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Biology and Treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia

Biology and Treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia Opinion statementDespite its rarity, hairy cell leukemia (HCL) remains a fascinating disease and the physiopathology is becoming more and more understood. The accurate diagnosis of HCL relies on the recognition of hairy cells by morphology and flow cytometry (FCM) in the blood and/or bone marrow (BM). The BRAF V600E mutation, an HCL-defining mutation, represents a novel diagnostic parameter and a potential therapeutic target. The precise cellular origin of HCL is a late-activated postgerminal center memory B cell. BRAF mutations were detected in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of patients with HCL, suggesting that this is an early HCL-defining event. Watch-and-wait strategy is necessary in approximately 10% of asymptomatic HCL patients, sometimes for several years. Purine analogs (PNAs) are the established first-line options for symptomatic HCL patients. In second-line treatment, chemoimmunotherapy combining PNA plus rituximab should be considered in high-risk HCL patients. The three options for relapsed/refractory HCL patients include recombinant immunoconjugates targeting CD22, BRAF inhibitors, and BCR inhibitors. The clinical interest to investigate blood minimal residual disease (MRD) was recently demonstrated, with a high risk of relapse in patients with positive testing for MRD and a low risk in patients with negative testing. However, efforts must be made to standardize MRD analyses in the near future. Patients with HCL are at risk of second malignancies. The increased risk could be related to the disease and/or the treatment, and the respective role of PNAs in the development of secondary malignancies remains a topic of debate. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Treatment Options in Oncology Springer Journals

Biology and Treatment of Hairy Cell Leukemia

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References (77)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020
ISSN
1527-2729
eISSN
1534-6277
DOI
10.1007/s11864-020-00732-0
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Opinion statementDespite its rarity, hairy cell leukemia (HCL) remains a fascinating disease and the physiopathology is becoming more and more understood. The accurate diagnosis of HCL relies on the recognition of hairy cells by morphology and flow cytometry (FCM) in the blood and/or bone marrow (BM). The BRAF V600E mutation, an HCL-defining mutation, represents a novel diagnostic parameter and a potential therapeutic target. The precise cellular origin of HCL is a late-activated postgerminal center memory B cell. BRAF mutations were detected in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of patients with HCL, suggesting that this is an early HCL-defining event. Watch-and-wait strategy is necessary in approximately 10% of asymptomatic HCL patients, sometimes for several years. Purine analogs (PNAs) are the established first-line options for symptomatic HCL patients. In second-line treatment, chemoimmunotherapy combining PNA plus rituximab should be considered in high-risk HCL patients. The three options for relapsed/refractory HCL patients include recombinant immunoconjugates targeting CD22, BRAF inhibitors, and BCR inhibitors. The clinical interest to investigate blood minimal residual disease (MRD) was recently demonstrated, with a high risk of relapse in patients with positive testing for MRD and a low risk in patients with negative testing. However, efforts must be made to standardize MRD analyses in the near future. Patients with HCL are at risk of second malignancies. The increased risk could be related to the disease and/or the treatment, and the respective role of PNAs in the development of secondary malignancies remains a topic of debate.

Journal

Current Treatment Options in OncologySpringer Journals

Published: Apr 30, 2020

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