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Background:Emerging evidence notes increased depression, anxiety, and stress among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about populations at increased risk for emotional distress as the pandemic continues. Persons with adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are one group that may be at higher risk for emotional distress.Aim:The aim of this study is to examine whether young adults, particularly Black young adults, with histories of ACEs report more emotional distress during the pandemic than those with no ACE exposure.Method:Using a cross-sectional, quota sampling approach, 100 Black and 100 White young adults were recruited using online sources (e.g., University website, Facebook). Due to the pandemic, participants were screened via Zoom and, if eligible, completed a demographic questionnaire, emotional distress measures (i.e., anxiety, depression, stress), and the ACE Questionnaire online via a Qualtrics survey. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis examined the ACE and emotional distress relationship, and multigroup SEM assessed racial differences.Results:High levels of both emotional distress and ACEs were observed. Black young adults reported significantly more ACEs than Whites. ACEs were significantly associated with each measure of emotional distress regardless of race or other covariates.Conclusions:Findings reveal that during the pandemic, persons exposed to ACEs reported greater emotional distress than those with no ACE exposure. Nurses must screen patients for both emotional distress and ACE to target those at higher risk for early intervention and initiate treatment as needed to mitigate long-term mental health consequences.
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association – SAGE
Published: Jan 1, 2022
Keywords: abuse; anxiety and anxiety disorders; depression and depressive disorders; minority populations; stress
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