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A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India

A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 DOI 10.1007/s13201-014-0238-y ORIGINAL ARTICLE A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India • • Praveen Kumar Rai Kshitij Mohan • • Sameer Mishra Aariz Ahmad Varun Narayan Mishra Received: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published online: 7 November 2014 The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The study indicates that analysis of morpho- Keywords Drainage morphometry  Kanhar basin metric parameters with the help of geographic information Watershed  DEM  GIS system (GIS) would prove a viable method of character- izing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is Introduction emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical ana- technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin lysis of the configuration of the earth’s surface, shape and and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in con- dimension of its landforms (Clarke 1996; Agarwal 1998; junction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm?, Obi Reddy et al. 2002). The morphometric analysis is done 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). successfully through measurement of linear, aerial, relief, In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has gradient of channel network and contributing ground slope been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven of the basin (Nautiyal 1994; Nag and Chakraborty, 2003; sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to Magesh et al. 2012b). calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morpho- A widely acknowledged principle of morphometry is metric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifur- that drainage basin morphology reflects various geological cation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form and geomorphological processes over time, as indicated by factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage various morphometric studies (Horton 1945; Strahler 1952, area of the basin is 5,654 km and shows sub-dendritic to 1964; Muller 1968; Shreve 1969; Evans 1972, 1984; dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is Chorley et al. 1984; Merritts and Vincent 1989; Ohmori mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological con- 1993; Cox 1994; Oguchi 1997; Burrough and McDonnell ditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh- 1998; Hurtrez et al. 1999). It is well established that the order basin with the drainage density value being as influence of drainage morphometry is very significant in 1.72 km/km . The increase in stream length ratio from understanding the landform processes, soil physical prop- lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached erties and erosional characteristics. a mature geomorphic stage. The analysis of the drainage does not appear to be complete if it lacks the systematic approach towards the development of drainage basin in the area. Drainage lines of an area not only explain the existing three- P. K. Rai (&)  K. Mohan  S. Mishra  A. Ahmad dimensional geometry of the region but also help to Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, UP, India narrate its evolutional process (Singh 1980). Drainage e-mail: rai.vns82@gmail.com provides a basic to understand initial gradient, variation in rock resistance, structural control, geological and V. N. Mishra geomorphologic history of the drainage basin or water- Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), shed. Evaluation of morphometric parameters requires Varanasi 221005, UP, India 123 218 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 the analysis of various drainage parameters such as drainage basin area, drainage density, drainage order, relief ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin and network diameter in GIS environment. Combination of area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage the remote sensing satellite data and hydrological and density (Dd), bifurcation ratio (Rb), stream length ratio spatial analysis in GIS environment is made easy to iden- (RL), and relief ratio (Rh). tify and discriminate the drainage area (Pirasteh et al. Besides, the quantitative analysis of drainage system is 2010). The geographic and geomorphic characteristics of a an important aspect of characteristic of watershed (Strahler drainage basin are important for hydrological investiga- 1964). It is important in any hydrological investigation like tions involving the assessment of groundwater potential, assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater man- etc. agement, basin management and environmental The present study aims at using the remote sensing and assessment. GIS technology to compute various parameters of mor- Hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the phometric characteristics of the Kanhar River watershed. watershed and morphometric characterization at the This is in consonance with the latest developments and watershed scale reveals information regarding formation researches as cited above. and development of land surface processes (Singh 1992, 1995; Dar et al. 2013). Drainage characteristics of many river basins and sub-basins in different parts of the globe Study area have been studied using conventional methods (Horton 0 0 0 1945; Strahler 1957, 1964; Krishnamurthy et al. 1996). The Kanhar River (2312Nto 24272 N and 832Eto The surface runoff and flow intensity of the drainage 841 E) is an important tributary of the River Son. The total system can be estimated using the geomorphic features geographical area of the basin is 5,654 km .It flows associated with morphometric parameters (Ozdemir and through the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bird 2009). Strahler’s system of classification designates Uttar Pradesh (Fig. 1). The Kanhar originates at Gidha- a segment with no tributaries as a first-order stream. Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Where two first-order stream segments join, they form a Chhattisgarh. It initially flows north forming the boundary second-order stream segment and so on. The morpho- with Garhwa district in Palamu division of Jharkhand. metric analysis of the drainage basin is aimed to acquire Thereafter, it flows for about 100 kilometres (62 miles) accurate data of measurable features of stream network through Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. of the drainage basin. Various hydrological phenomena Subsequently, it runs parallel to the Son River in Gar- can be correlated with the physiographic characteristics hwa district and turns north-west and flowing of an drainage basin such as size, shape, slope of the through Sonbhadra district in Mirzapur division of Uttar drainage area, drainage density, size and length of the Pradesh. It confluences with the Son River (which itself is contributories, etc. (Rastogi and Sharma 1976; Magesh the tributary of the national holy river ‘Ganges’) to the et al. 2012a). north-east of the village of Kota. Son River plays an The remote sensing technique is the convenient method important role in increasing the catchment area of Ganga for morphometric analysis as the satellite images provide a River. It has a rocky bed almost throughout its course. synoptic view of a large area and is very useful in the Flowing through forested areas, it becomes a dangerous analysis of drainage basin morphometry. The fast emerging stream. The elevation of the basin ranges from a low height spatial information technology, remote sensing, GIS, and of 180 m where the Kanhar meets the Son River to GPS have effective tools to overcome most of the problems 1,223 m (Gaurlpat) at Kavradara in Sarguja district of of land and water resources planning and management Chhattisgarh. rather than conventional methods of data process (Rao The tributaries of the Kanhar River are Pangan, Thema, et al. 2010). Lauwa, Malia, Pandu, Goitha, Banki, Hathi nala, Suria, GIS-based evaluation using Shuttle Radar Topographic Chana, Sendur, Kursa, Galphulla, Semarkhar Rigar, Cher- Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal na nala. A number of waterfalls are located along the track Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data has of the river. Pavai fall near Kothali village (Balrampur) is given a precise, fast, and an inexpensive way for analysing of about 61 m. The dense rich forest area provides an hydrological systems (Smith and Sandwell 2003; Groh- abode to thousands of species of flora and fauna. It is the mann 2004). The processed DEM was used successfully for home to various tribes and natives which lived here since generating the stream network and other supporting layers long. (Mesa 2006; Magesh et al. 2011). The climate of the watershed is characterized by hot The digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was summer and well-distributed rainfall during the monsoon generated to deduce the morphometric parameters like season. With its general monsoon character, the region 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 219 according to Thornthwait’s classification falls in the Some of these summits show long continued erosion Tropical Thermal belt assigns it the grassland type char- and which form platforms within the hillocks. acter. According to Trewartha’s classification, the Kanhar watershed falls in AW (Tropical Swanah) class which is based on temperature and vegetation. The symbol AW Geomorphological units of Kanhar River basin denotes Tropical Swanah region. The chief feature of this climate is long dry period average monthly temperature 1. The Upper Kanhar basin rising over 18 C, through maximum summer temperature The Upper Kanhar basin lies in the southern part of basin may even go up to 46 C. In winter the temperatures does not go below 18 C. The monsoon brings sufficient rains. covering an area of about 1,499.57 km (24.01 %). The The major rainfall recorded at Dudhi ranging 80–90 % notable tributaries of upper Kanhar basin are Semarkhar occurs mainly in the summer monsoon during June to Nadi, Galphula Nadi and Suria Nadi. In general, the area is September, which is very uneven. Maximum rainfall hilly with steep slope. The region is characterized by (293.0 mm) recorded in month of August. The study area dominance of very high absolute relief, moderate drainage is located on the northern fringe of peninsular shield of frequency, moderately high relative relief, low dissection index, coarse drainage density and moderate slope. It has India. It is very hot during the summers but gets quite cool during the winters. The mean annual temperature in been sub divided into four second-order morpho-units, namely Lahsunpat Bhalanad hills, Galphula-Kanhar con- the area is 27.76 C. The highest value of atmospheric pressure, in the study area, is noted in the month of fluence, Semarkhar-Rigar divide and Kusmi upland. January (1,023.2 mb) and lowest in the month of June 2. Middle Kanhar basin (1,003.3 mb). The middle Kanhar basin lies in the central part of the study basin covering an area of about 3,268.44 km or Erosion surfaces of the Kanhar basin 52.34 %. The main tributaries of Kanhar River in this area are Sendur River, Chanan River, Kulwanti River, Rigar 1. Lower Kanhar plain (less than 250 m): it is the lowest River, Sarsotla River, Cherra River, etc. In general, the area is flat and hilly towards western part of middle Kanhar area being drained by Lauwa, Kanhar, Hathinala and small tributaries of Kanhar River. The denuded hill- basin and there are waterfalls of up to 30 m. The highest elevation of the basin (1,225 m Gaurlata) also lies in this ocks form watersheds for the Kanhar river and its tributaries. The area may be classified as the recent region. The region is characterized by dominance of moderate absolute relief and drainage frequency, low rel- most developed during tertiary orogeny. Limestone, shales and conglomerates are found mixed with sedi- ative relief and dissection index, moderately fine drainage mentary rocks are met in the area. density and moderate slope. It has been further divided into 11 s order morpho-units, namely Thema-Pangan Water 2. Middle Kanhar valley (250–650 m): It is a long denuded plateau inter spurred with hillocks. The Divide, Daukiduba-Pangan Confluence, Jogidah Upland, Kameshwar Nagar UPLAND, Kursa valley, Chutru upland, nature and structure of the area are responsible for erosion and recession of rivers. Biropani valley, Ramanuj Ganj upland, Chumki-Kanhar confluence, Budhudih hills, and Bhandaria upland. 3. Upper Kanhar plain (650–1,050 m): This area forms the confluence zone of many rivers which join Kanhar 3. The Lower Kanhar basin from different directions as the upper area and acts as vertical divide between these small rivers where the The lower Kanhar basin lies in the northern part of the height of the area is about 1,000 m. basin covering an area of about 1,476.99 km (23.65 %). The tributaries of upper Kanhar watershed are Hathi Nala It is a dense forested area also because of the nature of the and Dhanmarwa Nala. In general, the area is plateau type terrain which restricts transformation from one place to with gentle slope towards North. The region is character- another. This is the most eroded area formed by the river ized by dominance of moderately low absolute relief erosion. moderate drainage frequency, moderate relative relief, 4. Highest Kanhar Divide (above 1,050 m): this area lies moderate dissection index, coarse drainage density mod- in the south-western part of Kanhar basin, where a erate slope. series of flat topped and in pointed hillocks of different It has been sub divided into six second-order morpho- size are found. They appeared to have been formed by units, namely Hathwani upland, Kanhar-Malia confluence, Archaean rocks. The irregular nature of this surface Gularia plain, Vinrhamganj upland, Dudhi upland and also indicates the completion of the denudation cycle. Baghmandwa upland. 123 220 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Methodology purpose. A pour point is a user-supplied point to the cells of highest flow accumulation (Magesh et al. 2013). The pour Manual extraction of drainage network and assigning the point of the basin is shown in Fig. 2. The systematic pro- stream order from a published Survey of India (SOI) cess required for the automatic extraction of the basin/ topographic map and from georeferenced satellite data for watershed is shown in Fig. 2. The result of this process will a large area is a time taking tedious exercise. To over- create a watershed boundary polygon from the flow come this problem, automatic extraction techniques have direction raster data. been used for evaluating the morphometric parameters of a basin, i.e., extraction of River basin/watershed boundary Extraction of drainage network and extraction of drainage/stream network from the Kanhar River basin using ASTER DEM in conjunction The drainage network of the Kanhar basin is extracted from with geocoded standard false colour composite remote a series of geoprocessing tools in ARC GIS-9.3 (Fig. 3). sensing satellite data (Landsat etm? of 2013) and The output of this method is a basis for creating a stream/ georeferenced SOI toposheets of 1972 (63P/3, 63P/4, 63P/ drainage network grid with stream order based on Strahler 7, 63P/8, 63P/12, 64M/6, 64M/9, 64M/10, 64M/11, 64M/ 1964. As pointed out above that Strahler’s system of 12, 64M/14, 64M/16 and 73A/4 having 1:50,000 scale) classification designates a segment with no tributaries as a and Lib Texas Toposheets No—NF44-4, NG44-11, first-order stream. Where two first-order stream segments NG44-12, NG44-16 having 1:250,000 scale using ARC join, they form a second-order stream segment and so on. GIS-9.3 and ERDAS Imagine-9.1 software’s. The The highest stream order in the Kanhar basin was identified extracted basin and stream networks are projected to the as seventh. This technique requires two input model regional projection (WGS-1984, UTM zone 44 N). The parameters: DEM and a minimum upstream area in hect- different morphometric parameters have been determined ares, which is the minimum drainage area required to as shown in the Table 1. Landsat etm? data are used to create a stream segment (Magesh et al. 2013). The output prepare digital terrain model (DTM) of Kanhar basin for of the drainage network is smoothened using a smooth line perspective view (Fig. 5c and d) . tool in ArcGIS-9.3. To evaluate the drainage basin mor- phometry, various parameters like stream number, stream Extraction of Kanhar River watershed order, stream length, stream length ratio, bifurcation ratio, basin length, basin area, relief ratio, elongation ratio, The Kanhar River basin is automatically extracted from the drainage density, stream frequency, form factor and cir- ASTER DEM data with a spatial resolution of 15 m using culatory ratio, etc., have been analysed using the standard the georeferenced SOI toposheets. The contributing basin mathematical formulae given in Table 1. Moreover, the area was extracted with the help of various geoprocessing aspect and slope map of the study area were derived from techniques in ArcGI-9.3. The DEM and the pour point are the ASTER DEM using the aspect and slope tool in Arc- the two input parameters required for the extraction GIS-9.3 spatial analyst module (Fig. 4). Table 1 Linear relief and areal S.no. Parameter Formula References morphometric parameters used for Kanhar river watershed 1 Stream order (U) Hierarchial rank Strahler (1964) 2 Stream length (Lu) Length of the stream Horton (1945) 3 Mean stream length (Lsm) Lsm = Lu/Nu Strahler (1964) 4 Stream length ratio (RL) RL = Lu/(Lu - 1) Horton (1945) 5 Bifurcation ratio (Rb) Rb = Nu/Nu ? 1 Schumm (1956) 6 Mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) Rbm = average of bifurcation Strahler (1957) ratios of all order 7 Drainage density (Dd) Dd = Lu/A Horton (1945) 8 Drainage texture (T) T = Dd 9 Fs Smith (1950) 9 Stream frequency (Fs) Fs = Nu/A Horton (1945) 10 Elongation ratio (Re) Re = D/L = 1.128HA/L Schumm (1956) 11 Circulatory ratio Rc = 4pA/P Strahler (1964) 12 Form factor (Ff) Ff = A/L Horton (1945) 13 Length of overland flow (Lg) Lg = 1/D 9 2 Horton (1945) 14 Relief R = H - h Hadley and Schumm (1961) 15 Relief ratio Rr = R/L Schumm (1963) 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 221 Fig. 1 Location map of the study area 123 222 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 2 Extraction of Kanhar River basin boundary through ASTER data Results and discussion afternoon, and so in most cases a west-facing slope will be warmer than sheltered east-facing slope. This can have The morphometric parameters of Kanhar River basin have major effects on the distribution of vegetation in the been calculated and the results are given in the Table 2. Kanhar watershed area. The value of the output raster data The total drainage area of the Kanhar River basin is set represents the compass direction of the aspect (Magesh 5,654 km . The drainage pattern is dendritic in nature and et al. 2011). The aspect map of Kanhar basin is shown in it is influenced by the general topography, geology and Fig. 6a. It is clearly seen that east-facing slopes mainly rainfall condition of the area. Aster DEM is used to prepare occur in the Kanhar basin. Therefore, these slopes have a slope, aspect and contour maps. Based on the stream order, higher moisture content and lower evaporation rate the Kanhar basin is classified as seventh-order basin to although and some parts are falling towards west facing interpret the morphodynamic parameters as listed in which have a lower moisture content and have a high Table 1 (Horton 1932, 1945; Smith 1950; Schumm 1956, evaporation rate. 1963; Hadley and Schumm 1961; Strahler 1964; Sreedevi Slope et al. 2005; Mesa 2006). Different sub-watershed of Kanhar River basin is shown in the Fig. 7. Slope analysis is an important parameter in geomorpho- Aspect logical studies for watershed development and important for morphometric analysis. The slope elements, in turn, are Aspect generally refers to the direction to which a moun- controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas tain slope faces. The aspect of a slope can make very having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. 2011; significant influences on its local climate because the sun’s Gayen et al. 2013). A slope map of the study area is cal- rays are in the west at the hottest time of day in the culated based on ASTER DEM data using the spatial 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 223 stream orders are classified up to seventh orders in the Kanhar basin. Details of stream order of several tributaries of Kanhar River and their sub-watershed area are shown in the Table 2. Kanhar River could be designated as a sev- enth-order stream (Fig. 6d; Table 3). The maximum stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases and vice versa. Stream number (Nu) The count of stream channels in each order is termed as stream order. As per Horton’s law (1945) of stream num- bers, ‘‘the number of streams of different orders in a given drainage basin tends closely to approximate as inverse geometric series of which the first term is unity and the ratio is the bifurcation ratio’’. According to this law, the number of streams counted for each order is plotted on logarithmic scale on the y axis against order on arithmetic scale on the x axis. Number of streams of different orders and the total number of streams in the basin are counted and calculated in GIS platforms. During calculation it is identified that the number of streams gradually decreases as the stream order increases; the variation in stream order and size of tributary basins is Fig. 3 Erosional surface of Kanhar River basin largely depends on physiographical, geomorphological and analysis tool in ARC GIS-9.3. Slope grid is identified as geological condition of the region. 13,987 stream line ‘‘the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its including Kanhar River is recognized in the whole basin, neighbors’’ (Burrough 1986). The degree of slope in out of which 68.13 % (9,541) is 1st order, 23 % (3,337) Kanhar watershed varies from \2.7 to[72.37 (Fig. 6b). 2nd order, 6.11 % (856) 3rd order, 1.45 % (204) 4th order, The slope map of Kanhar basin is shown in Fig. 5. Higher 0.27 % (39) 5th order, 0.064 % (9) 6th order and 0.007 % slope degree results in rapid runoff and increased erosion comprises 7th order stream (1). rate (potential soil loss) with less ground water recharge potential. Higher slope is identified in southern part of the Stream length (Lu) Kanhar basin where it originates. According to Horton (1945), streams lengths delineate the Relative relief total lengths of stream segment of each of the successive orders in a basin tend to approximate a direct geometric Relative relief is an important morphometric variable used series in which the first term is the average length of the for the assessment of morphological characteristics of any stream of the first order. The stream length is a measure of the hydrological characteristics of the bedrock and the topography (Gayen et al. 2013. The highest relative relief is calculated as 1,238 m, while the lowest value is recorded drainage extent. Wherever the bedrock and formation is as 151 m (Fig. 6c). The low relief indicates that the permeable, only a small number of relatively longer northern area under Kanhar basin is flat to gentle slope streams are formed in a well-drained watershed, a large type. Therefore, the area could be basically used for agri- number of streams of smaller length are developed where cultural activities around stream sides due to being flat in the bedrocks and formations are less permeable (Sethupathi nature and also a water accessibility. et al. 2011). The result of order-wise stream length in Kanhar basin is Stream order (U) shown in Table 4. It is clearly identified that the cumula- tive stream length is higher in first-order streams and In the present study, ranking of streams has been carried decreases as the stream order increases. The highest stream order (7th), i.e., for Kanhar River has a length of out based on the method proposed by Strahler (1964). The 123 224 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 4 Automatic extraction of Streams through ASTER data Table 2 Sub-watershed area of Kanhar basin surfaces (Strahler 1964). It has been computed by dividing the total stream length of order ‘u’ by the number of stream Watershed no. Name of the Stream Sub-watershed sub-watershed order area (km ) segments in the order (Table 3). The Lsm values for the Kanhar basin range from 0.52 to 113.38 km (Table 2) with 1 Thema Nadi VI 215.11 a mean Lsm value of 21.47 km. It is noted that Lsm value 2 Malia Nala VI 217.99 of any stream order is greater than that of the lower order 3 Hathi Nala V 44.82 and less than that of its next higher order in the basin. The 4 Dhanmarwa Nala V 42.38 Lsm values differ with respect to different basins, as it is 5 Suria Nala V 117.21 directly proportional to the size and topography of the 6 Cherra Nadi V 37.89 basin. Strahler (1964) indicated that the Lsm is a charac- 7 Sendur Nadi IV 457.89 teristic property related to the size of drainage network and its associated surfaces. Mean stream length (km) of sub- watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order is shown 113.38 km. Stream length of different order under sub- watersheds of Kanhar basin is given in Table 4. in the Table 5. Stream length ratio (RL) Mean stream length (Lsm) Horton’s law (1945) of stream length points out that mean Mean stream length (Lsm) reveals the characteristic size of components of a drainage network and its contributing stream length segments of each of the successive orders of 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 225 Fig. 5 Triangular irregular network (a), drainage density map (b) and perspective views of digital terrain model (DTM) from different angles (c, d), respectively a basin tends to approximate a direct geometric series with ratio (Rb) may be defined as the ratio of the number of the stream length increasing towards higher order of streams. stream segments of given order to the number of segments The stream length ratio of Kanhar basin showed an of the next higher orders. It is a dimensionless property and increasing trend. The RL values are presented in Table 2. shows the degree of integration prevailing between streams The stream length ratio between the streams of different of various orders in a drainage basin. The Rb for the orders of the Kanhar basin shows a change in each sub- Kanhar basin varies from 2.86 to 9 (Table 2). watershed (Table 6). This change might be attributed to According to Strahler (1964), the values of bifurcation variation in slope and topography, indicating the late ratio characteristically range between 3.0 and 5.0 for youth stage of geomorphic development in the streams of drainage basin in which the geological structures do not the Kanhar basin (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. disturb the drainage pattern. The mean bifurcation ratio 2004). (Rbm) characteristically ranges between 3.0 and 5.0 for a basin when the influence of geological structures on the Bifurcation ratio (Rb) drainage network is negligible (Verstappen 1983). Thus, Verstappen (1983) favours the opinion of Strahler (1964). Horton (1945) considered Rb as an index of relief and In the Kanhar basin, the higher values of Rb indicate a dissection while Strahler (1957) opined that Rb shows only strong structural control in the drainage pattern whereas the a small variation for different regions with different envi- lower values indicate that the sub-basins are less affected ronments except where powerful geological control domi- by structural disturbances (Strahler 1964; Vittala et al. nates. According to Schumn (1956), the term bifurcation 2004; Chopra et al. 2005). 123 226 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 6 Aspect map (a), slope map (b), relief map (c) and stream order (d) of Kanhar River basin 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 227 Table 3 Results of morphometric analysis of Kanhar basin S. no. Parameters Stream orders I II III IV V VI VII 1 Stream order (U) 9,541 3,337 856 204 39 9 1 2 Stream length (LU) 4,961.48 2,431.77 1,179.16 594.43 306.49 212.0 113.38 3 Mean stream length (km) (Lsm) 0.52 0.73 1.37 2.91 7.86 23.56 113.38 4 Stream length ratio (RL) II/I III/II IV/III V/IV VI/V VII/VI 0.49 0.48 0.50 0.51 0.69 0.53 – 5 Bifurcation ratio (Rb) I/II II/III III/IV IV/V V/VI VI/VII 2.86 3.89 4.19 5.23 4.33 9 6 Mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) 4.92 7 Perimeter (P) (in km) 694.93 8 Basin length (Lb) (km) 174.964 9 Basin area (km) 5,703.75 10 Total relief (R) (m) 900 11 Relief ratio (Rh) 0.092 12 Elongation ratio (Re) 0.48 13 Length of over land flow (Lg) 0.58 14 Drainage density (D) (km/km ) 1.72 15 Stream frequency (Fs) 2.45 16 Texture ratio (Rt) 4.24 17 Form factor (Rf) 0.18 18 Circulatory ratio (Rc) 0.15 Table 4 Stream length of different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Table 6 Stream length ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Watershed Name of the Stream length (km) Sub- Sub-watershed Stream length ratio number sub-watershed watershed I II III IV V VI I–II II–III III–IV IV–V V–VI no. 1 Thema Nadi 242 105 52.7 20.3 9.5 24.3 1 Thema Nadi 1.434 0.151 0.386 0.25 1.5 2 Malia Nala 244 123 69.4 28 11.6 13 2 Malia Nala 0.503 0.565 0.404 0.412 1.131 3 Hathi Nala 49.5 29 14.3 22 2 – 3 Hathi Nala 0.584 0.494 1.537 – – 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 65.4 27 18.4 5.3 2.1 – 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 0.413 0.681 0.288 0.413 – 5 Suria Nala 61.2 33 10.5 17 16 – 5 Suria Nala 0.539 0.316 1.625 0.993 – 6 Cherra Nadi 40 12.6 10 1.6 – – 6 Cherra Nadi 0.342 0.783 0.164 – – 7 Sendur Nadi 389 193 93.2 43.8 45 5.7 7 Sendur Nadi 0.494 0.484 0.470 1.021 0.128 The mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) may be defined as the Table 5 Mean stream length (km) of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order average of bifurcation ratios of all order (Table 2) and it is 4.92 in case of Kanhar River basin. In the present study, Rb Sub-watershed Mean stream length (km) for the each sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is given in the I II III IV V VI Table 7. Thema Nadi 0.54 0.57 1.41 1.63 Malia Nala 0.48 0.68 1.38 3.12 3.86 2.18 Relief ratio (Rh) Hathi Nala 0.36 0.65 1.43 4.40 1.97 Dhanmarwa Nala 0.46 0.574 1.53 2.65 2.19 Schumm (1956) states that the maximum relief to hori- zontal distance along the longest dimension of the basin Suria Nala 0.52 0.870 1.49 8.50 16.90 parallel to the principal drainage line is termed as relief Cherra Nadi 0.54 0.57 1.41 1.63 ratio. Difference in the elevation between the highest point Sendur Nadi 0.51 0.749 1.45 3.13 22.39 5.75 of a basin and the lowest point on the valley floor is termed 123 228 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Table 7 Bifurcation ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Table 9 Drainage density of sub-watersheds of Kanhar basin Sub- Sub-watershed Bifurcation ratio Sub-watershed Stream Area Drainage watershed length (km) (km) density I–II II–III III–IV IV–V V–VI no. Cherra River 61.13 37.89 1.61 1 Thema Nadi 2.608 4.105 4.75 4.0 0.666 Dhanmarawa River 118.16 42.00 2.81 2 Malia Nala 2.853 3.56 5.55 3.0 3.0 Hathi Nala River 67.28 44.82 1.50 3 Hathi Nala 3.090 4.40 2.0 5.0 – Suria River 138.68 117.21 1.18 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 3.0 3.916 6.0 2.0 – Thema River 696.19 215.00 3.23 5 Suria Nala 3.052 5.428 3.5 2.0 – Malia River 477.35 217.99 2.18 6 Cherra Nadi 3.090 3.142 7.0 – – Sendur River 676.28 457.89 1.47 7 Sendur Nadi 0.341 0.249 0.218 0.142 0.5 Drainage density (Dd) Table 8 Relief Ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Sub-watershed Sub-watershed Total Maximum Relief Drainage density (Dd) is a measure the total stream length no. relief (m) length (km) ratio in a given basin to the total area of the basin (Strahler 1 Thema Nadi 180 696.198 0.258 1964).The drainage density is affected by the factors that control characteristic length of the watershed. Drainage 2 Malia Nala 125 217.998 0.573 3 Hathi Nala 100 67.286 1.486 density is related to various features of landscape dissec- tion such as valley density, channel head source area, 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 120 118.162 1.015 relief, climate and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), soil and 5 Suria Nala 275 138.682 1.982 rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989) and landscape 6 Cherra Nadi 100 61.132 2.944 evolution processes. The drainage density of the Kanhar 7 Sendur Nadi 260 676.282 0.384 basin is 1.72 km/km , which indicates that basin area has a highly resistant permeable subsurface material with inter- mediate drainage and low to moderate relief. Higher as the total relief of that river basin. Schumm (1963) also drainage density is associated with the basin of weak and stated that it is a dimensionless height-length ratio equal to impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation and the tangent of angle formed by two planes intersecting at high relief. Low drainage density leads to coarse drainage the mouth of the basin, one representing the horizontal and texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage other passing through the highest point of the basin. texture, high runoff and erosion potential of the basin area. Low value of relief ratios is mainly due to the resistant (Strahler 1964). Drainage density of each sub-watershed of basement rocks of the basin and low degree of slope Kanhar basin is given in the Table 9. Higher density (3.23) (Mahadevaswamy et al. 2011). The Rh normally increases is identified for Thema River sub-watershed whereas low with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage drainage density (1.18) is calculated for Suria River sub- basin (Gottschalk 1964). Rh for Kanhar basin is calculated, watershed (Table 9). Triangular irregular network (a), i.e., 0.092. Mean relief ratio of each sub-watershed of drainage density (b) and DTM from different angles for Kanhar basin is shown in the Table 8. perspective views are shown in the Fig. 5. Elongation ratio (Re) Stream frequency (Sf) Elongation ratio (Re) is defined as the ratio of diameter of a Stream frequency (Sf) is the total number of stream seg- circle having the same area as of the basin and maximum ments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). Reddy basin length (Schumm 1956). It is a measure of the shape et al. (2004)) stated that low values of stream frequency Sf of the river basin and it depends on the climatic and geo- indicate presence of a permeable subsurface material and logic types. A circular basin is more efficient in runoff low relief. The channel segment numbers for unit areas are discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). difficult to be enumerated (Singh 1980), but an attempt has Re value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. Higher values of elon- been made to count stream frequency of Kanhar basin. The gation ratio show high infiltration capacity and low runoff, stream frequency value of the Kanhar basin is 2.45 km/ whereas lower Re values which are characterized by high km . Stream frequency mainly depends on the lithology of susceptibility to erosion and sediment load (Reddy et al. the basin and reflects the texture of the drainage network. 2004). The value of stream frequency (Fs) for the basin exhibits 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 229 positive correlation with the drainage density value of the Conclusion area indicating the increase in stream population with respect to increase in drainage density. Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite Channel frequency density serves as a tool in estab- to any hydrological study. Thus, determination of stream lishing the erosional processes operating over an area; to be networks’ behaviour and their interrelation with each more specific, the same in relation to the stream orders and other is of great importance in many water resources their characteristics provides data which can throw light studies. Remote sensing satellite data and GIS techniques even on the sequences of relief developments and the have been proved to be an effective tool in drainage delineation. Their updation in conjunction with old data- degree of ruggedness in the area (Singh 1980). sets brings a bright picture enabling geomorphologist to Form factor (Rf) infer concrete conclusion about the drainage basin. In the present paper, morphometric analysis of the Kanhar River Horton (1932) stated form factor as the ratio of the area basin, based on several drainage parameters using remote of the basin and square of the basin length. The value of sensing satellite data and latest GIS tools for drainage form factor would always be greater than 0.78 for per- analysis, has been delineated. It is inferred that the fectly circular basin. Smaller the value of form factor, Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin. Kanhar more elongated will be the basin. Rf value of the Kanhar basin is mainly dominated by lower order streams. The basin is 0.18 (Table 2). Thus, the Kanhar basin is elon- morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement of gated one. linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. Detailed mor- phometric study of all sub-watersheds shows dendritic to Circularity ratio (Rc) sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which thus indicate homogenous lithology and variations of values of Rb Miller (1953) stated circularity ratio is the ratio of the area among the sub-watersheds attributed to difference in of the basins to the area of circle having the same cir- topography and geometric development. The maximum cumference as the perimeter of the basin. Miller (1953) stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order described Rc as a significant ratio that indicates the den- streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed dritic stage of a watershed. This is mainly due to the that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream diversity of slope and relief pattern of the basin. The cir- order increases and vice versa. The values of stream frequency indicate that all the sub-basins show ?ve cor- culator ratio is mainly concerned with the length and fre- quency of streams, geological structures, land use/land relation with increasing stream population with respect to increasing drainage density. cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. It is a signif- icant ratio that indicates the dendritic stage of a watershed. The drainage density values of the Kanhar basin have Low, medium and high values of Rc indicate the young, values below five revealing that the subsurface area is mature, and old stages of the life cycle of the tributary permeable, a characteristic feature of coarse drainage. The watershed (John Wilson et al. 2012). Rc value of Kanhar variation of stream length ratio might be due to differences basin is 0.15 (Table 2). In the study area, Rc value of in slope/gradients and topographic conditions of the area. different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is ranging from The values of stream frequency indicate that all the sub- 0.246 to 0.411 (Table 10; Fig. 7). watershed show positive correlation with increasing stream segments with respect to increasing drainage density. Elongation ratio (Re) value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. Higher values of elongation ratio show high infiltration capacity and low runoff, whereas lower Re values which are char- Table 10 Circulatory ratio of sub-watersheds of Kanhar basin acterized by high susceptibility to erosion and sediment Sub- Sub-watershed Perimeter Circularity load The database obtains through analysis of morpho- watershed no. (km) ratio metric parameters would be suggested for its proper utili- zation in the integrated watershed programme aimed at 1 Thema Nadi 81.00 0.411 development and management of water resources of the 2 Malia Nala 217.99 0.351 Kanhar River basin by the ministry of water resources, 3 Hathi Nala 39.40 0.362 New Delhi (India) in future. 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 2,913.00 0.627 The used approaches in this study include a compre- 5 Suria Nala 59.05 0.422 hensive morphometric analysis that can be applied for any 6 Cherra Nadi 29.86 0.042 drainage system elsewhere. 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A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India

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Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 DOI 10.1007/s13201-014-0238-y ORIGINAL ARTICLE A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India • • Praveen Kumar Rai Kshitij Mohan • • Sameer Mishra Aariz Ahmad Varun Narayan Mishra Received: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published online: 7 November 2014 The Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The study indicates that analysis of morpho- Keywords Drainage morphometry  Kanhar basin metric parameters with the help of geographic information Watershed  DEM  GIS system (GIS) would prove a viable method of character- izing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is Introduction emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical ana- technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin lysis of the configuration of the earth’s surface, shape and and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in con- dimension of its landforms (Clarke 1996; Agarwal 1998; junction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm?, Obi Reddy et al. 2002). The morphometric analysis is done 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). successfully through measurement of linear, aerial, relief, In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has gradient of channel network and contributing ground slope been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven of the basin (Nautiyal 1994; Nag and Chakraborty, 2003; sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to Magesh et al. 2012b). calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morpho- A widely acknowledged principle of morphometry is metric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifur- that drainage basin morphology reflects various geological cation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form and geomorphological processes over time, as indicated by factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage various morphometric studies (Horton 1945; Strahler 1952, area of the basin is 5,654 km and shows sub-dendritic to 1964; Muller 1968; Shreve 1969; Evans 1972, 1984; dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is Chorley et al. 1984; Merritts and Vincent 1989; Ohmori mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological con- 1993; Cox 1994; Oguchi 1997; Burrough and McDonnell ditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh- 1998; Hurtrez et al. 1999). It is well established that the order basin with the drainage density value being as influence of drainage morphometry is very significant in 1.72 km/km . The increase in stream length ratio from understanding the landform processes, soil physical prop- lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached erties and erosional characteristics. a mature geomorphic stage. The analysis of the drainage does not appear to be complete if it lacks the systematic approach towards the development of drainage basin in the area. Drainage lines of an area not only explain the existing three- P. K. Rai (&)  K. Mohan  S. Mishra  A. Ahmad dimensional geometry of the region but also help to Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, UP, India narrate its evolutional process (Singh 1980). Drainage e-mail: rai.vns82@gmail.com provides a basic to understand initial gradient, variation in rock resistance, structural control, geological and V. N. Mishra geomorphologic history of the drainage basin or water- Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), shed. Evaluation of morphometric parameters requires Varanasi 221005, UP, India 123 218 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 the analysis of various drainage parameters such as drainage basin area, drainage density, drainage order, relief ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin and network diameter in GIS environment. Combination of area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage the remote sensing satellite data and hydrological and density (Dd), bifurcation ratio (Rb), stream length ratio spatial analysis in GIS environment is made easy to iden- (RL), and relief ratio (Rh). tify and discriminate the drainage area (Pirasteh et al. Besides, the quantitative analysis of drainage system is 2010). The geographic and geomorphic characteristics of a an important aspect of characteristic of watershed (Strahler drainage basin are important for hydrological investiga- 1964). It is important in any hydrological investigation like tions involving the assessment of groundwater potential, assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater man- etc. agement, basin management and environmental The present study aims at using the remote sensing and assessment. GIS technology to compute various parameters of mor- Hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the phometric characteristics of the Kanhar River watershed. watershed and morphometric characterization at the This is in consonance with the latest developments and watershed scale reveals information regarding formation researches as cited above. and development of land surface processes (Singh 1992, 1995; Dar et al. 2013). Drainage characteristics of many river basins and sub-basins in different parts of the globe Study area have been studied using conventional methods (Horton 0 0 0 1945; Strahler 1957, 1964; Krishnamurthy et al. 1996). The Kanhar River (2312Nto 24272 N and 832Eto The surface runoff and flow intensity of the drainage 841 E) is an important tributary of the River Son. The total system can be estimated using the geomorphic features geographical area of the basin is 5,654 km .It flows associated with morphometric parameters (Ozdemir and through the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bird 2009). Strahler’s system of classification designates Uttar Pradesh (Fig. 1). The Kanhar originates at Gidha- a segment with no tributaries as a first-order stream. Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Where two first-order stream segments join, they form a Chhattisgarh. It initially flows north forming the boundary second-order stream segment and so on. The morpho- with Garhwa district in Palamu division of Jharkhand. metric analysis of the drainage basin is aimed to acquire Thereafter, it flows for about 100 kilometres (62 miles) accurate data of measurable features of stream network through Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. of the drainage basin. Various hydrological phenomena Subsequently, it runs parallel to the Son River in Gar- can be correlated with the physiographic characteristics hwa district and turns north-west and flowing of an drainage basin such as size, shape, slope of the through Sonbhadra district in Mirzapur division of Uttar drainage area, drainage density, size and length of the Pradesh. It confluences with the Son River (which itself is contributories, etc. (Rastogi and Sharma 1976; Magesh the tributary of the national holy river ‘Ganges’) to the et al. 2012a). north-east of the village of Kota. Son River plays an The remote sensing technique is the convenient method important role in increasing the catchment area of Ganga for morphometric analysis as the satellite images provide a River. It has a rocky bed almost throughout its course. synoptic view of a large area and is very useful in the Flowing through forested areas, it becomes a dangerous analysis of drainage basin morphometry. The fast emerging stream. The elevation of the basin ranges from a low height spatial information technology, remote sensing, GIS, and of 180 m where the Kanhar meets the Son River to GPS have effective tools to overcome most of the problems 1,223 m (Gaurlpat) at Kavradara in Sarguja district of of land and water resources planning and management Chhattisgarh. rather than conventional methods of data process (Rao The tributaries of the Kanhar River are Pangan, Thema, et al. 2010). Lauwa, Malia, Pandu, Goitha, Banki, Hathi nala, Suria, GIS-based evaluation using Shuttle Radar Topographic Chana, Sendur, Kursa, Galphulla, Semarkhar Rigar, Cher- Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal na nala. A number of waterfalls are located along the track Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data has of the river. Pavai fall near Kothali village (Balrampur) is given a precise, fast, and an inexpensive way for analysing of about 61 m. The dense rich forest area provides an hydrological systems (Smith and Sandwell 2003; Groh- abode to thousands of species of flora and fauna. It is the mann 2004). The processed DEM was used successfully for home to various tribes and natives which lived here since generating the stream network and other supporting layers long. (Mesa 2006; Magesh et al. 2011). The climate of the watershed is characterized by hot The digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was summer and well-distributed rainfall during the monsoon generated to deduce the morphometric parameters like season. With its general monsoon character, the region 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 219 according to Thornthwait’s classification falls in the Some of these summits show long continued erosion Tropical Thermal belt assigns it the grassland type char- and which form platforms within the hillocks. acter. According to Trewartha’s classification, the Kanhar watershed falls in AW (Tropical Swanah) class which is based on temperature and vegetation. The symbol AW Geomorphological units of Kanhar River basin denotes Tropical Swanah region. The chief feature of this climate is long dry period average monthly temperature 1. The Upper Kanhar basin rising over 18 C, through maximum summer temperature The Upper Kanhar basin lies in the southern part of basin may even go up to 46 C. In winter the temperatures does not go below 18 C. The monsoon brings sufficient rains. covering an area of about 1,499.57 km (24.01 %). The The major rainfall recorded at Dudhi ranging 80–90 % notable tributaries of upper Kanhar basin are Semarkhar occurs mainly in the summer monsoon during June to Nadi, Galphula Nadi and Suria Nadi. In general, the area is September, which is very uneven. Maximum rainfall hilly with steep slope. The region is characterized by (293.0 mm) recorded in month of August. The study area dominance of very high absolute relief, moderate drainage is located on the northern fringe of peninsular shield of frequency, moderately high relative relief, low dissection index, coarse drainage density and moderate slope. It has India. It is very hot during the summers but gets quite cool during the winters. The mean annual temperature in been sub divided into four second-order morpho-units, namely Lahsunpat Bhalanad hills, Galphula-Kanhar con- the area is 27.76 C. The highest value of atmospheric pressure, in the study area, is noted in the month of fluence, Semarkhar-Rigar divide and Kusmi upland. January (1,023.2 mb) and lowest in the month of June 2. Middle Kanhar basin (1,003.3 mb). The middle Kanhar basin lies in the central part of the study basin covering an area of about 3,268.44 km or Erosion surfaces of the Kanhar basin 52.34 %. The main tributaries of Kanhar River in this area are Sendur River, Chanan River, Kulwanti River, Rigar 1. Lower Kanhar plain (less than 250 m): it is the lowest River, Sarsotla River, Cherra River, etc. In general, the area is flat and hilly towards western part of middle Kanhar area being drained by Lauwa, Kanhar, Hathinala and small tributaries of Kanhar River. The denuded hill- basin and there are waterfalls of up to 30 m. The highest elevation of the basin (1,225 m Gaurlata) also lies in this ocks form watersheds for the Kanhar river and its tributaries. The area may be classified as the recent region. The region is characterized by dominance of moderate absolute relief and drainage frequency, low rel- most developed during tertiary orogeny. Limestone, shales and conglomerates are found mixed with sedi- ative relief and dissection index, moderately fine drainage mentary rocks are met in the area. density and moderate slope. It has been further divided into 11 s order morpho-units, namely Thema-Pangan Water 2. Middle Kanhar valley (250–650 m): It is a long denuded plateau inter spurred with hillocks. The Divide, Daukiduba-Pangan Confluence, Jogidah Upland, Kameshwar Nagar UPLAND, Kursa valley, Chutru upland, nature and structure of the area are responsible for erosion and recession of rivers. Biropani valley, Ramanuj Ganj upland, Chumki-Kanhar confluence, Budhudih hills, and Bhandaria upland. 3. Upper Kanhar plain (650–1,050 m): This area forms the confluence zone of many rivers which join Kanhar 3. The Lower Kanhar basin from different directions as the upper area and acts as vertical divide between these small rivers where the The lower Kanhar basin lies in the northern part of the height of the area is about 1,000 m. basin covering an area of about 1,476.99 km (23.65 %). The tributaries of upper Kanhar watershed are Hathi Nala It is a dense forested area also because of the nature of the and Dhanmarwa Nala. In general, the area is plateau type terrain which restricts transformation from one place to with gentle slope towards North. The region is character- another. This is the most eroded area formed by the river ized by dominance of moderately low absolute relief erosion. moderate drainage frequency, moderate relative relief, 4. Highest Kanhar Divide (above 1,050 m): this area lies moderate dissection index, coarse drainage density mod- in the south-western part of Kanhar basin, where a erate slope. series of flat topped and in pointed hillocks of different It has been sub divided into six second-order morpho- size are found. They appeared to have been formed by units, namely Hathwani upland, Kanhar-Malia confluence, Archaean rocks. The irregular nature of this surface Gularia plain, Vinrhamganj upland, Dudhi upland and also indicates the completion of the denudation cycle. Baghmandwa upland. 123 220 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Methodology purpose. A pour point is a user-supplied point to the cells of highest flow accumulation (Magesh et al. 2013). The pour Manual extraction of drainage network and assigning the point of the basin is shown in Fig. 2. The systematic pro- stream order from a published Survey of India (SOI) cess required for the automatic extraction of the basin/ topographic map and from georeferenced satellite data for watershed is shown in Fig. 2. The result of this process will a large area is a time taking tedious exercise. To over- create a watershed boundary polygon from the flow come this problem, automatic extraction techniques have direction raster data. been used for evaluating the morphometric parameters of a basin, i.e., extraction of River basin/watershed boundary Extraction of drainage network and extraction of drainage/stream network from the Kanhar River basin using ASTER DEM in conjunction The drainage network of the Kanhar basin is extracted from with geocoded standard false colour composite remote a series of geoprocessing tools in ARC GIS-9.3 (Fig. 3). sensing satellite data (Landsat etm? of 2013) and The output of this method is a basis for creating a stream/ georeferenced SOI toposheets of 1972 (63P/3, 63P/4, 63P/ drainage network grid with stream order based on Strahler 7, 63P/8, 63P/12, 64M/6, 64M/9, 64M/10, 64M/11, 64M/ 1964. As pointed out above that Strahler’s system of 12, 64M/14, 64M/16 and 73A/4 having 1:50,000 scale) classification designates a segment with no tributaries as a and Lib Texas Toposheets No—NF44-4, NG44-11, first-order stream. Where two first-order stream segments NG44-12, NG44-16 having 1:250,000 scale using ARC join, they form a second-order stream segment and so on. GIS-9.3 and ERDAS Imagine-9.1 software’s. The The highest stream order in the Kanhar basin was identified extracted basin and stream networks are projected to the as seventh. This technique requires two input model regional projection (WGS-1984, UTM zone 44 N). The parameters: DEM and a minimum upstream area in hect- different morphometric parameters have been determined ares, which is the minimum drainage area required to as shown in the Table 1. Landsat etm? data are used to create a stream segment (Magesh et al. 2013). The output prepare digital terrain model (DTM) of Kanhar basin for of the drainage network is smoothened using a smooth line perspective view (Fig. 5c and d) . tool in ArcGIS-9.3. To evaluate the drainage basin mor- phometry, various parameters like stream number, stream Extraction of Kanhar River watershed order, stream length, stream length ratio, bifurcation ratio, basin length, basin area, relief ratio, elongation ratio, The Kanhar River basin is automatically extracted from the drainage density, stream frequency, form factor and cir- ASTER DEM data with a spatial resolution of 15 m using culatory ratio, etc., have been analysed using the standard the georeferenced SOI toposheets. The contributing basin mathematical formulae given in Table 1. Moreover, the area was extracted with the help of various geoprocessing aspect and slope map of the study area were derived from techniques in ArcGI-9.3. The DEM and the pour point are the ASTER DEM using the aspect and slope tool in Arc- the two input parameters required for the extraction GIS-9.3 spatial analyst module (Fig. 4). Table 1 Linear relief and areal S.no. Parameter Formula References morphometric parameters used for Kanhar river watershed 1 Stream order (U) Hierarchial rank Strahler (1964) 2 Stream length (Lu) Length of the stream Horton (1945) 3 Mean stream length (Lsm) Lsm = Lu/Nu Strahler (1964) 4 Stream length ratio (RL) RL = Lu/(Lu - 1) Horton (1945) 5 Bifurcation ratio (Rb) Rb = Nu/Nu ? 1 Schumm (1956) 6 Mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) Rbm = average of bifurcation Strahler (1957) ratios of all order 7 Drainage density (Dd) Dd = Lu/A Horton (1945) 8 Drainage texture (T) T = Dd 9 Fs Smith (1950) 9 Stream frequency (Fs) Fs = Nu/A Horton (1945) 10 Elongation ratio (Re) Re = D/L = 1.128HA/L Schumm (1956) 11 Circulatory ratio Rc = 4pA/P Strahler (1964) 12 Form factor (Ff) Ff = A/L Horton (1945) 13 Length of overland flow (Lg) Lg = 1/D 9 2 Horton (1945) 14 Relief R = H - h Hadley and Schumm (1961) 15 Relief ratio Rr = R/L Schumm (1963) 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 221 Fig. 1 Location map of the study area 123 222 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 2 Extraction of Kanhar River basin boundary through ASTER data Results and discussion afternoon, and so in most cases a west-facing slope will be warmer than sheltered east-facing slope. This can have The morphometric parameters of Kanhar River basin have major effects on the distribution of vegetation in the been calculated and the results are given in the Table 2. Kanhar watershed area. The value of the output raster data The total drainage area of the Kanhar River basin is set represents the compass direction of the aspect (Magesh 5,654 km . The drainage pattern is dendritic in nature and et al. 2011). The aspect map of Kanhar basin is shown in it is influenced by the general topography, geology and Fig. 6a. It is clearly seen that east-facing slopes mainly rainfall condition of the area. Aster DEM is used to prepare occur in the Kanhar basin. Therefore, these slopes have a slope, aspect and contour maps. Based on the stream order, higher moisture content and lower evaporation rate the Kanhar basin is classified as seventh-order basin to although and some parts are falling towards west facing interpret the morphodynamic parameters as listed in which have a lower moisture content and have a high Table 1 (Horton 1932, 1945; Smith 1950; Schumm 1956, evaporation rate. 1963; Hadley and Schumm 1961; Strahler 1964; Sreedevi Slope et al. 2005; Mesa 2006). Different sub-watershed of Kanhar River basin is shown in the Fig. 7. Slope analysis is an important parameter in geomorpho- Aspect logical studies for watershed development and important for morphometric analysis. The slope elements, in turn, are Aspect generally refers to the direction to which a moun- controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas tain slope faces. The aspect of a slope can make very having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. 2011; significant influences on its local climate because the sun’s Gayen et al. 2013). A slope map of the study area is cal- rays are in the west at the hottest time of day in the culated based on ASTER DEM data using the spatial 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 223 stream orders are classified up to seventh orders in the Kanhar basin. Details of stream order of several tributaries of Kanhar River and their sub-watershed area are shown in the Table 2. Kanhar River could be designated as a sev- enth-order stream (Fig. 6d; Table 3). The maximum stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases and vice versa. Stream number (Nu) The count of stream channels in each order is termed as stream order. As per Horton’s law (1945) of stream num- bers, ‘‘the number of streams of different orders in a given drainage basin tends closely to approximate as inverse geometric series of which the first term is unity and the ratio is the bifurcation ratio’’. According to this law, the number of streams counted for each order is plotted on logarithmic scale on the y axis against order on arithmetic scale on the x axis. Number of streams of different orders and the total number of streams in the basin are counted and calculated in GIS platforms. During calculation it is identified that the number of streams gradually decreases as the stream order increases; the variation in stream order and size of tributary basins is Fig. 3 Erosional surface of Kanhar River basin largely depends on physiographical, geomorphological and analysis tool in ARC GIS-9.3. Slope grid is identified as geological condition of the region. 13,987 stream line ‘‘the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its including Kanhar River is recognized in the whole basin, neighbors’’ (Burrough 1986). The degree of slope in out of which 68.13 % (9,541) is 1st order, 23 % (3,337) Kanhar watershed varies from \2.7 to[72.37 (Fig. 6b). 2nd order, 6.11 % (856) 3rd order, 1.45 % (204) 4th order, The slope map of Kanhar basin is shown in Fig. 5. Higher 0.27 % (39) 5th order, 0.064 % (9) 6th order and 0.007 % slope degree results in rapid runoff and increased erosion comprises 7th order stream (1). rate (potential soil loss) with less ground water recharge potential. Higher slope is identified in southern part of the Stream length (Lu) Kanhar basin where it originates. According to Horton (1945), streams lengths delineate the Relative relief total lengths of stream segment of each of the successive orders in a basin tend to approximate a direct geometric Relative relief is an important morphometric variable used series in which the first term is the average length of the for the assessment of morphological characteristics of any stream of the first order. The stream length is a measure of the hydrological characteristics of the bedrock and the topography (Gayen et al. 2013. The highest relative relief is calculated as 1,238 m, while the lowest value is recorded drainage extent. Wherever the bedrock and formation is as 151 m (Fig. 6c). The low relief indicates that the permeable, only a small number of relatively longer northern area under Kanhar basin is flat to gentle slope streams are formed in a well-drained watershed, a large type. Therefore, the area could be basically used for agri- number of streams of smaller length are developed where cultural activities around stream sides due to being flat in the bedrocks and formations are less permeable (Sethupathi nature and also a water accessibility. et al. 2011). The result of order-wise stream length in Kanhar basin is Stream order (U) shown in Table 4. It is clearly identified that the cumula- tive stream length is higher in first-order streams and In the present study, ranking of streams has been carried decreases as the stream order increases. The highest stream order (7th), i.e., for Kanhar River has a length of out based on the method proposed by Strahler (1964). The 123 224 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 4 Automatic extraction of Streams through ASTER data Table 2 Sub-watershed area of Kanhar basin surfaces (Strahler 1964). It has been computed by dividing the total stream length of order ‘u’ by the number of stream Watershed no. Name of the Stream Sub-watershed sub-watershed order area (km ) segments in the order (Table 3). The Lsm values for the Kanhar basin range from 0.52 to 113.38 km (Table 2) with 1 Thema Nadi VI 215.11 a mean Lsm value of 21.47 km. It is noted that Lsm value 2 Malia Nala VI 217.99 of any stream order is greater than that of the lower order 3 Hathi Nala V 44.82 and less than that of its next higher order in the basin. The 4 Dhanmarwa Nala V 42.38 Lsm values differ with respect to different basins, as it is 5 Suria Nala V 117.21 directly proportional to the size and topography of the 6 Cherra Nadi V 37.89 basin. Strahler (1964) indicated that the Lsm is a charac- 7 Sendur Nadi IV 457.89 teristic property related to the size of drainage network and its associated surfaces. Mean stream length (km) of sub- watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order is shown 113.38 km. Stream length of different order under sub- watersheds of Kanhar basin is given in Table 4. in the Table 5. Stream length ratio (RL) Mean stream length (Lsm) Horton’s law (1945) of stream length points out that mean Mean stream length (Lsm) reveals the characteristic size of components of a drainage network and its contributing stream length segments of each of the successive orders of 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 225 Fig. 5 Triangular irregular network (a), drainage density map (b) and perspective views of digital terrain model (DTM) from different angles (c, d), respectively a basin tends to approximate a direct geometric series with ratio (Rb) may be defined as the ratio of the number of the stream length increasing towards higher order of streams. stream segments of given order to the number of segments The stream length ratio of Kanhar basin showed an of the next higher orders. It is a dimensionless property and increasing trend. The RL values are presented in Table 2. shows the degree of integration prevailing between streams The stream length ratio between the streams of different of various orders in a drainage basin. The Rb for the orders of the Kanhar basin shows a change in each sub- Kanhar basin varies from 2.86 to 9 (Table 2). watershed (Table 6). This change might be attributed to According to Strahler (1964), the values of bifurcation variation in slope and topography, indicating the late ratio characteristically range between 3.0 and 5.0 for youth stage of geomorphic development in the streams of drainage basin in which the geological structures do not the Kanhar basin (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. disturb the drainage pattern. The mean bifurcation ratio 2004). (Rbm) characteristically ranges between 3.0 and 5.0 for a basin when the influence of geological structures on the Bifurcation ratio (Rb) drainage network is negligible (Verstappen 1983). Thus, Verstappen (1983) favours the opinion of Strahler (1964). Horton (1945) considered Rb as an index of relief and In the Kanhar basin, the higher values of Rb indicate a dissection while Strahler (1957) opined that Rb shows only strong structural control in the drainage pattern whereas the a small variation for different regions with different envi- lower values indicate that the sub-basins are less affected ronments except where powerful geological control domi- by structural disturbances (Strahler 1964; Vittala et al. nates. According to Schumn (1956), the term bifurcation 2004; Chopra et al. 2005). 123 226 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 6 Aspect map (a), slope map (b), relief map (c) and stream order (d) of Kanhar River basin 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 227 Table 3 Results of morphometric analysis of Kanhar basin S. no. Parameters Stream orders I II III IV V VI VII 1 Stream order (U) 9,541 3,337 856 204 39 9 1 2 Stream length (LU) 4,961.48 2,431.77 1,179.16 594.43 306.49 212.0 113.38 3 Mean stream length (km) (Lsm) 0.52 0.73 1.37 2.91 7.86 23.56 113.38 4 Stream length ratio (RL) II/I III/II IV/III V/IV VI/V VII/VI 0.49 0.48 0.50 0.51 0.69 0.53 – 5 Bifurcation ratio (Rb) I/II II/III III/IV IV/V V/VI VI/VII 2.86 3.89 4.19 5.23 4.33 9 6 Mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) 4.92 7 Perimeter (P) (in km) 694.93 8 Basin length (Lb) (km) 174.964 9 Basin area (km) 5,703.75 10 Total relief (R) (m) 900 11 Relief ratio (Rh) 0.092 12 Elongation ratio (Re) 0.48 13 Length of over land flow (Lg) 0.58 14 Drainage density (D) (km/km ) 1.72 15 Stream frequency (Fs) 2.45 16 Texture ratio (Rt) 4.24 17 Form factor (Rf) 0.18 18 Circulatory ratio (Rc) 0.15 Table 4 Stream length of different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Table 6 Stream length ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Watershed Name of the Stream length (km) Sub- Sub-watershed Stream length ratio number sub-watershed watershed I II III IV V VI I–II II–III III–IV IV–V V–VI no. 1 Thema Nadi 242 105 52.7 20.3 9.5 24.3 1 Thema Nadi 1.434 0.151 0.386 0.25 1.5 2 Malia Nala 244 123 69.4 28 11.6 13 2 Malia Nala 0.503 0.565 0.404 0.412 1.131 3 Hathi Nala 49.5 29 14.3 22 2 – 3 Hathi Nala 0.584 0.494 1.537 – – 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 65.4 27 18.4 5.3 2.1 – 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 0.413 0.681 0.288 0.413 – 5 Suria Nala 61.2 33 10.5 17 16 – 5 Suria Nala 0.539 0.316 1.625 0.993 – 6 Cherra Nadi 40 12.6 10 1.6 – – 6 Cherra Nadi 0.342 0.783 0.164 – – 7 Sendur Nadi 389 193 93.2 43.8 45 5.7 7 Sendur Nadi 0.494 0.484 0.470 1.021 0.128 The mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) may be defined as the Table 5 Mean stream length (km) of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order average of bifurcation ratios of all order (Table 2) and it is 4.92 in case of Kanhar River basin. In the present study, Rb Sub-watershed Mean stream length (km) for the each sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is given in the I II III IV V VI Table 7. Thema Nadi 0.54 0.57 1.41 1.63 Malia Nala 0.48 0.68 1.38 3.12 3.86 2.18 Relief ratio (Rh) Hathi Nala 0.36 0.65 1.43 4.40 1.97 Dhanmarwa Nala 0.46 0.574 1.53 2.65 2.19 Schumm (1956) states that the maximum relief to hori- zontal distance along the longest dimension of the basin Suria Nala 0.52 0.870 1.49 8.50 16.90 parallel to the principal drainage line is termed as relief Cherra Nadi 0.54 0.57 1.41 1.63 ratio. Difference in the elevation between the highest point Sendur Nadi 0.51 0.749 1.45 3.13 22.39 5.75 of a basin and the lowest point on the valley floor is termed 123 228 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Table 7 Bifurcation ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Table 9 Drainage density of sub-watersheds of Kanhar basin Sub- Sub-watershed Bifurcation ratio Sub-watershed Stream Area Drainage watershed length (km) (km) density I–II II–III III–IV IV–V V–VI no. Cherra River 61.13 37.89 1.61 1 Thema Nadi 2.608 4.105 4.75 4.0 0.666 Dhanmarawa River 118.16 42.00 2.81 2 Malia Nala 2.853 3.56 5.55 3.0 3.0 Hathi Nala River 67.28 44.82 1.50 3 Hathi Nala 3.090 4.40 2.0 5.0 – Suria River 138.68 117.21 1.18 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 3.0 3.916 6.0 2.0 – Thema River 696.19 215.00 3.23 5 Suria Nala 3.052 5.428 3.5 2.0 – Malia River 477.35 217.99 2.18 6 Cherra Nadi 3.090 3.142 7.0 – – Sendur River 676.28 457.89 1.47 7 Sendur Nadi 0.341 0.249 0.218 0.142 0.5 Drainage density (Dd) Table 8 Relief Ratio of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin Sub-watershed Sub-watershed Total Maximum Relief Drainage density (Dd) is a measure the total stream length no. relief (m) length (km) ratio in a given basin to the total area of the basin (Strahler 1 Thema Nadi 180 696.198 0.258 1964).The drainage density is affected by the factors that control characteristic length of the watershed. Drainage 2 Malia Nala 125 217.998 0.573 3 Hathi Nala 100 67.286 1.486 density is related to various features of landscape dissec- tion such as valley density, channel head source area, 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 120 118.162 1.015 relief, climate and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), soil and 5 Suria Nala 275 138.682 1.982 rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989) and landscape 6 Cherra Nadi 100 61.132 2.944 evolution processes. The drainage density of the Kanhar 7 Sendur Nadi 260 676.282 0.384 basin is 1.72 km/km , which indicates that basin area has a highly resistant permeable subsurface material with inter- mediate drainage and low to moderate relief. Higher as the total relief of that river basin. Schumm (1963) also drainage density is associated with the basin of weak and stated that it is a dimensionless height-length ratio equal to impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation and the tangent of angle formed by two planes intersecting at high relief. Low drainage density leads to coarse drainage the mouth of the basin, one representing the horizontal and texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage other passing through the highest point of the basin. texture, high runoff and erosion potential of the basin area. Low value of relief ratios is mainly due to the resistant (Strahler 1964). Drainage density of each sub-watershed of basement rocks of the basin and low degree of slope Kanhar basin is given in the Table 9. Higher density (3.23) (Mahadevaswamy et al. 2011). The Rh normally increases is identified for Thema River sub-watershed whereas low with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage drainage density (1.18) is calculated for Suria River sub- basin (Gottschalk 1964). Rh for Kanhar basin is calculated, watershed (Table 9). Triangular irregular network (a), i.e., 0.092. Mean relief ratio of each sub-watershed of drainage density (b) and DTM from different angles for Kanhar basin is shown in the Table 8. perspective views are shown in the Fig. 5. Elongation ratio (Re) Stream frequency (Sf) Elongation ratio (Re) is defined as the ratio of diameter of a Stream frequency (Sf) is the total number of stream seg- circle having the same area as of the basin and maximum ments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). Reddy basin length (Schumm 1956). It is a measure of the shape et al. (2004)) stated that low values of stream frequency Sf of the river basin and it depends on the climatic and geo- indicate presence of a permeable subsurface material and logic types. A circular basin is more efficient in runoff low relief. The channel segment numbers for unit areas are discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). difficult to be enumerated (Singh 1980), but an attempt has Re value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. Higher values of elon- been made to count stream frequency of Kanhar basin. The gation ratio show high infiltration capacity and low runoff, stream frequency value of the Kanhar basin is 2.45 km/ whereas lower Re values which are characterized by high km . Stream frequency mainly depends on the lithology of susceptibility to erosion and sediment load (Reddy et al. the basin and reflects the texture of the drainage network. 2004). The value of stream frequency (Fs) for the basin exhibits 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 229 positive correlation with the drainage density value of the Conclusion area indicating the increase in stream population with respect to increase in drainage density. Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite Channel frequency density serves as a tool in estab- to any hydrological study. Thus, determination of stream lishing the erosional processes operating over an area; to be networks’ behaviour and their interrelation with each more specific, the same in relation to the stream orders and other is of great importance in many water resources their characteristics provides data which can throw light studies. Remote sensing satellite data and GIS techniques even on the sequences of relief developments and the have been proved to be an effective tool in drainage delineation. Their updation in conjunction with old data- degree of ruggedness in the area (Singh 1980). sets brings a bright picture enabling geomorphologist to Form factor (Rf) infer concrete conclusion about the drainage basin. In the present paper, morphometric analysis of the Kanhar River Horton (1932) stated form factor as the ratio of the area basin, based on several drainage parameters using remote of the basin and square of the basin length. The value of sensing satellite data and latest GIS tools for drainage form factor would always be greater than 0.78 for per- analysis, has been delineated. It is inferred that the fectly circular basin. Smaller the value of form factor, Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin. Kanhar more elongated will be the basin. Rf value of the Kanhar basin is mainly dominated by lower order streams. The basin is 0.18 (Table 2). Thus, the Kanhar basin is elon- morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement of gated one. linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. Detailed mor- phometric study of all sub-watersheds shows dendritic to Circularity ratio (Rc) sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which thus indicate homogenous lithology and variations of values of Rb Miller (1953) stated circularity ratio is the ratio of the area among the sub-watersheds attributed to difference in of the basins to the area of circle having the same cir- topography and geometric development. The maximum cumference as the perimeter of the basin. Miller (1953) stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order described Rc as a significant ratio that indicates the den- streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed dritic stage of a watershed. This is mainly due to the that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream diversity of slope and relief pattern of the basin. The cir- order increases and vice versa. The values of stream frequency indicate that all the sub-basins show ?ve cor- culator ratio is mainly concerned with the length and fre- quency of streams, geological structures, land use/land relation with increasing stream population with respect to increasing drainage density. cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. It is a signif- icant ratio that indicates the dendritic stage of a watershed. The drainage density values of the Kanhar basin have Low, medium and high values of Rc indicate the young, values below five revealing that the subsurface area is mature, and old stages of the life cycle of the tributary permeable, a characteristic feature of coarse drainage. The watershed (John Wilson et al. 2012). Rc value of Kanhar variation of stream length ratio might be due to differences basin is 0.15 (Table 2). In the study area, Rc value of in slope/gradients and topographic conditions of the area. different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is ranging from The values of stream frequency indicate that all the sub- 0.246 to 0.411 (Table 10; Fig. 7). watershed show positive correlation with increasing stream segments with respect to increasing drainage density. Elongation ratio (Re) value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. Higher values of elongation ratio show high infiltration capacity and low runoff, whereas lower Re values which are char- Table 10 Circulatory ratio of sub-watersheds of Kanhar basin acterized by high susceptibility to erosion and sediment Sub- Sub-watershed Perimeter Circularity load The database obtains through analysis of morpho- watershed no. (km) ratio metric parameters would be suggested for its proper utili- zation in the integrated watershed programme aimed at 1 Thema Nadi 81.00 0.411 development and management of water resources of the 2 Malia Nala 217.99 0.351 Kanhar River basin by the ministry of water resources, 3 Hathi Nala 39.40 0.362 New Delhi (India) in future. 4 Dhanmarwa Nala 2,913.00 0.627 The used approaches in this study include a compre- 5 Suria Nala 59.05 0.422 hensive morphometric analysis that can be applied for any 6 Cherra Nadi 29.86 0.042 drainage system elsewhere. They introduce the major ele- 7 Sendur Nadi 152.64 0.246 ments needed to assess water resources and their 123 230 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:217–232 Fig. 7 Sub-watershed of Kanhar River basin (a–g) Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the hydrologic regime, thus it is recommended to apply similar Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, dis- studies in anywhere in India. tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original The general budget, 2014–2015 passed in the Lok author(s) and the source are credited. Sabha on 10th of July 2014 also promises for proper management of different water resources of the country. References The result calculated in this paper will suggest and recommend developing a better water usage mechanism Agarwal CS (1998) Study of drainage pattern through aerial data in for proper watershed management in the Kanhar River Naugarh area of Varanasi district, U.P. J Indian Soc Remote basin. 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Applied Water ScienceSpringer Journals

Published: Nov 7, 2014

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