characterization of the areas studied in the Brazilian Cerrado. Sites City Coordinates Altitude (m) APA Cafuringa Brasília, DF 15°31'56" N, 47°57'57" W 873 REBio Contagem Brasília, DF 15°37'15" N, 47°52'21" W 994 Banana Menina Hidrolândia, GO 16°59'43" N, 49°14'22" W 893 Cerrado de Bela Vista Bela Vista, GO 16°57'39" N, 48°56'58" W 809 Cerrado de Caldas Caldas Novas, GO 17°42'40" N, 48°38'26" W 702 Fazenda Bom Sucesso Senador Canedo, GO 16°42'39" N, 49°02'33" W 749 Fazenda do Geraldo Silvânia, GO 16°40'9" N, 48°18'31" W 837 Fazenda Lajeado Jataí, GO 17°53'7" N, 51°38'11" W 756 Pedreira da Prefeitura Pirenópolis, GO 15°50'14" N, 48°55'32" W 840 Reserva da UEG Anápolis, GO 16°22'54" N, 48°56'42" W 1097 Residencial Itanhangá Goiânia, GO 16°33'56" N, 49°17'11" W 762 Zona Rural, Canedo Senador Canedo, GO 16°43'15" N, 49° 6'23" W 774 Caça e Pesca Uberlândia, MG 19°00'32" N, 48°18'48" W 864 Floresta do Lobo Uberlândia, MG 19°05'28" N, 48° 9'11" W 948 Porto Real Ponte Alta, TO 11° 00'13" N, 47°13'56" W 380 Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org 422 Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.4 (4):420-427, 2011 Results Altogether we recorded 112 galling insect species in 64 plant species. Most galls (76%) occurred in leaves, followed by stems (22%), apical buds (1%) and petioles (1%). The plant families that were richest in galling insects were Vochysiaceae (19 species), Fabaceae (13) and Malpighiaceae (12). In most sites, gall sampling was relatively good in view of the large diversity of galling insects and host plants studied (Fig. 3). The mean number of galls/site was 16.6 (+ 6.6); Fazenda Lajeado was the most diverse site, with 30 gall morphotypes, and REBio Contagen was the poorest with only 8 morphotypes. Host plant richness was the best predictor of the galling insect diversity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01; Fig. 4); however, host plant richness did not explain the frequency of plants with galls (r = 0.13; p = 0.17). Fig. 2. Examples of gall morphotypes sampled in the Qualea species: A) discoid leaf gall in Q. grandiflora; B) globoid stem gall in Q. grandiflora; C) globoid leaf gall in Q. multiflora; D) starry leaf gall in Q. multiflora; E) starry leaf gall in Q. parviflora and F) discoid leaf gall in Q. parviflora. The genus Qualea hosted 18 galling insect species and Q. parviflora hosted 8 species alone. The species Q. parviflora had no effect on local gall richness, but when all of the species of the genus were considered the effect was significant (F = 32.92; p < 0.05; Fig. 5). Areas where 2,23 the genus Qualea occurred presented an average of 19.1 (+ 5.05) galling insect species, and areas where this genus was absent had fewer than half this number of galling insect species (8.5 + 0.5). There was no influence of the presence of super-host taxa on the number of plants with galls (F = 440.27; p > 0.05). 2,23 The abundance of Qualea was not related to gall richness (r = 0.004; p = 0.81) or frequency of plants with galls (r = 0.002; p = 0.86). Similarly, no relationship was found between galling insect richness in the genus Qualea and total galling insect richness (r = 0.13; p = 0.18), or between the abundance of Qualea plants and plant species richness, although there was a slight tendency of areas with fewer species to have a greater dominance of the genus Qualea (r = 0.007; p = 0.76). Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org 423 Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.4 (4):420-427, 2011 Fig. 3. Rarefaction curve of the accumulated richness of galling insects in relation to number of individuals sampled. Fig. 4. Relationship between galling insect richness and plant richness (r = 0.46; p < 0.01; y = -3.36 + 0.62x). Fig. 5. Galling insect richness between areas with presence 20 of genus Qualea, only Qualea parviflora and areas where Qualea not occurred. Means with different letters reflect significant differences with P < 0.05. Qualea Only Qualea No Qualea parviflora Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org Galling insect richess . Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.4 (4):420-427, 2011 Discussion Whether or not plant diversity influences the richness of herbivorous insects is one of the most discussed issues in insect-plant interaction ecology, especially where galling insects are concerned [11, 14, 21-23]. Among these influences, host plant richness has received most attention, resulting in studies that are favorable [10, 22, 24] or opposed [13, 25, 26] to this hypothesis. Our results show that the local richness of gall morphotypes is positively influenced by host plant richness, suggesting that this is a good predictor of galling insect diversity. Most galling species have a species-specific relationship with their host , supporting the hypothesis of a relationship with plant richness . Bräuniger et al.  also showed that plant species richness might be a good surrogate for predicting galling insect diversity. Usually, when one factor is correlated with the presence of certain taxa, this factor can be considered a surrogate for the diversity of this taxon [24, 29, 30]. The presence of Qualea increased the local galling insect richness, but the abundance of species of this genus was not associated with galling insect richness. One explanation for these results could be that the local abundance of Qualea is not dependent on plant richness and tends to be inversely proportional to this factor. For this reason, areas with higher plant species richness, and consequently galling, showed a low abundance of Qualea. The species of this genus are some of the most common in the vegetation of cerrado sensu stricto , showing a relatively high level of dominance in the sites where they are present . Thus, the super-host taxa were not a good surrogate for galling insect diversity. Sclerophyllous vegetation (on poor soils with little water) probably has more galling insect species per plant species than wetland vegetation . Therefore, the number of plant species can increase to a greater level than galling insect richness . Similarly, tropical regions have a high floristic diversity and host most of the galling insect species . In these environments, the use of surrogates can be a useful tool for estimating galling insect richness and diversity patterns. Here, we also need to consider that other factors related to plant diversity could also be used as effective surrogates for galling insect richness, such as the size, density, architecture, and vegetation cover of taxa . Implications for conservation A large number of galling species has been described in recent decades  and estimates indicate that the number of species yet to be described could significantly exceed the number of known species . The use of surrogates such as host plant richness seems to be a good tool for predicting galling insect richness and surveys using this approach could obtain relevant quantitative and qualitative results for the selection of priority areas for the conservation of galling insects. Acknowledgments I am very grateful to A. Estrada, E. D. Porfírio-Júnior and N. Coelho and two anonymous reviewers for suggestions; and to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship grant. 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Tropical Conservation Science – SAGE
Published: Dec 1, 2011
Keywords: galls; indicator groups; Cerrado; plant richness; super-host taxa; Cerrado; galhas; grupos indicadores; riqueza de plantas; táxons super-hospedeiros
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