Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using... Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 DOI 10.1007/s13201-016-0395-2 REVIEW ARTICLE Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique Sandeep Soni Received: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published online: 29 February 2016 The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The quantitative analysis of the watershed is selection of recharge structure in the area for future water important for the quantification of the channel network and management. to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have Keywords Chakrar watershed and sub-watersheds  GIS been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed Morphometry  River basin of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and struc- tural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Introduction Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of River basins (the land area between the source and the the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The mouth of a river including all of the lands that drain into Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km the river) influenced by catchment discharges are important with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is geographical units for water resource management. Rapid sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is and unsustainable development in the river basins has led designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order to the disruption of natural hydrological cycles. In many streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage den- cases this has resulted in greater frequency and severity of sity value of 2.46 km/km which exhibits gentle to steep flooding, drought and pollution. The degradation and loss slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable of biodiversity impose major economic and social losses with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of and costs to the human populations of these river basins. the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies Water demand for drinking and other purposes is increas- from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed ing day by day due to urbanization and population growth, on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic that has led to increasing water crisis affecting surface and structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, ground water (Thakur et al. 2011; Singh et al. 2011; circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated Diwakar and Thakur 2012). So, evaluation of water basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and resources is urgently required for livelihood sustainability sediment transport capacities. The results from the mor- and economy (Singh et al. 2013). Development and man- phometric assessment of the watershed are important in agement plans are also required for ecosystem to survive water resources evaluation and its management and for the and continue to provide essential goods and services for local communities. Optimum and sustainable utilization of fresh water resources is also needed in new approaches of water and basin management. & Sandeep Soni In watershed management plans, the knowledge of sandeepsoni80@gmail.com hydrological nature of the rocks within the watershed is necessary that can be obtained through quantitative mor- Remote Sensing and GIS Lab, MGCGV, Chitrakoot, Satna, phometric analysis of the watershed (Singh et al. 2014). In MP, India 123 2090 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 a watershed, basic unit is stream network which reveals information for better understanding (Vijith and Satheesh structural, geological and hydrological setup of the water- 2006). Main objective of the study is to elaborate mor- shed. The knowledge of topography, stream network and phometric characteristics of the Chakrar watershed and to its pattern, geological and geomorphological setup in the identify basin geometry. Morphometric analysis is exe- watershed is requisite for its management and implemen- cuted to understand the conservation measures and man- tation plan for conservation measures (Sreedevi et al. agement of water resources for sustainable livelihood 2013). Various hydrological problems of ungauged water- through Remote Sensing and GIS technique. shed are solved by different regional hydrological models The Chakrar watershed is a tributary of the Narmada which are developed using geomorphological characteris- River. It rises towards south at an altitude of 1020 m of tics of the watershed. According to Esper (2008), mor- Satpura hills of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh, India phometric characterization of a watershed is important to (Fig. 1) and flows to the north to meet the Narmada River. 0 00 0 00 evaluate hydrological setup coupled with geomorphology It is bounded by 2231 12.24 N–2252 44.93 N latitude 0 00 0 00 and geology. and 8114 41.23 E–8128 29.42 E longitude. Total Drainage basins, catchments and sub-catchments are the catchment area of the watershed is 415 km .It isan fundamental units for the management of land and water elongated river basin. The study region is characterized by resources (Moore et al. 1994). Morphometric analysis in a high level plateau and half part by middle level plateau. In drainage basin is important for hydrological investigation the study area, there is one common rock, i.e. basaltic lava and development and management of drainage basin flow of the Deccan Trap, made up principally of volcanic (Rekha et al. 2011). Morphometric parameters and climatic basic igneous rock. It is dark, hard and compact, fine grain, conditions are the key determinants of running water extrusive igneous rock, ejected as molten rock onto the ecosystems functioning at the basin scale (Lotspeich and Earth’s surface solidifying quickly in the open air. Climatic Platts 1982; Frissel et al. 1986). The quantitative analysis characteristics of the study area is long hot summers, of morphometric parameters is found to have immense medium high monsoon rains and pleasantly cool winters. utility in river basin evaluation, watershed prioritization for Such climate can be categorized under sub-continental type soil and water conservation and natural resource manage- of sub-tropical monsoon climate. Long hot summers, heat ment at watershed level (Malik et al. 2011). The morpho- respiting monsoon showers and cool winters provide a metric characteristics of the watershed control all surface typical seasonality to this climatic reason. Long hot and dry runoff, and due to this condition, the watershed is consid- summer season commences from March onwards, whence ered an ideal territorial unit (Lima et al. 2011). Evaluation temperature starts increasing sharply and high temperature of morphometric parameters could be calculated from the continues up to June. Average annual rainfall is analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of 1200–1300 mm. The area has rich plant biodiversity the various streams and basin area, perimeter and length of wherein Sal (Shorea reobusta) is dominant species with drainage channels, drainage density, stream frequency, associated species such as Buchanania lanzan, Bauhinia bifurcation ratio, texture ratio, basin relief, ruggedness spp., Mallotus philipensis, Ougeinia oojeinesis, Terminalia number, and time of concentration (Kumar et al. 2000; Nag chebula, Grewia spp., Gardenialatifolia, Anogeissus lati- and Chakraborthy 2003). folia. The region also has some extremely valuable The basin morphometric parameters of the various medicinal plants, which are now gravely endangered, like catchments have been studied by many scientists using brahmi, gulbakawali, safedmusli, kalimusli, tejraj, bhojraj, conventional (Horton 1945; Smith 1950; Strahler 1957) patalkumhna, kali haldi, devraj, jatashankari, ashva and remote sensing and GIS methods (Krishnamurthy and gandha. There are some plants which are source of econ- Srinivas 1995; Srivastava and Mitra 1995; Agarwal 1998; omy such as Tendu Patta, Mahlon patta, Harra-Bahera- Biswas et al. 1999; Narendra and Nageswara Rao 2006). Amla and Achar chironzi. There are two major soil groups The fast emerging Geospatial technology (GT) viz. remote in the study region that is ‘black cotton soil’ and ‘lateritic sensing, GIS, and GPS have been used as an effective tool soil’. The black cotton soil is resultant of the volcanic to overcome most of the problems of land and water eruption, mainly found in central alluvial plain and sloppy resources planning and management on the account of area while the lateritic soil is resultant of prolong erosion in usage of conventional methods of data process (Tripathi the Deccan Trap, found in the hilly area of the Maikal et al. 2013; Soni et al. 2013; Banerjee et al. 2015). Geo- range. In the ‘kharif’ season, Kodo-Kutki, Maize, Ramtil, graphical information system (GIS) technique is used for Soybean and Paddy are mainly grown whereas during the assessing various terrain and morphometric characteristics ‘rabi’ season Wheat, Lentil and Mustard, Linseed, Pea and of drainage basin, as they provide a powerful tool for Gram are commonly grown. Agriculture, forest products, manipulation and analysis of spatial information particu- medicinal plants and some basalt mines are common larly for the future identification and extraction of the source of income for the livelihood of local people. 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2091 Fig. 1 Location map of Chakrar watershed Agriculture depends on rainfall. Ground water condition SOI toposheets were scanned and added in ERDAS and recharging is not very good due to its geological Imagine 9.2 software for georeferencing and mosaic. condition. So this study is necessary for watershed man- Downloaded ASTER data and Landsat TM data was cor- agement and sustainability. related with georeferenced toposheets and projected into same coordinate system (UTM WGS 84 Zone 44). Catch- ment area was delineated using aoi (area of interest) tool Materials and methods and updated with ASTER and Landsat data. This aoi layer was used to subset toposheets and space born data and Quantitative analysis of drainage basin reveals hydrogeo- converted into shape file as vector layer to treat as water- logical behaviour of drainage basin and describes nature of shed boundary. Drainage network was digitized from rocks, geomorphology and structure. The morphometric toposheets and extracted from DEM using ArcGIS 9.3 analysis also provides basin geometry, permeability nature software inside watershed boundary. Digitized stream of the rocks and its storage capacity. Delineation of the network was updated with extracted stream network from drainage basin and catchment area is the first step of the DEM and with satellite data. These data were used to analysis. Survey of India (SOI) toposheet (scale 1:50,000) calculate linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect number 64F/2, 64F/5 and 64F/6 were processed for basin (Table 1) using ArcGIS 9.3 software. stream and boundary delineation. Satellite-borne ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection, 30 m resolution, March 2011, Sheet no. Results and discussion ASTGTM2_N22E081) DEM (digital elevation model) was downloaded from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov and Land- In morphometric analysis, configuration of the earth’s sat TM satellite imagery (spatial resolution: 30 m, October surface and dimensions of the landforms is measured. This 2010, WRS-2, Path 143, Row 044) was downloaded from analysis is carried out for quantitative evaluation of drai- http://www.glovis.usgs.gov.in. Both the data was used to nage basin and for planning and management of water update basin streams and watershed boundary. resources. Three major aspects: Linear, Areal and Relief 123 2092 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 1 Methods for calculating morphometric parameters Morphometric parameters Methods References Linear aspects Stream order (Nu) Hierarchical ordering Strahler (1957) Stream length (Lu) Length of the stream Horton (1945) Mean stream length (Lm) Lm = Lu/Nu Horton (1945) Stream length ratio (Rl) Rl = Lu/L(u-1), where Lu is stream length order u and Horton (1945) L(u_1) is stream segment length of the next lower order Bifurcation ratio (Rb) Rb = Nu/N(u-1), where Nu is number of streams of any Horton (1945) given order and N(u-1) is number in the next higher order Rho coefficient (q) q = Rl/Rb Horton (1945) Areal aspects Drainage density (Dd) Dd = L/A, where L is total stream length, A is area of Horton (1945) watershed Stream frequency (Fs) Fs = N/A, where N is total number of streams and A is area Horton (1945) of watershed Drainage texture (Dt) T = Dd 9 Fs Smith (1950) Length of overland flow (Lg) Lg =  Dd Horton (1945) Constant of channel maintenance (C) C = 1/Dd Schumm (1956) Form factor (Ff) Ff = A/Lb Horton (1945) Circularity ratio (Rc) Rc = 4pA/P Miller (1953) Elongation ratio (Re) Re = 2H(A/p)/Lb, where A is area of watershed, p is 3.14 Schumm (1956) and Lb is basin length Shape index (Sw) Sw = 1/Ff Horton (1932) Relief aspects Basin relief (R) R = H - h, where H is maximum elevation and h is Schumm (1956) minimum elevation within the basin Relief ratio (Rr) Rr = R/Lb Schumm (1956) Ruggedness number (Rn) Rn = R 9 Dd Strahler (1958) Dissection index (Di) DI = R/Ra, where Ra is absolute relief Singh and Dubey (1994) Gradient ratio (Rg) Rg = Es - Em/Lb, where Es is the elevation at the source, Sreedevi et al. (2009) Em is the elevation at the mouth 0.5 Melton ruggedness number (MRn) MRn = H - h/A Melton (1965) have been described for analysis. Linear aspect in mor- of the underlying rocks. There are three types of drainage phometry is characterized by basin length, stream order, patterns are found i.e., dendritic, parallel and trellis (Fig. 2). stream number, stream length and bifurcation ratio. Areal Dendritic drainage pattern shows homogenous and uniform aspect represents the characteristics of catchment area and soil and rocks. Parallel drainage pattern indicates that the area describes how catchment area controls and regulates the has a gentle, uniform slope with less resistant bed rock. hydrological behaviour. Relief aspect defines terrain setup Whereas trellis type drainage pattern suggests down-turned of the catchment and terrain characteristics. folds called synclines form valleys. The morphometric parameters of the Chakrar watershed and its sub-watersheds have been examined and detailed in Linear aspects the following: Perimeter Drainage pattern Overall perimeter of Chakrar Watershed (CW) is 112.9 km Drainage pattern may be expressed as a plan of a river system while the data of 9 sub-watersheds (SW) is expressed in that reflects different types of information about geology and Table 2. Among the sub-watersheds SW 3 has the largest predominant slope of the drainage basin. The arrangement of value i.e. 46.39 km covering larger basin area of 65 km streams in a drainage system constitutes the drainage pattern, while SW1 covering smallest perimeter of 11.95 km and which in turn reflects mainly structural or lithological controls attain an area of 7.79 km of all. Sub-watersheds are 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2093 Fig. 2 Drainage pattern of Chakrar watershed. a Dendritic type, b parallel type, c trellis type elongated to semi-circular because perimeter is increasing against stream order shows a straight line with a deviation as area increasing (r = 0.99) but reverse in SW1. which indicates that the number of streams decreases as stream order increases and describes homogeneous sub- Basin length (Lb) surface material subjected to weathering and latter basin is characterized by lithologic and topographic variation (Nag The basin length of CW is 56.33 km and rest of 9 SW is and Lahiri 2011). The graph (Fig. 4) validates the Horton’s discussed in Table 3. All the sub-watersheds are longer law of stream number as the coefficient of correlation is ones except SW1 (5.84 km). It shows positive correlation -0.77. (r = 0.98) with basin area tends to head-ward erosion. Basin length is defined as straight line distance from a Stream length (Lt) basin mouth to the outlet point (Horton 1932). The mean and total stream length of each order is measured Stream order (Nu) using GIS technique and tabulated in Table 2. It shows development of the stream segments and surface runoff Stream ordering is an important aspect for drainage basin characteristics. Streams having relatively smaller lengths analysis. It is defined as a measure of the position of a indicate that the area is with high slopes. Longer stream stream in the hierarchy of streams (Horton 1945; Strahler lengths are indicative of flatter gradient. According to 1957; Leopold et al. 1964). Strahler (1964) proposed a Strahler (1964), mean stream length describes the charac- method of ranking of streams. The smallest fingertip teristic size of components of stream network. The mean tributaries are designated as order 1. Where the two first- stream length of a given order is less than the next higher order channels join, a channel segment of 2nd order is order while total stream length is maximum in first order formed and so forth. The highest order stream carries dis- and decreases as the stream order increases. But in the case charge and sediment loads. It reveals about size of stream, of mean stream length anomaly is found in SW3, SW4, runoff, drainage area and its extent is directly proportional SW7 and SW9 and in case of total stream length anomaly to the size of watershed. Ordering of 9 SW is tabulated in is found in SW1, SW7 and SW9. This type of variation Table 2. It has been found that the study area is a 6th order may occur due to stream flow, rock types, slope and drainage basin having 1314 total streams, sprawl over topography (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. 2004; 415 km (Fig. 3). Thomas et al. 2010). The regression line plotted on semi log graph (Fig. 5) which validates Horton’s Law of stream Stream number (Nt) length as the coefficient of correlation is 0.78. The number of streams of each order in a given watershed Bifurcation ratio (Rb) is known as stream number. Law of stream order (Horton 1945) describes that the number of streams of each order Bifurcation ratio is the ratio of the number of streams of forms an inverse geometric sequence against stream order. any given order to the number of streams in the next higher Relationship between logarithm of number of streams order (Schumm 1956). It is a measure of degree of 123 2094 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 2 Linear aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Perimeter (km) 11.95 34.52 46.39 26.05 21.12 21.04 22.95 20 32.98 112.9 Basin Length 5.84 16.25 19.67 11.08 8.95 9.87 11.85 9.24 15.36 56.33 Number of streams N1 18 125 197 85 75 71 61 48 102 1016 N2 4 27 30 181918 161022 221 N3 29 7 545 334 55 N4 13 2 111 112 15 N5 1 1 1 6 N6 1 NT 25 165 237 109 99 95 81 62 131 1314 Total stream length LT1 11.89 68.38 94.33 41.56 36.78 38.66 35.2 26.44 52.66 567.05 LT2 8.07 26.61 31.31 14.27 13.5 14.19 17.63 11.37 19.08 242.44 LT3 1.61 18.35 14.67 7.01 8.65 4.22 2.77 6.04 9.97 100.02 LT4 1.1 8.91 6.49 8.43 3.79 7.46 7.63 3.77 4.06 52.35 LT5 3.28 10.32 7.67 32.16 LT6 25.77 Total 22.67 125.53 157.12 71.27 62.72 64.53 63.23 47.62 93.44 1019.79 Mean steam length Lm1 0.66 0.55 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.54 0.58 0.55 0.52 0.56 Lm2 2.02 0.99 1.04 0.79 0.71 0.79 1.10 1.14 0.87 1.10 Lm3 0.81 2.04 2.10 1.40 2.16 0.84 0.92 2.01 2.49 1.82 Lm4 1.10 2.97 3.25 8.43 3.79 7.46 7.63 3.77 2.03 3.49 Lm5 3.28 10.32 7.67 5.36 Lm6 25.77 Bifurcation ratio Rb 1–2 4.50 4.63 6.57 4.72 3.95 3.94 3.81 4.80 4.64 4.60 Rb 2–3 2 3 4.29 3.60 4.75 3.60 5.33 3.33 5.50 4.02 Rb 3–4 2 3 3.50 5 4 5 3 3 2 3.67 Rb 4–5 3 2 2 2.50 Rb 5–6 6 Mean Rb 2.83 3.41 4.09 4.44 4.23 4.18 4.05 3.71 3.53 4.16 Stream length ratio Rl 2–1 3.05 1.80 2.18 1.62 1.45 1.45 1.91 2.06 1.68 1.97 Rl 3–2 0.40 2.07 2.01 1.77 3.04 1.07 0.84 1.77 2.87 1.66 Rl 4–3 1.37 1.46 1.55 6.01 1.75 8.84 8.26 1.87 0.81 1.92 Rl 5–4 1.10 3.18 3.78 1.54 Rl 6–5 4.81 Mean 1.61 1.61 2.23 3.13 2.08 3.79 3.67 1.90 2.29 2.38 Rho coefficient Rho 0.57 0.47 0.55 0.71 0.49 0.91 0.91 0.51 0.65 0.57 distribution of stream network (Mesa 2006) and influences the stream network is negligible (Strahler 1964; Verstap- the landscape morphometry and control over the pen 1995; Nag 1998; Vittala et al. 2004) and values higher ‘‘peakedness’’ of the runoff (Chorley 1969). The Rb value than 10 where structural controls play dominant role with ranges from 3.0 to 5.0 for networks formed on homoge- elongate basins (Mekel 1970; Chow et al. 1988). The Rb neous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on values reflect shape of basin (Verstappen 1983; Ghosh and 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2095 Table 3 Areal aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Area (km ) 7.79 49.91 65 29.78 24.29 23.2 24.38 19.06 39.48 415 Drainage density (Dd) 2.91 2.52 2.42 2.39 2.58 2.78 2.59 2.50 2.37 2.46 Stream frequency (Sf) 3.21 3.31 3.65 3.66 4.08 4.09 3.32 3.25 3.32 3.17 Drainage texture (Dt) 9.34 8.31 8.81 8.76 10.52 11.39 8.62 8.13 7.85 7.78 L of OL flow (Lg) 0.17 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.20 C of channel M (C) 0.34 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.41 Form factor (Ff) 0.23 0.19 0.17 0.24 0.30 0.24 0.17 0.22 0.17 0.13 Circularity ratio (Rc) 0.69 0.53 0.38 0.55 0.68 0.66 0.58 0.60 0.46 0.41 Elongation ratio (Re) 0.54 0.49 0.46 0.56 0.62 0.55 0.47 0.53 0.46 0.41 Shape index (Sw) 4.38 5.29 5.95 4.12 3.30 4.20 5.76 4.48 5.98 7.65 Chhibber 1984). Elongated basins have low Rb values Areal aspects while circular basins have high Rb values (Morisawa 1985). The mean Rb value of CW is 4.16 and value of 9 Area sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44. SW1 has lowest mean Rb value which shows high infiltration rate and rest The CW has a catchment area of 415 km . SW1 is the smallest of all (7.79 km ) whereas SW3 is the largest one of sub-watershed has higher Rb value ranges from 3.41 to 4.44 (Table 2) which shows high overland flow and dis- among the 9 sub-watersheds. charge due to hilly nature of terrain. Drainage density (Dd) Stream length ratio (Rl) Drainage density is the ratio of total stream length of all the Stream length ratio is the ratio of the mean length of the orders per unit basin area (Horton 1945). Dd is a numerical one order to the next lower order of the stream networks. measure of landscape dissection and runoff potential The stream length ratio gives an idea about the relative (Chorley 1969). It shows infiltration capacity of the land permeability of the rock formation. Horton’s law (1945)of and vegetation cover of the catchment (Macka 2001). Dd stream length states that mean stream length segments of influences the output of water and sediment from the catchment area (Ozdemir and Bird 2009) and erosion each of the successive orders of a basin tends to approxi- mate a direct geomorphic series with stream length towards susceptibility (Anon 1988; Gregory and Walling 1973; Bates 1981). Dd of the drainage basin depends on climatic higher order of streams. The mean Rl of CW is 2.38 and varies for 9 SW from 1.61 to 3.79 (Table 2). There is a condition and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), landscape properties like soil and rock (Kelson and Wells 1989) and variation in stream length ratio between streams of differ- ent order due to differences between slope and topography relief (Oguchi 1997). The drainage density indicates the indicating the late youth stage of geomorphic development groundwater potential of an area, due to its relation with in the streams of the study area (Singh and Singh 1997; surface runoff and permeability. Low drainage density Vittala et al. 2004). generally results in the areas of permeable subsoil material, dense vegetation and low relief (Nag 1998). While high Rho coefficient (Rho) drainage density is the resultant of impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation and mountainous relief. Low Rho coefficient is defined as ratio of stream length ratio and drainage density leads to coarse drainage texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage texture. The bifurcation ratio (Horton 1945). Rho coefficient indicates storage capacity of drainage network. Rho value of CW is CW had a Dd value 2.46 km/km , fells in its medium 0.57 and rest of 9 SW is ranges from 0.47 to 0.91. SW2 and category which indicates gentle to steep slope terrain, SW5 have value of 0.47 and 0.49 while other SW has a medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium value more than 0.50 indicating higher hydrologic storage precipitation. Value for 9 sub-watersheds is listed in during floods. Table 3. 123 2096 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Fig. 3 Stream order in Chakrar watershed Stream frequency (Sf) poor runoff. Sf values of all the sub-watersheds have close correlation with Dd indicating the increase in stream popu- Stream frequency of a basin is defined as the number of lation with respect to increase in drainage density. streams per unit area (Horton 1945). A higher stream fre- quency points to a larger surface runoff, steeper ground sur- Drainage texture (Dt) face, impermeable subsurface sparse vegetation and high relief conditions. Low stream frequency indicates high per- Drainage texture is the product of Dd and Sf and is a meable geology and low relief. The Sf of CW is 3.17 numbers measure of relative channel spacing in a fluvial-dissected per km while Fs of 9SWvaryfrom3.21to4.09indicating terrain, which is influenced by climate, rainfall, vegetation, 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2097 Fig. 4 Relation between stream order and stream number lithology, soil type, infiltration capacity and stage of Fig. 5 Relation between stream order and mean stream length development (Smith 1950). Vegetation cover, its density and types also plays an important role in determining the drainage texture (Kale and Gupta 2001). The soft or weak ground before it gets concentrated into main stream which rocks unprotected by vegetation produce a fine texture, effect hydrologic and physiographic development of drai- whereas massive and resistant rocks cause coarse texture. nage basin (Horton 1945). According to Suresh (2000), Sparse vegetation of arid climate causes finer textures than when rainfall intensity exceeds soil infiltration capacity, those developed on similar rocks in a humid climate. The the excess water flows over the land surface as overland texture of a rock is commonly dependent upon vegetation flow. This factor depends on the rock type, permeability, type and climate (Dornkamp and King 1971). Drainage climatic regime, vegetation cover and relief as well as lines are numerous over impermeable areas than permeable duration of erosion (Schumm 1956). The CW has Lg value areas. Horton (1945) recognized infiltration capacity as the of 0.20 while all the sub-watersheds value range 0.17 to single important factor which influences drainage texture 0.21, as shown in Table 3, indicates the influence of high and considered drainage texture which includes drainage structural disturbance, low permeability, steep to very steep density and stream frequency. Dt is categorized into five slopes and high surface runoff. The CW and sub-water- different classes based on Dd values viz; very course (\2), sheds show a well-developed stream network and mature course (2–4), moderate (4–6), fine (6–8) and very fine ([8). geomorphic stage. The CW shows very fine texture, SW1, 8 and 9 shows course texture while rest of the SW show moderate texture. Constant of channel maintenance (Cc) Length of overland flow (Lg) This parameter indicates the requirement of units of watershed surface to bear one unit of channel length. Length of overland flow is described as half of reciprocal Schumm (1956) has used the inverse of the drainage den- of drainage density. It is the length of water over the sity having the dimension of length as a property termed 123 2098 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 constant of channel maintenance. The drainage basins Low Rc value implies elongated basin shape while high Rc having higher values of this parameter, there will be lower value indicates near circular. Rc value has a positive corre- value of drainage density. The computed value is given in lation (r = 0.76) between form factor. Table 3. The value reports a Cc value of CW is 0.41 and the Cc value of 9 sub-watersheds varies from 0.34 to 0.42. Elongation ratio (Re) Higher value of Cc reveals strong control of lithology with a surface of high permeability and indicates relatively Elongation ratio is defined as the ratio of diameter of a higher infiltration rates, moderate surface runoff, less dis- circle of the same area as the basin to the maximum basin section and watershed is not influenced by structural length (Schumm 1956). It is an important index for the parameters. analysis of basin shape. Analysis of elongation ratio indi- cates that the areas with higher elongation ratio values have Basin configuration high infiltration capacity and low runoff. A circular basin is more efficient in the discharge of runoff than an elongated Floods are formed and move depends on basin shape. It is basin (Singh and Singh, 1997). Strahler (1964) classified known that floods are formed and travel more rapidly in a elongation ratio as follows: circular (0.9–1.0), oval round basin than in an elongated one and moreover that (0.8–0.9), less elongated (0.7–0.8), elongated (0.5–0.7) and floods in basins of the former type are stronger and have a more elongated (\0.5). The Re of CW is 0.41 and values of higher velocity and thus greater erosion and transport 9 sub-watershed is varies from 0.46 to 0.62. The Re values capacities. As elongated shape favor a diminution of floods indicate elongated basin shape with high relief and gentle because tributaries flow into the main stream at greater to steep slope. intervals of time and space. Shape index (Sw) Form factor (Ff) Shape index is a dimensionless entity and is a reciprocal of Form factor is a dimensionless ratio of the area (A)ofa form factor. The CW has a value of 7.65 and rest of 9 sub- drainage basin to the square of its maximum length (Lb) watersheds range 3.30–5.98. Higher the shape index shows (Horton 1932). Basin shape may be indexed by simple basin elongation and weak flood discharge period. dimensionless ratios of the basic measurements area, perimeter and length (Singh 1998). Form factor is an Relief aspects indicator for flood formation and move, degree of erosion Basin relief (R) and transport capacities of sediment load in a watershed. The Ff of CW is 0.13 and that of 9 sub-watersheds (Table 3) varies from 0.17 to 0.24. The value of Ff varies According to Rao et al. (2011), calculation of basin relief to from 0 (highly elongated shape) to unity i.e.; 1 (perfect show spatial variation is predominant. Basin relief is the circular shape). Main watershed and sub-watersheds shows maximum vertical distance between the lowest and the a lower value of Ff which implies more elongated basin highest point of a basin. Basin relief is responsible for the with flatter peak of low flow for longer duration, lower stream gradient and influences flood pattern and sediment erosion and sediment transport capacities and favors a volume that can be transported (Hadley and Schumm 1961). diminution of floods because streams flow into the main It is an important factor in understanding denudation char- stream at greater time intervals and space which leads to acteristics of the basin (Sreedevi et al. 2009). To define relief ground water percolation. DEM is shown in Fig. 6.The R value of CW is 0.32 km while rest of 9 sub-watersheds is described in Table 4. Circularity ratio (Rc) Relief ratio (Rr) According to Miller (1953), circularity ratio is the ratio of the basin area (A) and the area of a circle with the same perimeter Relief ratio is a dimensionless ratio of basin relief and as that of the basin. The value of ratio is equal to unity when basin length and effective measure of gradient aspects of the basin shape is a perfect circle and is range 0.4–0.5 when the watershed (Schumm 1956). It shows overall steepness the basin shape is strongly elongated and highly permeable of a drainage basin and is an indicator of the intensity of homogeneous geologic materials. The circularity ratio is erosion processes operating on slopes of the basin (Javed influenced by the slope, relief geologic structure of the basin et al. 2009). The Rr value of CW is 0.01 while values of 9 and landuse/landcover. The CW has a Rc value 0.41, whereas SW are given in Table 4. Values are relatively low (\0.1) in 9 sub-watershed, the value range between 0.38 and 0.69. suggesting gentle slope. 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2099 Ruggedness number (Rn) structural complexity in association with relief and drai- nage density (Paretha and Paretha 2011). To combine the qualities of slope steepness and length, a dimensionless ruggedness number is defined as the product Dissection index (Di) of basin relief and drainage density (Strahler 1958). It is a measure of surface unevenness (Selvan et al. 2011). The Dissection index is determined for understanding mor- Rn value of CW is 0.79 and rest of 9 sub-watersheds is phometry, physiographic attribute and magnitude of dis- provided in Table 4. The Rn value is relatively low which section of terrain (Schumm 1956; Singh 2000; Singh and suggests less prone to soil erosion and have intrinsic Dubey 1994). Dissection index is the ratio between actual Fig. 6 Digital elevation model 123 2100 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 4 Relief aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Basin relief (R in m) 260 240 180 180 180 220 230 260 260 320 Relief ratio (Rr) 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 Ruggedness No. (Rn) 0.76 0.60 0.44 0.43 0.46 0.61 0.60 0.65 0.62 0.79 Dissection index (Di) 0.26 0.24 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.27 0.33 Elevation at source (Es) 1014 981 978 953 960 960 977 980 961 957 Elevation at mouth (Em) 760 762 805 805 799 780 746 745 740 680 Gradient ratio (Rg) 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.005 Melton Rn 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.02 dissection made by the rivers and potential up to base capacities. Thus, morphometric parameters provide rele- levels (Pal et al. 2012). Di value of CW is 0.33 while 9 sub- vant information about terrain characteristics and hydro- watersheds show values 0.18–0.27. Lower value of Di logical behavior of the watershed. It is concluded that the implies old stage (Deen 1982) of basin and less degree of integration of morphometric analysis with watershed dissection. assessment methods would be beneficial in watershed management plan. Gradient ratio (Rg) Acknowledgments Author is thankful to Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, MGCGV Chitrakoot for providing the lab facility Gradient ratio suggests channel slope from which runoff for the present study. volume could be evaluated (Sreedevi et al. 2009). Rg values are tabulated in Table 4. Low Rg values show Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// moderate relief terrain and main stream flow through creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted plateau. use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a Melton ruggedness number (MRn) link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. According to Melton (1965), Melton Ruggedness number is a slope index that provides specialized representation of References relief ruggedness within the watershed. The CW has MRn value 0.02 and 9 sub-watersheds range 0.02–0.09 which is Agarwal CS (1998) Study of drainage pattern through aerial data in a low value indicating a normal flow in main stream Naugarh area of Varanasi district, UP. J Indian Soc Remote Sens without more debris flow. 26:169–175 Anon (1988) Watershed Atlas of India. All India Soil and Landuse Survey. Govt. of India, New Delhi, p 56 Banerjee A, Singh P, Pratap K (2015) Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated Conclusion GIS-based approach. Appl Water Sci. doi:10.1007/s13201-015- 0354-3 River basin is an important geomorphological unit which Bates N (1981) Valley shapes. In: Knap B (ed) Practical foundations of physical geography. George Allen & Unwin, London, reflects topographic and hydrological unity. River basin pp 25–29 characterization of Chakrar watershed and its sub-water- Biswas S, Sudhakar S, Desai VR (1999) Prioritisation of subwater- shed revealed the importance of morphometric analysis in sheds based on morphometric analysis of drainage basin a terrain depiction and basin evolution. GIS technique pro- remote sensing and GIS approach. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 27:155–166 vided high accuracy in mapping and measurement of Chorley RJ (1969) Introduction to physical hydrology. Methuen and morphometric analysis. The analysis presents well devel- Co., Ltd., Suffolk 211 oped drainage network and mature geomorphic stage in the Chow VT, Maidment D, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. watershed. The Dd value indicates moderate slope terrain McGraw Hill, New York Deen M (1982) Geomorphology and Land use: a Case Study of with sparse to dense vegetation, higher infiltration rate, Mewat. Thesis (PhD). JNU, New Delhi moderate surface runoff and less dissection. The watershed Diwakar J, Thakur JK (2012) Environmental system analysis for river and its sub-watersheds are elongated in shape having less pollution control. Water Air Soil Pollut. doi:10.1007/s11270- prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport 012-1102-z 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2101 Dornkamp JC, King CAM (1971) Numerical analyses in geomor- geomorphological and biologial application. Wiley, Chichester, phology, an introduction. St. Martins Press, New York 72 p 249 Esper AMY (2008) Morphometric analysis of Colanguil river basin Morisawa M (1985) Geomorphology texts books: rivers, forms and and flash flood hazard, San Juan, Argentina. Environ Geol process. Chapter 5, Structural and lithological control 55:107–111 Nag SK (1998) Morphometric analysis using remote sensing Frissel CA et al (1986) A hierarchical framework for stream habitat techniques in the Chaka subwatershed, Purulia district, West classification-viewing streams in a watershed context. Environ Bengal. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 26(1&2):69–76 Manage 10:199–214 Nag SK, Chakraborthy S (2003) Influence of rock types and structures Ghosh DK, Chhibber IB (1984) Aid of photo interpretation in the in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. identification of geomorphic and geologic features around J Indian Soc Remote Sens 31(1):2535 Chamba-Dharmasala area, Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Soc Nag SK, Lahiri A (2011) Morphometric analysis of Dwarakeswar Photo Interpret Remote Sens 12(1):55–64 watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, using spatial Gregory KJ, Walling DE (1973) Drainage basin form and process—a information technology. Int J Water Resour Environ Eng geomorphological approach. Edward Arnold, London 3(10):212–219 Hadley RF, Schumm SA (1961) Sediment sources and drainage basin Narendra K, Nageswara Rao K (2006) Morphometry of the characteristics in upper Cheyenne River basin. US Geological Mehadrigedda watershed, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pra- Survey, USGS water supply paper, 1531-B desh using GIS and resourcesat data. J Indian Soc Remote Sens Horton RE (1932) Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys 34:101–110 Union 13:350–361 Oguchi T (1997) Drainage density and relative relief in humid steep Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams and their mountains with frequent slope failure. Earth Surf Process Landf drainage basins—hydrophysical approach to quantitative mor- 22:107–120 phology. Geol Soc Am Bull 56(3):275–370 Ozdemir H, Bird D (2009) Evaluation of morphometric parameters of Javed A, Khanday MY, Ahmaed R (2009) Prioritization of Sub- drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in watersheds based on morphomeric and land-use analysis using point of floods. Environ Geol 56:1405–1415 remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens Pal B, Samanta S, Pal DK (2012) Morphometric and hydrological 37:261–274 analysis and mapping for Watut watershed using remote sensing Kale VS, Gupta A (2001) Introduction to geomorphology. Academic and GIS techniques. Int J Adv Eng Technol 2(1):357–368 (India) Publishers, New Delhi Paretha K, Paretha U (2011) Quantitative morphometric analysis of a Kelson KI, Wells SG (1989) Geologic influences on fluvial hydrology watershed of Yamuna Basin, India using ASTER (DEM) data and bed load transport in small mountainous watersheds, northern and GIS. Int J Geomat Geosci 2(1):248–269 New Mexico, USA. Earth Surf Process Landf 14:671–690 Rao LAK, Ansari ZR, Yusuf A (2011) Morphometric analysis of Krishnamurthy J, Srinivas G (1995) Role of geological and geomor- drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case phological factors in groundwater exploration: a study using IRS study of Etmadpur Tehsil, Agra District UP. Int J Res Chem LISS data. Int J Remote Sens 16:2595–2618 Environ 1(2):36–45 Kumar R, Kumar S, Lohani AK, Nema RK, Singh RD (2000) Rekha VB, George AV, Rita M (2011) Morphometric analysis and Evaluation of geomorphological characteristics of a catchment micro-watershed prioritization of Peruvanthanam sub-watershed, using GIS. GIS India 9(3):13–17 the Manimala River Basin, Kerala, South India. Environ Res Eng Leopold LB, Wolman MG, Miller JP (1964) Fluvial processes in Manage 3(57):6–14 geomorphology. San Francisco and London, WH Freeman and Schumm SA (1956) Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in Company badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull Lima CDS, Correa ACDB, Nascimento NRD (2011) Analysis of the 67:597–646 morphometric parameters of the Rio Preto Basin, Serra Do Selvan MT, Ahmad S, Rashid SM (2011) Analysis of the Geomor- Espinhaco (Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sa˜o Paulo, UNESP). Geocieˆn- phometric parameters in high altitude Glacierised terrain using cias 30(1):105–112 SRTM DEM data in Central Himalaya, India. ARPN J Sci Lotspeich FB, Platts WS (1982) An integrated land-aquatic classifi- Technol 1(1):22–27 cation system. North Am J Fish Manag 2:138–149 Singh S (1998) Geomorphology. Prayag pustak bhawan, Allahabad Macka Z (2001) Determination of texture of topography from large Singh S (2000) Geomorphology. Ed. Allahabad: Prayag Pustak scale contour maps. Geografski Vestnik 73(2):53–62 Bhawan, pp 642 Malik MI, Bhat MS, Kuchay NA (2011) Watershed based drainage Singh P, Thakur JK et al (2011) Assessment of land use/land cover morphometric analysis of Lidder catchment in Kashmir valley using Geospatial Techniques in a semi arid region of Madhya using geographical information system. Recent Res Sci Technol Pradesh, India. Geospatial Techniques for Managing Environ- 3(4):118–126 mental Resources. Thakur, Singh, Prasad, Gossel, Heidelberg, Mekel JFM (1970) The use of aerial photographs in geological Germany, Springer and Capital publication, pp 152–163 mapping. ITC Text Book Photo Interpret 8:1–169 Singh S, Dubey A (1994) Geo environmental planning of watersheds Melton MA (1965) The geomorphic and paleoclimatic significance of in India. Chugh Publications, Allahabad, pp 28–69 alluvial deposits in Southern Arizona. J Geol 73:1–38 Singh S, Singh MC (1997) Morphometric analysis of Kanhar river Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin. National Geographical J. of lndia, (43), 1:31-43 Singh P, Thakur JK, Singh UC (2013) Morphometric analysis of basin (Tucuman, Argentina). Environ Geol 50:1235–1242 Miller VC (1953) A quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin Morar River Basin, Madhya Pradesh, India, using remote sensing characteristics in the Clinch mountain area, Virginia and and GIS techniques. Environ Earth Sci 68:1967–1977 Tennessee. Columbia University, New York (3) Singh P, Gupta A, Singh M (2014) Hydrological Inferences from Moglen GE, Eltahir EA, Bras RL (1998) On the sensitivity of Watershed analysis for water resource management using remote drainage density to climate change. Water Resour Res sensing and GIS techniques. Egypt J Remote Sens Space Sci 34:855–862 17:111–121 Moore ID, Grayson RB, Ladson AR (1994) Digital terrain modelling. Smith KG (1950) Standards for grading texture of erosional In: Beven KJ, Moore ID (eds) A review of hydrological, topography. Am J Sci 248:655–668 123 2102 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Soni SK, Tripathi S, Maurya AK (2013) GIS based morphometric Thomas J, Joseph S, Thrivikramaji KP (2010) Morphometric aspects characterization of mini-watershed—Rachhar Nala of Anuppur of a small tropical mountain river system, the southern Western District Madhya Pradesh. Int J Adv Technol Eng Res 3(3):32–38 Ghats, India. Int J Digital Earth 3(2):135–156 Sreedevi PD, Owais S, Khan HH, Ahmed S (2009) Morphometric Tripathi S, Soni SK, Maurya AK (2013) Morphometric characteri- analysis of a watershed of South India using SRTM data and zation and prioritization of sub-watershed of Seoni River in GIS. J Geol Soc India 73(4):543–552 Madhya Pradesh through remote sensing and GIS technique. Int Sreedevi PD, Sreekanth PD, Khan HH, Ahmed S (2013) Drainage J Remote Sens Geosci 2(3):46–54 morphometry and its influence on hydrology in an semi arid Verstappen HT (1983) Applied geomorphology-geomorphological region: using SRTM data and GIS. Environ Earth Sci surveys for environmental development. Elsevier, New York, 70(2):839–848 pp 57–83 Srivastava VK, Mitra D (1995) Study of drainage pattern of Raniganj Verstappen HT (1995) Aerospace technology and natural disaster Coalfield (Burdwan District) as observed on Landsat TM/IRS reduction. In: Singh RP, Furrer R (eds) Natural hazards: LISS II imagery. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 23:225–235 monitoring and assessment using remote sensing technique. Strahler AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphol- Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 3–15 ogy. Trans Am Geophy Union 38:913–920 Vijith H, Satheesh R (2006) GIS based morphometric analysis of two Strahler AN (1958) Dimensional analysis applied to fluvially eroded major upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river in Kerala. landforms. Geol Soc Am Bull 69:279–300 J Indian Soc Remote Sens 34(2):181–185 Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basin Vittala S, Govindaiah S, Honne GH (2004) Morphometric analysis of and channel networks. In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook of applied sub-watersheds in the Pavagada area of Tumkur district, South hydrology. McGraw Hill Book, New York, pp 4–76 India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Suresh R (2000) Soil and water conservation engineering, 3rd edn. 24. Remote Sens 32(4):351–362 Watershed-concept and management, pp 785–813 Thakur JK, Thakur RK, Ramanathan A, Kumar M, Singh SK (2011) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Nepal—an overview. Water 3(1):1–20 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Water Science Springer Journals

Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

Applied Water Science , Volume 7 (5) – Feb 29, 2016

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/assessment-of-morphometric-characteristics-of-chakrar-watershed-in-H6fHfi9THO

References (79)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Hydrogeology; Water Industry/Water Technologies; Industrial and Production Engineering; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution; Nanotechnology; Private International Law, International & Foreign Law, Comparative Law
ISSN
2190-5487
eISSN
2190-5495
DOI
10.1007/s13201-016-0395-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 DOI 10.1007/s13201-016-0395-2 REVIEW ARTICLE Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique Sandeep Soni Received: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published online: 29 February 2016 The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The quantitative analysis of the watershed is selection of recharge structure in the area for future water important for the quantification of the channel network and management. to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have Keywords Chakrar watershed and sub-watersheds  GIS been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed Morphometry  River basin of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and struc- tural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Introduction Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of River basins (the land area between the source and the the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The mouth of a river including all of the lands that drain into Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km the river) influenced by catchment discharges are important with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is geographical units for water resource management. Rapid sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is and unsustainable development in the river basins has led designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order to the disruption of natural hydrological cycles. In many streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage den- cases this has resulted in greater frequency and severity of sity value of 2.46 km/km which exhibits gentle to steep flooding, drought and pollution. The degradation and loss slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable of biodiversity impose major economic and social losses with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of and costs to the human populations of these river basins. the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies Water demand for drinking and other purposes is increas- from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed ing day by day due to urbanization and population growth, on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic that has led to increasing water crisis affecting surface and structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, ground water (Thakur et al. 2011; Singh et al. 2011; circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated Diwakar and Thakur 2012). So, evaluation of water basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and resources is urgently required for livelihood sustainability sediment transport capacities. The results from the mor- and economy (Singh et al. 2013). Development and man- phometric assessment of the watershed are important in agement plans are also required for ecosystem to survive water resources evaluation and its management and for the and continue to provide essential goods and services for local communities. Optimum and sustainable utilization of fresh water resources is also needed in new approaches of water and basin management. & Sandeep Soni In watershed management plans, the knowledge of sandeepsoni80@gmail.com hydrological nature of the rocks within the watershed is necessary that can be obtained through quantitative mor- Remote Sensing and GIS Lab, MGCGV, Chitrakoot, Satna, phometric analysis of the watershed (Singh et al. 2014). In MP, India 123 2090 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 a watershed, basic unit is stream network which reveals information for better understanding (Vijith and Satheesh structural, geological and hydrological setup of the water- 2006). Main objective of the study is to elaborate mor- shed. The knowledge of topography, stream network and phometric characteristics of the Chakrar watershed and to its pattern, geological and geomorphological setup in the identify basin geometry. Morphometric analysis is exe- watershed is requisite for its management and implemen- cuted to understand the conservation measures and man- tation plan for conservation measures (Sreedevi et al. agement of water resources for sustainable livelihood 2013). Various hydrological problems of ungauged water- through Remote Sensing and GIS technique. shed are solved by different regional hydrological models The Chakrar watershed is a tributary of the Narmada which are developed using geomorphological characteris- River. It rises towards south at an altitude of 1020 m of tics of the watershed. According to Esper (2008), mor- Satpura hills of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh, India phometric characterization of a watershed is important to (Fig. 1) and flows to the north to meet the Narmada River. 0 00 0 00 evaluate hydrological setup coupled with geomorphology It is bounded by 2231 12.24 N–2252 44.93 N latitude 0 00 0 00 and geology. and 8114 41.23 E–8128 29.42 E longitude. Total Drainage basins, catchments and sub-catchments are the catchment area of the watershed is 415 km .It isan fundamental units for the management of land and water elongated river basin. The study region is characterized by resources (Moore et al. 1994). Morphometric analysis in a high level plateau and half part by middle level plateau. In drainage basin is important for hydrological investigation the study area, there is one common rock, i.e. basaltic lava and development and management of drainage basin flow of the Deccan Trap, made up principally of volcanic (Rekha et al. 2011). Morphometric parameters and climatic basic igneous rock. It is dark, hard and compact, fine grain, conditions are the key determinants of running water extrusive igneous rock, ejected as molten rock onto the ecosystems functioning at the basin scale (Lotspeich and Earth’s surface solidifying quickly in the open air. Climatic Platts 1982; Frissel et al. 1986). The quantitative analysis characteristics of the study area is long hot summers, of morphometric parameters is found to have immense medium high monsoon rains and pleasantly cool winters. utility in river basin evaluation, watershed prioritization for Such climate can be categorized under sub-continental type soil and water conservation and natural resource manage- of sub-tropical monsoon climate. Long hot summers, heat ment at watershed level (Malik et al. 2011). The morpho- respiting monsoon showers and cool winters provide a metric characteristics of the watershed control all surface typical seasonality to this climatic reason. Long hot and dry runoff, and due to this condition, the watershed is consid- summer season commences from March onwards, whence ered an ideal territorial unit (Lima et al. 2011). Evaluation temperature starts increasing sharply and high temperature of morphometric parameters could be calculated from the continues up to June. Average annual rainfall is analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of 1200–1300 mm. The area has rich plant biodiversity the various streams and basin area, perimeter and length of wherein Sal (Shorea reobusta) is dominant species with drainage channels, drainage density, stream frequency, associated species such as Buchanania lanzan, Bauhinia bifurcation ratio, texture ratio, basin relief, ruggedness spp., Mallotus philipensis, Ougeinia oojeinesis, Terminalia number, and time of concentration (Kumar et al. 2000; Nag chebula, Grewia spp., Gardenialatifolia, Anogeissus lati- and Chakraborthy 2003). folia. The region also has some extremely valuable The basin morphometric parameters of the various medicinal plants, which are now gravely endangered, like catchments have been studied by many scientists using brahmi, gulbakawali, safedmusli, kalimusli, tejraj, bhojraj, conventional (Horton 1945; Smith 1950; Strahler 1957) patalkumhna, kali haldi, devraj, jatashankari, ashva and remote sensing and GIS methods (Krishnamurthy and gandha. There are some plants which are source of econ- Srinivas 1995; Srivastava and Mitra 1995; Agarwal 1998; omy such as Tendu Patta, Mahlon patta, Harra-Bahera- Biswas et al. 1999; Narendra and Nageswara Rao 2006). Amla and Achar chironzi. There are two major soil groups The fast emerging Geospatial technology (GT) viz. remote in the study region that is ‘black cotton soil’ and ‘lateritic sensing, GIS, and GPS have been used as an effective tool soil’. The black cotton soil is resultant of the volcanic to overcome most of the problems of land and water eruption, mainly found in central alluvial plain and sloppy resources planning and management on the account of area while the lateritic soil is resultant of prolong erosion in usage of conventional methods of data process (Tripathi the Deccan Trap, found in the hilly area of the Maikal et al. 2013; Soni et al. 2013; Banerjee et al. 2015). Geo- range. In the ‘kharif’ season, Kodo-Kutki, Maize, Ramtil, graphical information system (GIS) technique is used for Soybean and Paddy are mainly grown whereas during the assessing various terrain and morphometric characteristics ‘rabi’ season Wheat, Lentil and Mustard, Linseed, Pea and of drainage basin, as they provide a powerful tool for Gram are commonly grown. Agriculture, forest products, manipulation and analysis of spatial information particu- medicinal plants and some basalt mines are common larly for the future identification and extraction of the source of income for the livelihood of local people. 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2091 Fig. 1 Location map of Chakrar watershed Agriculture depends on rainfall. Ground water condition SOI toposheets were scanned and added in ERDAS and recharging is not very good due to its geological Imagine 9.2 software for georeferencing and mosaic. condition. So this study is necessary for watershed man- Downloaded ASTER data and Landsat TM data was cor- agement and sustainability. related with georeferenced toposheets and projected into same coordinate system (UTM WGS 84 Zone 44). Catch- ment area was delineated using aoi (area of interest) tool Materials and methods and updated with ASTER and Landsat data. This aoi layer was used to subset toposheets and space born data and Quantitative analysis of drainage basin reveals hydrogeo- converted into shape file as vector layer to treat as water- logical behaviour of drainage basin and describes nature of shed boundary. Drainage network was digitized from rocks, geomorphology and structure. The morphometric toposheets and extracted from DEM using ArcGIS 9.3 analysis also provides basin geometry, permeability nature software inside watershed boundary. Digitized stream of the rocks and its storage capacity. Delineation of the network was updated with extracted stream network from drainage basin and catchment area is the first step of the DEM and with satellite data. These data were used to analysis. Survey of India (SOI) toposheet (scale 1:50,000) calculate linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect number 64F/2, 64F/5 and 64F/6 were processed for basin (Table 1) using ArcGIS 9.3 software. stream and boundary delineation. Satellite-borne ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection, 30 m resolution, March 2011, Sheet no. Results and discussion ASTGTM2_N22E081) DEM (digital elevation model) was downloaded from http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov and Land- In morphometric analysis, configuration of the earth’s sat TM satellite imagery (spatial resolution: 30 m, October surface and dimensions of the landforms is measured. This 2010, WRS-2, Path 143, Row 044) was downloaded from analysis is carried out for quantitative evaluation of drai- http://www.glovis.usgs.gov.in. Both the data was used to nage basin and for planning and management of water update basin streams and watershed boundary. resources. Three major aspects: Linear, Areal and Relief 123 2092 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 1 Methods for calculating morphometric parameters Morphometric parameters Methods References Linear aspects Stream order (Nu) Hierarchical ordering Strahler (1957) Stream length (Lu) Length of the stream Horton (1945) Mean stream length (Lm) Lm = Lu/Nu Horton (1945) Stream length ratio (Rl) Rl = Lu/L(u-1), where Lu is stream length order u and Horton (1945) L(u_1) is stream segment length of the next lower order Bifurcation ratio (Rb) Rb = Nu/N(u-1), where Nu is number of streams of any Horton (1945) given order and N(u-1) is number in the next higher order Rho coefficient (q) q = Rl/Rb Horton (1945) Areal aspects Drainage density (Dd) Dd = L/A, where L is total stream length, A is area of Horton (1945) watershed Stream frequency (Fs) Fs = N/A, where N is total number of streams and A is area Horton (1945) of watershed Drainage texture (Dt) T = Dd 9 Fs Smith (1950) Length of overland flow (Lg) Lg =  Dd Horton (1945) Constant of channel maintenance (C) C = 1/Dd Schumm (1956) Form factor (Ff) Ff = A/Lb Horton (1945) Circularity ratio (Rc) Rc = 4pA/P Miller (1953) Elongation ratio (Re) Re = 2H(A/p)/Lb, where A is area of watershed, p is 3.14 Schumm (1956) and Lb is basin length Shape index (Sw) Sw = 1/Ff Horton (1932) Relief aspects Basin relief (R) R = H - h, where H is maximum elevation and h is Schumm (1956) minimum elevation within the basin Relief ratio (Rr) Rr = R/Lb Schumm (1956) Ruggedness number (Rn) Rn = R 9 Dd Strahler (1958) Dissection index (Di) DI = R/Ra, where Ra is absolute relief Singh and Dubey (1994) Gradient ratio (Rg) Rg = Es - Em/Lb, where Es is the elevation at the source, Sreedevi et al. (2009) Em is the elevation at the mouth 0.5 Melton ruggedness number (MRn) MRn = H - h/A Melton (1965) have been described for analysis. Linear aspect in mor- of the underlying rocks. There are three types of drainage phometry is characterized by basin length, stream order, patterns are found i.e., dendritic, parallel and trellis (Fig. 2). stream number, stream length and bifurcation ratio. Areal Dendritic drainage pattern shows homogenous and uniform aspect represents the characteristics of catchment area and soil and rocks. Parallel drainage pattern indicates that the area describes how catchment area controls and regulates the has a gentle, uniform slope with less resistant bed rock. hydrological behaviour. Relief aspect defines terrain setup Whereas trellis type drainage pattern suggests down-turned of the catchment and terrain characteristics. folds called synclines form valleys. The morphometric parameters of the Chakrar watershed and its sub-watersheds have been examined and detailed in Linear aspects the following: Perimeter Drainage pattern Overall perimeter of Chakrar Watershed (CW) is 112.9 km Drainage pattern may be expressed as a plan of a river system while the data of 9 sub-watersheds (SW) is expressed in that reflects different types of information about geology and Table 2. Among the sub-watersheds SW 3 has the largest predominant slope of the drainage basin. The arrangement of value i.e. 46.39 km covering larger basin area of 65 km streams in a drainage system constitutes the drainage pattern, while SW1 covering smallest perimeter of 11.95 km and which in turn reflects mainly structural or lithological controls attain an area of 7.79 km of all. Sub-watersheds are 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2093 Fig. 2 Drainage pattern of Chakrar watershed. a Dendritic type, b parallel type, c trellis type elongated to semi-circular because perimeter is increasing against stream order shows a straight line with a deviation as area increasing (r = 0.99) but reverse in SW1. which indicates that the number of streams decreases as stream order increases and describes homogeneous sub- Basin length (Lb) surface material subjected to weathering and latter basin is characterized by lithologic and topographic variation (Nag The basin length of CW is 56.33 km and rest of 9 SW is and Lahiri 2011). The graph (Fig. 4) validates the Horton’s discussed in Table 3. All the sub-watersheds are longer law of stream number as the coefficient of correlation is ones except SW1 (5.84 km). It shows positive correlation -0.77. (r = 0.98) with basin area tends to head-ward erosion. Basin length is defined as straight line distance from a Stream length (Lt) basin mouth to the outlet point (Horton 1932). The mean and total stream length of each order is measured Stream order (Nu) using GIS technique and tabulated in Table 2. It shows development of the stream segments and surface runoff Stream ordering is an important aspect for drainage basin characteristics. Streams having relatively smaller lengths analysis. It is defined as a measure of the position of a indicate that the area is with high slopes. Longer stream stream in the hierarchy of streams (Horton 1945; Strahler lengths are indicative of flatter gradient. According to 1957; Leopold et al. 1964). Strahler (1964) proposed a Strahler (1964), mean stream length describes the charac- method of ranking of streams. The smallest fingertip teristic size of components of stream network. The mean tributaries are designated as order 1. Where the two first- stream length of a given order is less than the next higher order channels join, a channel segment of 2nd order is order while total stream length is maximum in first order formed and so forth. The highest order stream carries dis- and decreases as the stream order increases. But in the case charge and sediment loads. It reveals about size of stream, of mean stream length anomaly is found in SW3, SW4, runoff, drainage area and its extent is directly proportional SW7 and SW9 and in case of total stream length anomaly to the size of watershed. Ordering of 9 SW is tabulated in is found in SW1, SW7 and SW9. This type of variation Table 2. It has been found that the study area is a 6th order may occur due to stream flow, rock types, slope and drainage basin having 1314 total streams, sprawl over topography (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. 2004; 415 km (Fig. 3). Thomas et al. 2010). The regression line plotted on semi log graph (Fig. 5) which validates Horton’s Law of stream Stream number (Nt) length as the coefficient of correlation is 0.78. The number of streams of each order in a given watershed Bifurcation ratio (Rb) is known as stream number. Law of stream order (Horton 1945) describes that the number of streams of each order Bifurcation ratio is the ratio of the number of streams of forms an inverse geometric sequence against stream order. any given order to the number of streams in the next higher Relationship between logarithm of number of streams order (Schumm 1956). It is a measure of degree of 123 2094 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 2 Linear aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Perimeter (km) 11.95 34.52 46.39 26.05 21.12 21.04 22.95 20 32.98 112.9 Basin Length 5.84 16.25 19.67 11.08 8.95 9.87 11.85 9.24 15.36 56.33 Number of streams N1 18 125 197 85 75 71 61 48 102 1016 N2 4 27 30 181918 161022 221 N3 29 7 545 334 55 N4 13 2 111 112 15 N5 1 1 1 6 N6 1 NT 25 165 237 109 99 95 81 62 131 1314 Total stream length LT1 11.89 68.38 94.33 41.56 36.78 38.66 35.2 26.44 52.66 567.05 LT2 8.07 26.61 31.31 14.27 13.5 14.19 17.63 11.37 19.08 242.44 LT3 1.61 18.35 14.67 7.01 8.65 4.22 2.77 6.04 9.97 100.02 LT4 1.1 8.91 6.49 8.43 3.79 7.46 7.63 3.77 4.06 52.35 LT5 3.28 10.32 7.67 32.16 LT6 25.77 Total 22.67 125.53 157.12 71.27 62.72 64.53 63.23 47.62 93.44 1019.79 Mean steam length Lm1 0.66 0.55 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.54 0.58 0.55 0.52 0.56 Lm2 2.02 0.99 1.04 0.79 0.71 0.79 1.10 1.14 0.87 1.10 Lm3 0.81 2.04 2.10 1.40 2.16 0.84 0.92 2.01 2.49 1.82 Lm4 1.10 2.97 3.25 8.43 3.79 7.46 7.63 3.77 2.03 3.49 Lm5 3.28 10.32 7.67 5.36 Lm6 25.77 Bifurcation ratio Rb 1–2 4.50 4.63 6.57 4.72 3.95 3.94 3.81 4.80 4.64 4.60 Rb 2–3 2 3 4.29 3.60 4.75 3.60 5.33 3.33 5.50 4.02 Rb 3–4 2 3 3.50 5 4 5 3 3 2 3.67 Rb 4–5 3 2 2 2.50 Rb 5–6 6 Mean Rb 2.83 3.41 4.09 4.44 4.23 4.18 4.05 3.71 3.53 4.16 Stream length ratio Rl 2–1 3.05 1.80 2.18 1.62 1.45 1.45 1.91 2.06 1.68 1.97 Rl 3–2 0.40 2.07 2.01 1.77 3.04 1.07 0.84 1.77 2.87 1.66 Rl 4–3 1.37 1.46 1.55 6.01 1.75 8.84 8.26 1.87 0.81 1.92 Rl 5–4 1.10 3.18 3.78 1.54 Rl 6–5 4.81 Mean 1.61 1.61 2.23 3.13 2.08 3.79 3.67 1.90 2.29 2.38 Rho coefficient Rho 0.57 0.47 0.55 0.71 0.49 0.91 0.91 0.51 0.65 0.57 distribution of stream network (Mesa 2006) and influences the stream network is negligible (Strahler 1964; Verstap- the landscape morphometry and control over the pen 1995; Nag 1998; Vittala et al. 2004) and values higher ‘‘peakedness’’ of the runoff (Chorley 1969). The Rb value than 10 where structural controls play dominant role with ranges from 3.0 to 5.0 for networks formed on homoge- elongate basins (Mekel 1970; Chow et al. 1988). The Rb neous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on values reflect shape of basin (Verstappen 1983; Ghosh and 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2095 Table 3 Areal aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Area (km ) 7.79 49.91 65 29.78 24.29 23.2 24.38 19.06 39.48 415 Drainage density (Dd) 2.91 2.52 2.42 2.39 2.58 2.78 2.59 2.50 2.37 2.46 Stream frequency (Sf) 3.21 3.31 3.65 3.66 4.08 4.09 3.32 3.25 3.32 3.17 Drainage texture (Dt) 9.34 8.31 8.81 8.76 10.52 11.39 8.62 8.13 7.85 7.78 L of OL flow (Lg) 0.17 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.20 C of channel M (C) 0.34 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.41 Form factor (Ff) 0.23 0.19 0.17 0.24 0.30 0.24 0.17 0.22 0.17 0.13 Circularity ratio (Rc) 0.69 0.53 0.38 0.55 0.68 0.66 0.58 0.60 0.46 0.41 Elongation ratio (Re) 0.54 0.49 0.46 0.56 0.62 0.55 0.47 0.53 0.46 0.41 Shape index (Sw) 4.38 5.29 5.95 4.12 3.30 4.20 5.76 4.48 5.98 7.65 Chhibber 1984). Elongated basins have low Rb values Areal aspects while circular basins have high Rb values (Morisawa 1985). The mean Rb value of CW is 4.16 and value of 9 Area sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44. SW1 has lowest mean Rb value which shows high infiltration rate and rest The CW has a catchment area of 415 km . SW1 is the smallest of all (7.79 km ) whereas SW3 is the largest one of sub-watershed has higher Rb value ranges from 3.41 to 4.44 (Table 2) which shows high overland flow and dis- among the 9 sub-watersheds. charge due to hilly nature of terrain. Drainage density (Dd) Stream length ratio (Rl) Drainage density is the ratio of total stream length of all the Stream length ratio is the ratio of the mean length of the orders per unit basin area (Horton 1945). Dd is a numerical one order to the next lower order of the stream networks. measure of landscape dissection and runoff potential The stream length ratio gives an idea about the relative (Chorley 1969). It shows infiltration capacity of the land permeability of the rock formation. Horton’s law (1945)of and vegetation cover of the catchment (Macka 2001). Dd stream length states that mean stream length segments of influences the output of water and sediment from the catchment area (Ozdemir and Bird 2009) and erosion each of the successive orders of a basin tends to approxi- mate a direct geomorphic series with stream length towards susceptibility (Anon 1988; Gregory and Walling 1973; Bates 1981). Dd of the drainage basin depends on climatic higher order of streams. The mean Rl of CW is 2.38 and varies for 9 SW from 1.61 to 3.79 (Table 2). There is a condition and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), landscape properties like soil and rock (Kelson and Wells 1989) and variation in stream length ratio between streams of differ- ent order due to differences between slope and topography relief (Oguchi 1997). The drainage density indicates the indicating the late youth stage of geomorphic development groundwater potential of an area, due to its relation with in the streams of the study area (Singh and Singh 1997; surface runoff and permeability. Low drainage density Vittala et al. 2004). generally results in the areas of permeable subsoil material, dense vegetation and low relief (Nag 1998). While high Rho coefficient (Rho) drainage density is the resultant of impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation and mountainous relief. Low Rho coefficient is defined as ratio of stream length ratio and drainage density leads to coarse drainage texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage texture. The bifurcation ratio (Horton 1945). Rho coefficient indicates storage capacity of drainage network. Rho value of CW is CW had a Dd value 2.46 km/km , fells in its medium 0.57 and rest of 9 SW is ranges from 0.47 to 0.91. SW2 and category which indicates gentle to steep slope terrain, SW5 have value of 0.47 and 0.49 while other SW has a medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium value more than 0.50 indicating higher hydrologic storage precipitation. Value for 9 sub-watersheds is listed in during floods. Table 3. 123 2096 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Fig. 3 Stream order in Chakrar watershed Stream frequency (Sf) poor runoff. Sf values of all the sub-watersheds have close correlation with Dd indicating the increase in stream popu- Stream frequency of a basin is defined as the number of lation with respect to increase in drainage density. streams per unit area (Horton 1945). A higher stream fre- quency points to a larger surface runoff, steeper ground sur- Drainage texture (Dt) face, impermeable subsurface sparse vegetation and high relief conditions. Low stream frequency indicates high per- Drainage texture is the product of Dd and Sf and is a meable geology and low relief. The Sf of CW is 3.17 numbers measure of relative channel spacing in a fluvial-dissected per km while Fs of 9SWvaryfrom3.21to4.09indicating terrain, which is influenced by climate, rainfall, vegetation, 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2097 Fig. 4 Relation between stream order and stream number lithology, soil type, infiltration capacity and stage of Fig. 5 Relation between stream order and mean stream length development (Smith 1950). Vegetation cover, its density and types also plays an important role in determining the drainage texture (Kale and Gupta 2001). The soft or weak ground before it gets concentrated into main stream which rocks unprotected by vegetation produce a fine texture, effect hydrologic and physiographic development of drai- whereas massive and resistant rocks cause coarse texture. nage basin (Horton 1945). According to Suresh (2000), Sparse vegetation of arid climate causes finer textures than when rainfall intensity exceeds soil infiltration capacity, those developed on similar rocks in a humid climate. The the excess water flows over the land surface as overland texture of a rock is commonly dependent upon vegetation flow. This factor depends on the rock type, permeability, type and climate (Dornkamp and King 1971). Drainage climatic regime, vegetation cover and relief as well as lines are numerous over impermeable areas than permeable duration of erosion (Schumm 1956). The CW has Lg value areas. Horton (1945) recognized infiltration capacity as the of 0.20 while all the sub-watersheds value range 0.17 to single important factor which influences drainage texture 0.21, as shown in Table 3, indicates the influence of high and considered drainage texture which includes drainage structural disturbance, low permeability, steep to very steep density and stream frequency. Dt is categorized into five slopes and high surface runoff. The CW and sub-water- different classes based on Dd values viz; very course (\2), sheds show a well-developed stream network and mature course (2–4), moderate (4–6), fine (6–8) and very fine ([8). geomorphic stage. The CW shows very fine texture, SW1, 8 and 9 shows course texture while rest of the SW show moderate texture. Constant of channel maintenance (Cc) Length of overland flow (Lg) This parameter indicates the requirement of units of watershed surface to bear one unit of channel length. Length of overland flow is described as half of reciprocal Schumm (1956) has used the inverse of the drainage den- of drainage density. It is the length of water over the sity having the dimension of length as a property termed 123 2098 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 constant of channel maintenance. The drainage basins Low Rc value implies elongated basin shape while high Rc having higher values of this parameter, there will be lower value indicates near circular. Rc value has a positive corre- value of drainage density. The computed value is given in lation (r = 0.76) between form factor. Table 3. The value reports a Cc value of CW is 0.41 and the Cc value of 9 sub-watersheds varies from 0.34 to 0.42. Elongation ratio (Re) Higher value of Cc reveals strong control of lithology with a surface of high permeability and indicates relatively Elongation ratio is defined as the ratio of diameter of a higher infiltration rates, moderate surface runoff, less dis- circle of the same area as the basin to the maximum basin section and watershed is not influenced by structural length (Schumm 1956). It is an important index for the parameters. analysis of basin shape. Analysis of elongation ratio indi- cates that the areas with higher elongation ratio values have Basin configuration high infiltration capacity and low runoff. A circular basin is more efficient in the discharge of runoff than an elongated Floods are formed and move depends on basin shape. It is basin (Singh and Singh, 1997). Strahler (1964) classified known that floods are formed and travel more rapidly in a elongation ratio as follows: circular (0.9–1.0), oval round basin than in an elongated one and moreover that (0.8–0.9), less elongated (0.7–0.8), elongated (0.5–0.7) and floods in basins of the former type are stronger and have a more elongated (\0.5). The Re of CW is 0.41 and values of higher velocity and thus greater erosion and transport 9 sub-watershed is varies from 0.46 to 0.62. The Re values capacities. As elongated shape favor a diminution of floods indicate elongated basin shape with high relief and gentle because tributaries flow into the main stream at greater to steep slope. intervals of time and space. Shape index (Sw) Form factor (Ff) Shape index is a dimensionless entity and is a reciprocal of Form factor is a dimensionless ratio of the area (A)ofa form factor. The CW has a value of 7.65 and rest of 9 sub- drainage basin to the square of its maximum length (Lb) watersheds range 3.30–5.98. Higher the shape index shows (Horton 1932). Basin shape may be indexed by simple basin elongation and weak flood discharge period. dimensionless ratios of the basic measurements area, perimeter and length (Singh 1998). Form factor is an Relief aspects indicator for flood formation and move, degree of erosion Basin relief (R) and transport capacities of sediment load in a watershed. The Ff of CW is 0.13 and that of 9 sub-watersheds (Table 3) varies from 0.17 to 0.24. The value of Ff varies According to Rao et al. (2011), calculation of basin relief to from 0 (highly elongated shape) to unity i.e.; 1 (perfect show spatial variation is predominant. Basin relief is the circular shape). Main watershed and sub-watersheds shows maximum vertical distance between the lowest and the a lower value of Ff which implies more elongated basin highest point of a basin. Basin relief is responsible for the with flatter peak of low flow for longer duration, lower stream gradient and influences flood pattern and sediment erosion and sediment transport capacities and favors a volume that can be transported (Hadley and Schumm 1961). diminution of floods because streams flow into the main It is an important factor in understanding denudation char- stream at greater time intervals and space which leads to acteristics of the basin (Sreedevi et al. 2009). To define relief ground water percolation. DEM is shown in Fig. 6.The R value of CW is 0.32 km while rest of 9 sub-watersheds is described in Table 4. Circularity ratio (Rc) Relief ratio (Rr) According to Miller (1953), circularity ratio is the ratio of the basin area (A) and the area of a circle with the same perimeter Relief ratio is a dimensionless ratio of basin relief and as that of the basin. The value of ratio is equal to unity when basin length and effective measure of gradient aspects of the basin shape is a perfect circle and is range 0.4–0.5 when the watershed (Schumm 1956). It shows overall steepness the basin shape is strongly elongated and highly permeable of a drainage basin and is an indicator of the intensity of homogeneous geologic materials. The circularity ratio is erosion processes operating on slopes of the basin (Javed influenced by the slope, relief geologic structure of the basin et al. 2009). The Rr value of CW is 0.01 while values of 9 and landuse/landcover. The CW has a Rc value 0.41, whereas SW are given in Table 4. Values are relatively low (\0.1) in 9 sub-watershed, the value range between 0.38 and 0.69. suggesting gentle slope. 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2099 Ruggedness number (Rn) structural complexity in association with relief and drai- nage density (Paretha and Paretha 2011). To combine the qualities of slope steepness and length, a dimensionless ruggedness number is defined as the product Dissection index (Di) of basin relief and drainage density (Strahler 1958). It is a measure of surface unevenness (Selvan et al. 2011). The Dissection index is determined for understanding mor- Rn value of CW is 0.79 and rest of 9 sub-watersheds is phometry, physiographic attribute and magnitude of dis- provided in Table 4. The Rn value is relatively low which section of terrain (Schumm 1956; Singh 2000; Singh and suggests less prone to soil erosion and have intrinsic Dubey 1994). Dissection index is the ratio between actual Fig. 6 Digital elevation model 123 2100 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Table 4 Relief aspects of the CW and sub-watersheds Parameters SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8 SW9 CW Basin relief (R in m) 260 240 180 180 180 220 230 260 260 320 Relief ratio (Rr) 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 Ruggedness No. (Rn) 0.76 0.60 0.44 0.43 0.46 0.61 0.60 0.65 0.62 0.79 Dissection index (Di) 0.26 0.24 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.27 0.33 Elevation at source (Es) 1014 981 978 953 960 960 977 980 961 957 Elevation at mouth (Em) 760 762 805 805 799 780 746 745 740 680 Gradient ratio (Rg) 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.005 Melton Rn 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.02 dissection made by the rivers and potential up to base capacities. Thus, morphometric parameters provide rele- levels (Pal et al. 2012). Di value of CW is 0.33 while 9 sub- vant information about terrain characteristics and hydro- watersheds show values 0.18–0.27. Lower value of Di logical behavior of the watershed. It is concluded that the implies old stage (Deen 1982) of basin and less degree of integration of morphometric analysis with watershed dissection. assessment methods would be beneficial in watershed management plan. Gradient ratio (Rg) Acknowledgments Author is thankful to Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, MGCGV Chitrakoot for providing the lab facility Gradient ratio suggests channel slope from which runoff for the present study. volume could be evaluated (Sreedevi et al. 2009). Rg values are tabulated in Table 4. Low Rg values show Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// moderate relief terrain and main stream flow through creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted plateau. use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a Melton ruggedness number (MRn) link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. According to Melton (1965), Melton Ruggedness number is a slope index that provides specialized representation of References relief ruggedness within the watershed. The CW has MRn value 0.02 and 9 sub-watersheds range 0.02–0.09 which is Agarwal CS (1998) Study of drainage pattern through aerial data in a low value indicating a normal flow in main stream Naugarh area of Varanasi district, UP. J Indian Soc Remote Sens without more debris flow. 26:169–175 Anon (1988) Watershed Atlas of India. All India Soil and Landuse Survey. Govt. of India, New Delhi, p 56 Banerjee A, Singh P, Pratap K (2015) Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated Conclusion GIS-based approach. Appl Water Sci. doi:10.1007/s13201-015- 0354-3 River basin is an important geomorphological unit which Bates N (1981) Valley shapes. In: Knap B (ed) Practical foundations of physical geography. George Allen & Unwin, London, reflects topographic and hydrological unity. River basin pp 25–29 characterization of Chakrar watershed and its sub-water- Biswas S, Sudhakar S, Desai VR (1999) Prioritisation of subwater- shed revealed the importance of morphometric analysis in sheds based on morphometric analysis of drainage basin a terrain depiction and basin evolution. GIS technique pro- remote sensing and GIS approach. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 27:155–166 vided high accuracy in mapping and measurement of Chorley RJ (1969) Introduction to physical hydrology. Methuen and morphometric analysis. The analysis presents well devel- Co., Ltd., Suffolk 211 oped drainage network and mature geomorphic stage in the Chow VT, Maidment D, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. watershed. The Dd value indicates moderate slope terrain McGraw Hill, New York Deen M (1982) Geomorphology and Land use: a Case Study of with sparse to dense vegetation, higher infiltration rate, Mewat. Thesis (PhD). JNU, New Delhi moderate surface runoff and less dissection. The watershed Diwakar J, Thakur JK (2012) Environmental system analysis for river and its sub-watersheds are elongated in shape having less pollution control. Water Air Soil Pollut. doi:10.1007/s11270- prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport 012-1102-z 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 2101 Dornkamp JC, King CAM (1971) Numerical analyses in geomor- geomorphological and biologial application. Wiley, Chichester, phology, an introduction. St. Martins Press, New York 72 p 249 Esper AMY (2008) Morphometric analysis of Colanguil river basin Morisawa M (1985) Geomorphology texts books: rivers, forms and and flash flood hazard, San Juan, Argentina. Environ Geol process. Chapter 5, Structural and lithological control 55:107–111 Nag SK (1998) Morphometric analysis using remote sensing Frissel CA et al (1986) A hierarchical framework for stream habitat techniques in the Chaka subwatershed, Purulia district, West classification-viewing streams in a watershed context. Environ Bengal. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 26(1&2):69–76 Manage 10:199–214 Nag SK, Chakraborthy S (2003) Influence of rock types and structures Ghosh DK, Chhibber IB (1984) Aid of photo interpretation in the in the development of drainage network in hard rock area. identification of geomorphic and geologic features around J Indian Soc Remote Sens 31(1):2535 Chamba-Dharmasala area, Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Soc Nag SK, Lahiri A (2011) Morphometric analysis of Dwarakeswar Photo Interpret Remote Sens 12(1):55–64 watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, using spatial Gregory KJ, Walling DE (1973) Drainage basin form and process—a information technology. Int J Water Resour Environ Eng geomorphological approach. Edward Arnold, London 3(10):212–219 Hadley RF, Schumm SA (1961) Sediment sources and drainage basin Narendra K, Nageswara Rao K (2006) Morphometry of the characteristics in upper Cheyenne River basin. US Geological Mehadrigedda watershed, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pra- Survey, USGS water supply paper, 1531-B desh using GIS and resourcesat data. J Indian Soc Remote Sens Horton RE (1932) Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys 34:101–110 Union 13:350–361 Oguchi T (1997) Drainage density and relative relief in humid steep Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams and their mountains with frequent slope failure. Earth Surf Process Landf drainage basins—hydrophysical approach to quantitative mor- 22:107–120 phology. Geol Soc Am Bull 56(3):275–370 Ozdemir H, Bird D (2009) Evaluation of morphometric parameters of Javed A, Khanday MY, Ahmaed R (2009) Prioritization of Sub- drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in watersheds based on morphomeric and land-use analysis using point of floods. Environ Geol 56:1405–1415 remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote Sens Pal B, Samanta S, Pal DK (2012) Morphometric and hydrological 37:261–274 analysis and mapping for Watut watershed using remote sensing Kale VS, Gupta A (2001) Introduction to geomorphology. Academic and GIS techniques. Int J Adv Eng Technol 2(1):357–368 (India) Publishers, New Delhi Paretha K, Paretha U (2011) Quantitative morphometric analysis of a Kelson KI, Wells SG (1989) Geologic influences on fluvial hydrology watershed of Yamuna Basin, India using ASTER (DEM) data and bed load transport in small mountainous watersheds, northern and GIS. Int J Geomat Geosci 2(1):248–269 New Mexico, USA. Earth Surf Process Landf 14:671–690 Rao LAK, Ansari ZR, Yusuf A (2011) Morphometric analysis of Krishnamurthy J, Srinivas G (1995) Role of geological and geomor- drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case phological factors in groundwater exploration: a study using IRS study of Etmadpur Tehsil, Agra District UP. Int J Res Chem LISS data. Int J Remote Sens 16:2595–2618 Environ 1(2):36–45 Kumar R, Kumar S, Lohani AK, Nema RK, Singh RD (2000) Rekha VB, George AV, Rita M (2011) Morphometric analysis and Evaluation of geomorphological characteristics of a catchment micro-watershed prioritization of Peruvanthanam sub-watershed, using GIS. GIS India 9(3):13–17 the Manimala River Basin, Kerala, South India. Environ Res Eng Leopold LB, Wolman MG, Miller JP (1964) Fluvial processes in Manage 3(57):6–14 geomorphology. San Francisco and London, WH Freeman and Schumm SA (1956) Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in Company badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull Lima CDS, Correa ACDB, Nascimento NRD (2011) Analysis of the 67:597–646 morphometric parameters of the Rio Preto Basin, Serra Do Selvan MT, Ahmad S, Rashid SM (2011) Analysis of the Geomor- Espinhaco (Minas Gerais, Brazil, Sa˜o Paulo, UNESP). Geocieˆn- phometric parameters in high altitude Glacierised terrain using cias 30(1):105–112 SRTM DEM data in Central Himalaya, India. ARPN J Sci Lotspeich FB, Platts WS (1982) An integrated land-aquatic classifi- Technol 1(1):22–27 cation system. North Am J Fish Manag 2:138–149 Singh S (1998) Geomorphology. Prayag pustak bhawan, Allahabad Macka Z (2001) Determination of texture of topography from large Singh S (2000) Geomorphology. Ed. Allahabad: Prayag Pustak scale contour maps. Geografski Vestnik 73(2):53–62 Bhawan, pp 642 Malik MI, Bhat MS, Kuchay NA (2011) Watershed based drainage Singh P, Thakur JK et al (2011) Assessment of land use/land cover morphometric analysis of Lidder catchment in Kashmir valley using Geospatial Techniques in a semi arid region of Madhya using geographical information system. Recent Res Sci Technol Pradesh, India. Geospatial Techniques for Managing Environ- 3(4):118–126 mental Resources. Thakur, Singh, Prasad, Gossel, Heidelberg, Mekel JFM (1970) The use of aerial photographs in geological Germany, Springer and Capital publication, pp 152–163 mapping. ITC Text Book Photo Interpret 8:1–169 Singh S, Dubey A (1994) Geo environmental planning of watersheds Melton MA (1965) The geomorphic and paleoclimatic significance of in India. Chugh Publications, Allahabad, pp 28–69 alluvial deposits in Southern Arizona. J Geol 73:1–38 Singh S, Singh MC (1997) Morphometric analysis of Kanhar river Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin. National Geographical J. of lndia, (43), 1:31-43 Singh P, Thakur JK, Singh UC (2013) Morphometric analysis of basin (Tucuman, Argentina). Environ Geol 50:1235–1242 Miller VC (1953) A quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin Morar River Basin, Madhya Pradesh, India, using remote sensing characteristics in the Clinch mountain area, Virginia and and GIS techniques. Environ Earth Sci 68:1967–1977 Tennessee. Columbia University, New York (3) Singh P, Gupta A, Singh M (2014) Hydrological Inferences from Moglen GE, Eltahir EA, Bras RL (1998) On the sensitivity of Watershed analysis for water resource management using remote drainage density to climate change. Water Resour Res sensing and GIS techniques. Egypt J Remote Sens Space Sci 34:855–862 17:111–121 Moore ID, Grayson RB, Ladson AR (1994) Digital terrain modelling. Smith KG (1950) Standards for grading texture of erosional In: Beven KJ, Moore ID (eds) A review of hydrological, topography. Am J Sci 248:655–668 123 2102 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:2089–2102 Soni SK, Tripathi S, Maurya AK (2013) GIS based morphometric Thomas J, Joseph S, Thrivikramaji KP (2010) Morphometric aspects characterization of mini-watershed—Rachhar Nala of Anuppur of a small tropical mountain river system, the southern Western District Madhya Pradesh. Int J Adv Technol Eng Res 3(3):32–38 Ghats, India. Int J Digital Earth 3(2):135–156 Sreedevi PD, Owais S, Khan HH, Ahmed S (2009) Morphometric Tripathi S, Soni SK, Maurya AK (2013) Morphometric characteri- analysis of a watershed of South India using SRTM data and zation and prioritization of sub-watershed of Seoni River in GIS. J Geol Soc India 73(4):543–552 Madhya Pradesh through remote sensing and GIS technique. Int Sreedevi PD, Sreekanth PD, Khan HH, Ahmed S (2013) Drainage J Remote Sens Geosci 2(3):46–54 morphometry and its influence on hydrology in an semi arid Verstappen HT (1983) Applied geomorphology-geomorphological region: using SRTM data and GIS. Environ Earth Sci surveys for environmental development. Elsevier, New York, 70(2):839–848 pp 57–83 Srivastava VK, Mitra D (1995) Study of drainage pattern of Raniganj Verstappen HT (1995) Aerospace technology and natural disaster Coalfield (Burdwan District) as observed on Landsat TM/IRS reduction. In: Singh RP, Furrer R (eds) Natural hazards: LISS II imagery. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 23:225–235 monitoring and assessment using remote sensing technique. Strahler AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphol- Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 3–15 ogy. Trans Am Geophy Union 38:913–920 Vijith H, Satheesh R (2006) GIS based morphometric analysis of two Strahler AN (1958) Dimensional analysis applied to fluvially eroded major upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river in Kerala. landforms. Geol Soc Am Bull 69:279–300 J Indian Soc Remote Sens 34(2):181–185 Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basin Vittala S, Govindaiah S, Honne GH (2004) Morphometric analysis of and channel networks. In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook of applied sub-watersheds in the Pavagada area of Tumkur district, South hydrology. McGraw Hill Book, New York, pp 4–76 India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Suresh R (2000) Soil and water conservation engineering, 3rd edn. 24. Remote Sens 32(4):351–362 Watershed-concept and management, pp 785–813 Thakur JK, Thakur RK, Ramanathan A, Kumar M, Singh SK (2011) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Nepal—an overview. Water 3(1):1–20

Journal

Applied Water ScienceSpringer Journals

Published: Feb 29, 2016

There are no references for this article.