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Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2020, 14(5): 79 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-020-1254-9 REVIEW ARTICLE Ceramic water ﬁlter for point-of-use water treatment in developing countries: Principles, challenges and opportunities 1,2 3 4 5 Haiyan Yang , Shangping Xu , Derek E. Chitwood , Yin Wang (✉) 1 SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China 2 School of Environment, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China 3 Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA 4 Department of Engineering, Dordt University, Sioux Center, IA 51250, USA 5 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA HIGH LIGHTS GRAPHIC A BSTRA C T � CWF is a sustainable POU water treatment method for developing areas. � CWF manufacturing process is critical for its ﬁltration performance. � Simultaneous increase of ﬂow rate and pathogen removal is a challenge. � Control of pore size distribution holds promises to improve CWF efﬁciency. � Novel coatings of CWFs are a promising method to improve contaminant removal. ABSTRA CT AR TICL E I N F O Drinking water source contamination poses a great threat to human health in developing countries. Article history: Point-of-use (POU) water treatment techniques, which improve drinking water quality at the household level, offer an affordable and convenient way to obtain safe drinking water and thus can Received 14 January 2020 reduce the outbreaks of waterborne diseases. Ceramic water ﬁlters (CWFs), fabricated from locally Revised 18 March 2020 sourced materials and manufactured by local labor, are one of the most socially acceptable POU water Accepted 21 March 2020 treatment technologies because of their effectiveness, low-cost and ease of use. This review concisely summarizes the critical factors that inﬂuence the performance of CWFs, including (1) CWF Available online 16 May 2020 manufacturing process (raw material selection, ﬁring process, silver impregnation), and (2) source water quality. Then, an in-depth discussion is presented with emphasis on key research efforts to Keywords: address two major challenges of conventional CWFs, including (1) simultaneous increase of ﬁlter ﬂow rate and bacterial removal efﬁciency, and (2) removal of various concerning pollutants, such as viruses Point-of-use water treatment and metal(loid)s. To promote the application of CWFs, future research directions can focus on: (1) Ceramic water ﬁlter investigation of pore size distribution and pore structure to achieve higher ﬂow rates and effective Bacterial removal pathogen removal by elucidating pathogen transport in porous ceramic and adjusting manufacture Surface modiﬁcation parameters; and (2) exploration of new surface modiﬁcation approaches with enhanced interaction Water quality between a variety of contaminants and ceramic surfaces. © The Author(s) 2020. This article is published with open access at link.springer.com and journal.hep. com.cn 2020 1 Introduction ✉ Corresponding author E-mail: email@example.com World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 71% of Special Issue—Accounts of Aquatic Chemistry and Technology the world’s population used improved drinking water Research (Responsible Editors: Jinyong Liu, Haoran Wei & Yin Wang) 2 Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2020, 14(5): 79 sources that were free from microbiological and priority 2008; Clasen et al., 2015). CWFs, produced from a mixture chemical contamination in 2017 (World Health Organiza- of clay and sieved combustible material, can effectively tion, 2017,2019a). However, there are vast inequalities remove microorganisms and reduce turbidity from water among different countries and areas. For example, by gravity ﬁltration through porous ceramic media. CWFs although 85% of world urban population could access can be fabricated into different shapes, such as disk, tube, quality drinking water that is free from contamination, the candle and pot (Fig. 1), which make them suitable for POU percentage is down to 53% in rural areas. A large effort is application in various situations. Silver impregnation has still needed in rural areas, especially in developing been conventionally applied to modify CWFs to enhance countries where pathogen contamination of drinking their performance, particularly for the removal of micro- water represents one of the greatest threats to human organisms. Silver-modiﬁed CWFs are effective at remov- health (World Health Organization, 2019b). What’s worse, in developing areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southern Asia and Oceania, centralized water treat- ment and distribution systems are often unavailable due to political or socioeconomic factors (Peter-Varbanets et al., 2009; World Health Organization, 2019a). In these areas, point-of-use (POU) systems, which improve drinking water quality at the household level, represent a more affordable and effective way to produce water free from contamination. In practice, a POU technology should be effective, easy to operate, with low maintenance requirement, economic- ally viable, environmentally sustainable and sociocultu- rally acceptable. Chlorination with safe storage, combined coagulant-chlorine disinfection systems, solar disinfection, ceramic water ﬁlter (CWF) and biosand ﬁlter are examples of current POU technologies (Sobsey et al., 2008; Murphy et al., 2010; Kallman et al., 2011; Geremew et al., 2018). Based on a comprehensive comparison of these technol- ogies (Table 1), CWF is considered among the most practical and sustainable POU technologies with afford- able (highly cost effective) and low-maintenance (easy to Fig. 1 Schematic of different forms of ceramic water ﬁlters: (a) use, only periodic cleaning needed) features for household ceramic disk ﬁlter, (b) ceramic candle ﬁlter, (c) ceramic pot ﬁlter, (d) tubular ceramic ﬁlter. water treatment in developing countries (Sobsey et al., a) Table 1 Comparison of POU treatment technologies used in developing countries POU Water Water Overall d) e) Cost Ease to use Description b) c) technologies quality production score Chlorination 1 3 2 5 11 Hypochlorite liquid or tablets are used to inactivate pathogens in source water. Coagulation/ 2 2 1 2 7 Dry coagulant-ﬂocculant and chlorine as tablets or sachets Chlorination are added to source water to inactive and settle down pathogens. Solar disinfec- 3 1 5 1 10 Source water is ﬁlled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or tion glass under sunlight, allowing UV and heat to inactivate pathogens. Ceramic water 5 2 4 4 15 Porous ceramic media (e.g., pot, disk, candle) with silver ﬁlter coating is used to ﬁlter pathogens from source water. Biosand ﬁlter 4 3 3 3 13 Biosand ﬁlter is adapted from slow sand ﬁlter cover with bioﬁlm, removing pathogens using biological and physical processes. Note: a) The scoring system was used to compare POU technologies. For each criterion, a technology was ranked from best (with a score of 5) to worst (with a score of 1) and the performance score (5 to 1) represents its relative ranking; b) This score was based on their reduction in Diarrhea reported by Clasen et al. (2015); c) Water production was scored based on producing 20 L within 4 h of applying the treatment described by Sobsey et al. (2008). Due to the different water production methods for these POU technology, the score was only set to 1-3 with 1 for low, 2 for fair, and 3 for good performance; d) This score was based on their cost (dollars/L/year) calculated in Sobsey et al. (2008); e) This score was based on the steps of treatment processes and periodic maintenance. Haiyan Yang et al. Challenges for ceramic water ﬁlter technology 3 ing >99% of protozoan (Van Halem, 2006; Abebe et al., 2.1 Raw material selection 2015) and 90%–99.999% of bacteria (Brown and Sobsey, 2010) and thus have been evaluated for efﬁcacy in 2.1.1 Clay source reducing rates of diarrheal and other waterborne diseases (Clasen et al., 2004; Morris et al., 2018). Unlike chlorine or Clay is the skeleton element of CWF, and its quality and thermal disinfection, CWFs do not signiﬁcantly change the characteristics directly inﬂuence ﬁlter quality. Earthenware taste or temperature of the water. They are also very clay is most suitable for ceramic ﬁlter production due to its effective at reducing the turbidity of the water (Abebe porosity, availability, and low temperature needed for et al., 2016). With proper care as suggested by manufac- vitriﬁcation. In practice, clay physical properties (e.g., turers in the user manual, commercial ceramic pot ﬁlters, shrinkage, plasticity, workability), the persistent availabil- one of the most popular CWFs in the developing countries, ity of clay source, and the leachability of heavy metals/ have a potential service life of up to 5 years to effectively inorganic materials are some key parameters to be remove pathogens from raw water without the need for an considered for clay source selection (The Ceramics external energy source or consumable supplies (The Manufacturing Working Group, 2011). Details for clay Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group, 2011). So far, source test, selection and handling have been described in locally produced CWFs have been successfully applied in the instruction manuals of Potters for Peace (PFP) and more than 20 developing countries (e.g., Cambodia, Resource Development International (RDI) (Hagan et al., Guatemala) to improve the drinking water quality (Rayner 2009; The Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group, et al., 2013a). It was estimated that more than 4 million 2011). Although clay does not create pore structure people worldwide used CWFs to prepare daily safe directly, Oyanedel-Craver and Smith (2008) found that drinking water, which contributed to public health, social ﬁlters made from different clay sources showed varied and economic beneﬁts (van der Laan et al., 2014). porosity, hydraulic conductivity and bacterial removal At the same time, CWFs have some disadvantages that efﬁciency. A recent study suggested that high content of limit their application. First, the relatively low water sand-rich clay may contribute to the decrease of mean pore ﬁltration rates have limited their use. Improved CWF size of CWF and thus potentially inﬂuence ﬁlter ﬂow rate designs that can simultaneously achieve both high ﬂow and bacterial removal efﬁcacy (Youmoue et al., 2017). rate and effective bacterial removal are desirable but Additionally, the inclusion of diatomaceous earth and remain a great challenge. In addition, CWFs often have MgO components in the CWFs were found to be beneﬁcial limited capability of removing contaminants such as for viral removal (Michen et al., 2012; Michen et al., viruses and chemical pollutants (Yang et al., 2019a). 2013), suggesting that clay composition may also have Although the CWF technology has been gaining some inﬂuence on ﬁlter performance. growing research attentions and witnessing a wide application during the past decades, there have been few 2.1.2 Organic combustible material critical reviews on the progress of this technology. The objective of this account is to provide 1) a concise In the CWF manufacturing process, sieved organic summary of the progress of recent CWF research and combustible material, also known as burn-out material, is application with a particular focus on the critical factors mixed with raw clay for the purpose of creating a paste and processes that are closely related to CWF performance, which is subsequently pressed into various shaped ﬁlters. and 2) an overview of challenges and opportunities for The organic combustible materials are usually burnt out further improvement for CWF as a POU water treatment during the ﬁring process to create porous structure that technology in developing areas. serve as both ﬂow paths for water passage and reaction sites for the removal of various contaminants such as bacteria and virus. The combustible material thus has been 2 Critical factors for CWF performance identiﬁed as a critical parameter on the performance of CWFs. Sawdust and rice husk are the most common CWFs are fabricated from a mixture of clay and combustible materials used in manufacturing CWFs and a combustible materials (e.g., rice husks or sawdust) referred global-wide survey reported that 17 in 18 CWF production as burn-out materials. Filter porous structure is created as a factories used sawdust or rice husk as the combustible result of the burn-out during the ﬁring process. As shown material (Rayner et al., 2013a). In addition, coffee husks, in Fig. 2, fabrication of conventional ceramic ﬁlter includes peanut husks and other organic materials that can be raw material selection and processing, mixing and pulverized to a suitable size can also be used as pressing, drying and ﬁring, silver application, as well as combustible materials, depending on their cost and local quality testing. In this section, we focus on the processes availability. According to previous laboratory and ﬁeld whose effects on ﬁlter effectiveness have been documented studies, the size and amount of combustible material have a by published reports and peer-reviewed references. strong inﬂuence on the ﬁlter performance (Kallman et al., 4 Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2020, 14(5): 79 Fig. 2 Ceramic water ﬁlter production ﬂow chart. It was re-drawn based on the Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group (2011). 2011; van der Laan et al., 2014; Soppe et al., 2015; Rayner efﬁciency when the maximum ﬁring temperature increased et al., 2017; Van Halem et al., 2017). For example, Van from 800°C to 950 °C, which may be attributed to the Halem et al. (2017) produced pot ﬁlters with a higher ﬂow small increase of ﬁlter pore size with increasing maximum rate (2-6 times as regular pot ﬁlters) by increasing the rice ﬁring temperature. Additionally, the incomplete combus- husk content from 24% to 31% (wt.% of dry clay mixture). tion of the organic materials could lead to the production of Combustible material with a larger particle size has also substances such as black carbon cores inside the ﬁlter been reported to introduce larger pore sizes of the resulting during the ﬁring of commercial CWFs (The Ceramics CWF, which could facilitate a higher ﬂow rate but often Manufacturing Working Group, 2011; Goodwin et al., resulted in lower microbial removal efﬁcacy (Soppe et al., 2017). Currently, black CWF was reported to be ﬁred in a 2015; Rayner et al., 2017). reductive atmosphere to improve its virus removal performance (Guerrero-Latorre et al., 2019). The potential 2.2 Firing process impact of the ﬁring atmosphere on the performance of the resulting CWFs, especially for the removal of contami- The ﬁring process of CWFs generally consists of seven nants other than pathogens, may warrant further investiga- stages that include water smoking (20°C–120°C), decom- tion in the future. position (120°C–350°C), burn-out combusts (350°C–450 °C), ceramic change (350°C–700°C), carbon burns out 2.3 Silver impregnation (700°C–900°C) and vitriﬁcation (< 1000°C) (The Cera- mics Manufacturing Working Group, 2011). A detailed recommendation of kiln construction and ﬁring variables Silver is typically applied as an antimicrobial agent to has been provided by The Ceramics Manufacturing modify commercial CWFs after the ﬁring process to Working Group (2011). Soppe et al. (2015) observed enhance the bacterial removal efﬁciency, and to prevent increased ﬂow rate and slightly decreased microbe removal bioﬁlm growth and recontamination after treatment. The Haiyan Yang et al. Challenges for ceramic water ﬁlter technology 5 primary mechanisms for bacterial removal using silver- 2.4 Source water quality impregnated CWFs include both physical ﬁltration (e.g., size exclusion and straining) and chemical inactivation As CWFs are being used on a global scale for the production of safe drinking water for both household and/ (silver disinfection), and silver antibiotic activity occurs or small community, the source water quality can be during both the ﬁltration process and the subsequent water substantially varied between different applications. While storage in the receptacle (van der Laan et al., 2014). variations in the performance of CWFs have been reported Previous studies reported that silver-impregnated CWFs from different areas or/and ﬁlter factories, these variations could exhibit up to 5 log reduction value (LRV) of bacterial were primarily attributed to the differences in local removal (i.e., 99.999%), while CWFs before silver materials and ﬁlter fabrication process, and the role of impregnation could only reach an average of 2 LRV (i.e., source water quality remains largely unknown. Among 99%) of bacterial removal (Oyanedel-Craver and Smith, various water quality factors, only limited studies have 2008; Rayner et al., 2013b). The amount of silver applied has been found to strongly inﬂuence the bacterial removal focused on turbidity and reported its negative impact on efﬁciency, and thus the silver dose needs to be delicately CWF performance (water production and/or ﬂow rate) due controlled so that it is sufﬁcient to ensure effective to pore blocking (Salvinelli and Elmore, 2015; Salvinelli et disinfection for a long time (Ren and Smith, 2013). al., 2016). For silver impregnated CWFs, both physical Therefore, understanding of factors governing the silver ﬁltration and silver disinfection are considered important retention and release behavior from CWFs surface is pathogen removal mechanisms. Although water chemistry crucial to evaluate the performance and lifespan of silver- parameters (e.g., pH, ionic strength, presence of various impregnated CWFs. ions) may theoretically have relatively limited inﬂuence on Several factors have been reported to inﬂuence the silver pathogen removal via physical ﬁltration, they can release behavior, including silver impregnation method, signiﬁcantly affect the silver release behaviors, and thus silver type, and source water chemistry (Rayner et al., affect the ﬁlter performance and service lifespan. Detailed 2013b; Ren and Smith, 2013; van der Laan et al., 2014; and long-term laboratory and ﬁeld studies are needed to Mittelman et al., 2015; Sullivan et al., 2017; Lyon-Marion further explore the performance of CWFs in various water et al., 2018). Ren and Smith (2013) compared three sources. methods to modify CWFs with silver nanoparticles (nAg) and found that the ﬁre-in method where nAg was applied 3 Challenges and opportunities before ﬁring signiﬁcantly improved silver retention and decreased its release from CWFs, compared to the paint-on 3.1 Flow rate versus microbial removal efﬁciency and dipping methods, both of which were introducing nAg after the ceramic ﬁring process. A few previous studies Flow rate and microbial removal efﬁciency are two reported that silver release from ﬁlters coated with silver performance indicators for CWFs. Filters that can maintain nitrate (Ag ) was greater than those coated with nAg, and the efﬂuent silver concentration was dependent on the both high ﬂow rates and effective microbial removal would amount of silver applied (Rayner et al., 2013b; Sullivan be particularly desirable for end users. As discussed in the et al., 2017). Additionally, source water chemistry, previous section, numerous attempts have been taken to including ionic strength, pH, ion valence, the presence of improve CWF fabrication (e.g., combustible material natural organic matter and free chlorine, has been found to processing) for the development of effective and fast- inﬂuence silver release (Rayner et al., 2013b; Mittelman ﬂow CWFs. Table 2 summarizes the ﬂow rate and et al., 2015; Sullivan et al., 2017; Lyon-Marion et al., microbial removal efﬁciency of CWFs reported in previous laboratory- and ﬁeld-scale investigations. To allow for the 2018). Laboratory studies reported that the concentrations comparison of CWFs made in different shapes, the of leached silver in treated solutions were below the reported ﬂow rates were converted to the “equivalent” drinking water standard (0.1 mg/L) (Rayner et al., 2013b; ﬂow rates of a full-size ceramic pot ﬁlter with a frustum Mittelman et al., 2015). In practice, new silver-impreg- shape, based on the hydraulic method used in our previous nated CWFs are suggested by manufacturers to rinse with study (Yang et al., 2020). So far, the ceramic pot ﬁlter 2–3 pot full of water before use, which could lower the design (Fig. 1(c)), one of the most popular CWFs applied silver concentration in the efﬂuent to levels below 0.1 mg/ in developing countries, can achieve a balance of 1–3 L/h L (The Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group, 2011). ﬂow rate and ~2 LRV bacterial removal without silver Although silver impregnation shows improved bacterial impregnation (~4 LRV after silver impregnation). For a removal efﬁciency, there are concerns about the cost typical household size with 5 persons, at least 10 L of safe associated with the silver application, and the relatively drinking water would be needed on a daily basis (Ren short service life of conventional ﬁlters (3–5 years) et al., 2013). However, as sediment and particles clog the because the ﬁlters would become less effective when the ﬁlter pores, the ﬂow rate decreases. Scrubbing the ﬁlter impregnated silver is depleted (Lantagne, 2001; Bielefeldt surface provides a temporary beneﬁt but does not prevent et al., 2009). 6 Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2020, 14(5): 79 Table 2 Flow rate and bacterial removal efﬁciency of reported CWFs a) Laboratory/Field Flow rate Microbial removal Average pore size Reference/ source Porosity b) c) work (L/h) (LRV ) (mm) Yang et al. (2020) Laboratory 5.1–6.4 4.5 0.22 1.22 12.5–15.4 2.1 0.24 1.24 Oyanedel-Craver and Smith Laboratory ~2.6 3.0 (w/o Ag coating) 0.37 14.3 (2008) 4.0 (w/o Ag coating) ~1.7 2.9 (w/o Ag coating) 0.42 2.0 3.2 (w/o Ag coating) ~0.61 3.4 (w/o Ag coating) 0.39 8.2 3.8 (w/o Ag coating) Bielefeldt et al. (2009) Laboratory/Field 0.8–1.9 2.2–3.8 (w/o Ag coating) Not reported 3.2–4.2 (w/o Ag coating) van der Laan et al. (2014) Field 5.5–21.0 ~1 (w/o Ag coating) Not reported 2.55 2.5 (w/o Ag coating) Van Halem et al. (2017) Field 5–20 ~1.0 (w/o Ag coating) Not reported Soppe et al. (2015) Laboratory/Filed 7–23 2.1–2.9 (w/o Ag coating) Not reported d) PFP Field 1–3 ~2 (w/o Ag coating) Various from factory to factory Various from factory to factory e) RDIC Field 1.8–2.5 ~2 (w/o Ag coating) Note: a) Flow rate was adjusted for disk bottom diameter and water head to the full size of pot (Fig. 1(c)). Detail for adjustment can be found in Yang et al. (2020); b) LRV, log reduction value;c) Average pore diameter was obtained by the pore size distribution data measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP); d) Pottery for peace, a US-based non-proﬁt working on ceramic water ﬁlter; e) Resource Development International-Cambodia, a non-proﬁt working on ceramic water ﬁlter. long-term clogging. The development of ﬁlters that can a high ﬂow rate; meanwhile, the presence of a sufﬁcient achieve a higher ﬂow rate while maintaining effective number of small pores is essential for achieving a microbial removal remains a challenge. Instigations into satisfactory bacterial removal efﬁciency. Results suggested manufacturing parameters that can be modiﬁed to achieve that ﬁbrous materials like recycled paper ﬁber may both high ﬂow rate and effective microbial removal are potentially be used as effective combustible materials for needed. CWF fabrication to create balanced and interconnected Pore size of CWFs is considered a critical parameter that pore structure. Meanwhile, Soppe et al. (2015) observed can affect both ﬂow rate and microbial removal efﬁciency that average ﬂow rate of CWFs could be increased by using (Soppe et al., 2015; Youmoue et al., 2017). CWFs were larger quantities of rice husks but without reducing the prepared using three combustible materials that include bacterial removal effectiveness. Further information and irregularly shaped rice husk, spherical/oval shaped starch analysis of the pore size distribution of these ﬁlters are and tubular shaped recycled paper ﬁber in our recent study needed to explore the critical factors for improved CWFs. (Yang et al., 2020). Because of the different shapes of An improved understanding of key factors that affect combustible materials, the fabricated CWFs had varied and control the pore size distribution can provide important pore size distribution patterns, resulting in substantially insights into guiding the design of CWFs with both high different ﬂow rates and bacterial removal efﬁciencies. ﬂow rate and bacterial removal. In an initial attempt, a Particularly, ﬁlters prepared using recycled paper ﬁber semiquantitative model was developed to explain the role showed improved performance with regards to both ﬂow of pore size distribution on the design of optimal CWFs rate and bacterial removal. The best-performed ﬁlters (no that can balance effective microbial removal and adequate silver coating) exhibited (1) a fast equivalent ﬂow rate of ﬂow rate (Yang et al., 2020). With further information of 13.9 L/h while maintaining a >2 log bacterial removal pore network within porous ceramic using advanced efﬁciency (>99%), or (2) >4 log bacterial removal characterization and 3-dimensional imaging techniques, efﬁciency (>99.99%) with an equivalent ﬂow rate of 5.9 development of more sophisticated pore-scale mathema- L/h, by simply tuning the amount of the recycled paper tical and numeric models in the future can be beneﬁcial to ﬁbers to 20% and 15% (i.e., with ﬁber-to-clay ratios of direct the design of ceramic ﬁlters with controlled pore size 20%:80% and 15%:85%), respectively. The improved distribution and improved performance. In addition, performance of ﬁlters prepared using recycled paper ﬁbers manufacturing parameters other than combustible material could be attributed to the unique pore size distribution can affect the pore size distribution of CWFs. For instance, pattern that consists a good balance of both small and Oyanedel-Craver and Smith observed different pore size medium to large pores. Based on the classic Hagen- distributions for CWFs fabricated using three different Poiseuille law, medium to large pores are required to reach sourced clay materials, and ﬁlters prepared from redart clay Haiyan Yang et al. Challenges for ceramic water ﬁlter technology 7 had most abundance of small pores and thus highest could efﬁciently treat ~14500 and 3200 pore volumes of bacterial removal efﬁciency (Oyanedel-Craver and Smith, solutions highly contaminated with As(V) and As(III) 2008). A comprehensive investigation should be per- (~125 µg/L) below the drinking water standard (10 µg/L), formed in the future to determine the impact of individual respectively. The improved removal of As(V) and As(III) manufacturing parameters as well as their combined effect can be attributed to the formation of LaAsO surface on the pore size distribution of ceramic ﬁlters. It also precipitates and La involved inner-sphere surface com- should be mentioned that the ﬂow rate of CWFs may plexes, respectively. Notably, the interaction between decrease after extended use in the ﬁeld because of sediment chemical pollutants and La coating strongly depends on and/or particle clogging. Thus, the long-term performance the chemical composition and properties of the La coating, of ceramic ﬁlters prepared using improved recipes should which can be controlled by the coating process. Thus, a be evaluated under settings relevant to practical applica- delicate control of the La coating temperature is critical to tions. obtaining optimal La components that favor the removal of various chemical pollutants (Yang et al., 2019b). 3.2 Removal of various classes of contaminants Since most viruses hold negative charges in natural aquatic environments (pH 5–8), modiﬁcation of ceramic Conventional CWFs are designed to primarily target the surface with positively charged chemical coatings has been removal of microbial pollutants with relatively large sizes applied to promote virus removal via enhanced electro- (e.g., bacteria, protozoa). Pore sizes of conventional CWFs static interaction (Table 3). Michen et al. (2013) reported are typically in the range of 0.1-100 mm (Oyanedel-Craver that ceramic ﬁlters amended with MgO increased the and Smith, 2008; Brown and Sobsey, 2010), and thus they removal of bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174 by up to 4 are not able to retain small-sized pathogens (e.g., virus) LRV, while the ﬁlter performance decreased sharply after and commonly-found chemical pollutants (e.g., arsenic, 2000 pore volumes of treatment. Wegmann et al (2018 a, ﬂuoride, chromate) through physical ﬁltration. Addition- b). found that modiﬁcation of ceramic microﬁlters with Zr ally, because of the negatively charged ceramic surface, (OH) and Y O greatly increased the isoelectric point x 2 3 CWFs with and without silver coating generally exhibit (pH ) of the ﬁlters from< 3.1 to 5.5–9 and 8–10, IEP low afﬁnity with virus and negatively- and non-charged respectively. Thus, the Zr(OH) -and Y O -modiﬁed x 2 3 chemical pollutants, resulting in negligible capture of these ceramic ﬁlters showed remarkably increased removal pollutants through adsorption as well. For example, efﬁciency of MS2 (up to 7 LRV). Meanwhile, the authors previous studies reported that CWFs only had viral observed that the presence of humic acid negatively impact removal efﬁciencies in the range of 0.21 to 1.6 LRV in the ﬁlter performance, and the virus removal efﬁciency long-term testing (Brown and Sobsey, 2010; Salsali et al., also signiﬁcantly decreased after extended operation 2011; van der Laan et al., 2014), with no signiﬁcant (Wegmann et al., 2008b). In addition to virus removal, it differences between silver-impregnated and non-impreg- is worth mentioning that some novel coatings such as nano nated CWFs (van der Laan et al., 2014). The low removal TiO and nano ZnO have also been applied as alternative efﬁciency for virus and various chemical pollutants antimicrobial agents to silver for ceramic modiﬁcation to represents a major challenge for conventional CWFs. improve the cost-effectiveness of bacterial removal in the Chemical pollutants are generally removed through the laboratory-scaled studies (Lucier et al., 2017; He et al., interaction (e.g., adsorption, surface precipitation) with 2018; Huang et al., 2018). surface of (modiﬁed) CWFs. To improve the removal of As more and more low-cost, environmentally benign chemical pollutants, a practical approach is to modify the and novel coatings are being explored for ceramic surface ceramic surface with desired coatings to enhance the modiﬁcation, it holds promises to develop modiﬁed CWFs afﬁnity with the target pollutants. For instance, ceramic with improved performance for the removal of various disk ﬁlter modiﬁed with ferric iron was developed to small-sized chemical and microbial pollutants. Since the improve arsenic removal, and the ﬁlter performance was properties of surface coatings and thus their interaction strongly affected by the ferric iron loading (Robbins et al., with pollutants are strongly inﬂuenced by water chemistry 2014). Recently, lanthanum (La), an abundant rare earth parameters, further investigations are required to determine element with relatively low cost, was applied in our study the long-term ﬁlter performance in both laboratory and as a novel and effective coating for ceramic materials to ﬁeld scales under various source waters. The safety and target the removal of negatively-charged arsenate (As(V)) leaching behavior of the novel coatings should also be and non-charged arsenite (As(III)) (Yang et al., 2019a). carefully evaluated before ﬁeld application. The La-coated ceramic material showed substantially enhanced capture of both As(V) and As(III) with the 4 Conclusions sorption capacities of 24.8 and 10.9 mg/g, respectively. On the contrary, negligible adsorption of As(V) or As(III) was CWFs, produced from local-sourced clay and combustible observed for bare ceramic material without La coating. material is an affordable, effective, low-maintenance and Furthermore, a prototype La-coated ceramic disk ﬁlter 8 Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 2020, 14(5): 79 Table 3 Studies exploring CWFs surface modiﬁcation besides silver impregnation a) Modiﬁcation Modiﬁcation method Target contaminants Removal efﬁcacy/capacity References component b) Nano TiO Painted-on Escherichia coli >90% He et al. (2018) ZnO Painted-on Escherichia coli 2.19–2.97 LRV Huang et al. (2018) c) TPA Painted-on Escherichia coli 6.24 LRV Zhang and Oyanedel-Craver (raw ﬁlter 4.34 LRV) (2013) 3+ Iron oxide Submersed in Fe solution! baked Arsenite/ Treating 49–1619 bed volumes of arsenic- Robbins et al. (2014) at 110°C (4h)! 550°C (3h) As(III) contaminated solution under 10 mg/L Arsenate/ As(V) 3+ Lanthanum Submersed in La solutio! ther- Arsenite/ Treating ~3200 pore volumes of As(III)- Yang et al. (2019a,b) components mally treated for 3h As(III) contaminated solution under 10 mg/L Arsenate/ Treating ~14500 pore volumes of As(V)- As(V) contaminated solution under 10 mg/L Chromate/ 13 mg/g Cr(VI) Virus (MS2) >5LRV Y O Submersed in Y O colloids! dried virus (MS2) Up to 6.5 LRV Wegmann et al. (2008a) 2 3 2 3 at 80°C (12h)! calcined at 500°C– 1040°C (1h) Zr(OH) Submersed in Zr(OH) colloids! virus (MS2) 6.2–6.6 LRV (pH5) Wegmann et al. (2008b) x x dried at 150°C (12h)! calcined at 4.0–6.9 LRV (pH7) 250/300/400°C (1h) 3.7–7.4 LRV (pH9) d) MgO Fired-in virus (MS2, PhiX174) 0.3–4.7 LRV (MS2) Michen et al. (2013) 0–4 LRV (PhiX174) Note: a) Removal efﬁcacy/capacity: removal capacity was used to indicate CWFs performance for chemical pollutant removal; b) Painted-on: using a paint brush to paint the coating chemical solution to ﬁlter surface, then air-dried; c) TPA: poly (trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride; d) Fired-in: coating chemical was added to clay mixture before ﬁring. Wisconsin Milwaukee Catalyst Grant (MIL113501). The authors declare no sustainable technology appropriate for POU household competing ﬁnancial interest. water treatment in developing areas. This account focuses on the critical factors for CWFs performance, including Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons manufacturing processes and source water quality. Two Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, technical challenges that limit the further application of distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the CWFs are discussed in detail, including simultaneous Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images improvement of ﬁlter ﬂow rate and bacterial removal, and or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative efﬁcient removal of various chemical and microbial Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. pollutants. Great efforts from researchers and CWFs If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your manufacturers have been taken to (1) improve CWFs intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To with both high ﬂow rate and effective bacterial removal by view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. optimizing pore properties during the ﬁlter manufacturing processes, as well as (2) enhance CWFs removal efﬁcacy of various waterborne contaminants by novel chemical References modiﬁcation on ceramic surface. According to the brief summary of progress for CWFs research and application in Abebe L S, Chen X, Sobsey M D (2016). 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Comparison of the bacterial ogy, 42(12): 4261–4267 removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based Soppe A I A, Heijman S G J, Gensburger I, Shantz A, Van Halem D, quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use Kroesbergen J, Wubbels G H, Smeets P (2015). Critical parameters in ceramic water ﬁlters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 260: 272– the production of ceramic pot ﬁlters for household water treatment in 277 developing countries. Journal of Water and Health, 13(2): 587–599 Sullivan R K, Erickson M, Oyanedel-Craver VA (2017). Understanding Haiyan Yang received her Ph.D. degree the microbiological, organic and inorganic contaminant removal from Peking University and then worked as capacity of ceramic water ﬁlters doped with different silver a postdoc fellow in Harbin Institute of nanoparticles. Environmental Science. Nano, 4(12): 2348–2355 Technology and University of Wisconsin- The Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group (2011). Best practice Milwaukee. She currently joined South recommendations for local manufacturing of ceramic pot ﬁlters for China Normal University. Her research household water treatment. Atlant, GA, USA: Ceramics Manufac- focuses on the sustainable point-of-use turing Working Group water treatment and the fate of colloidal van der Laan H, Van Halem D, Smeets P, Soppe A, Kroesbergen J, contaminants. Wubbels G, Nederstigt J, Gensburger I, Heijman S (2014). Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot ﬁlters with different silver applications in a long term experiment. Water Research, 51: Shangping Xu received his B.S. degree 47–54 from Peking University, and M.S and Van Halem D (2006). Ceramic silver impregnated pot ﬁlters for Ph.D. degrees from Princeton University. household drinking water treatment in developing countries. Delft, He is currently an Associate Professor at Netherlands: Delft University of Technology the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. Van Halem D, Van Der Laan H, Soppe A, Heijman S (2017). High ﬂow His research interests include the transport ceramic pot ﬁlters. Water Research, 124: 398–406 of contaminant within the environment, Wegmann M, Michen B, Graule T (2008a). Nanostructured surface effects of global climate change on water modiﬁcation of microporous ceramics for efﬁcient virus ﬁltration. resources and the development of water Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 28(8): 1603–1612 treatment techniques. Wegmann M, Michen B, Luxbacher T, Fritsch J, Graule T (2008b). Modiﬁcation of ceramic microﬁlters with colloidal zirconia to Derek E Chitwood has a B.S. degree in promote the adsorption of viruses from water. Water Research, 42 aerospace engineering and Ph.D. in envir- (6–7): 1726–1734 onmental engineering, both from the Uni- World Health Organization (2017). Progress on drinking water sanitation versity of Southern California. He spent 18 and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Geneva: World Health years working in rural southwest China. Organization His research focus is studying mountain World Health Organization (2019a). Progress on household drinking spring water quality and point of use water water, sanitation and hygiene 2000–2017: Special focus on inequal- ﬁlters for rural peoples in developing ities. Geneva: World Health Organization communities. World Health Organization (2019b). Drinking-water Fact sheet. New York: World Health Organization Yang H, Min X, Xu S, Bender J, Wang Y (2020). Development of Yin Wang received his B.S. degree from effective and fast-ﬂow ceramic porous media for point-of-use water Peking University, and M.S. and Ph.D. treatment: Effect of pore size distribution. ACS Sustainable degrees from Washington University in St. Chemistry & Engineering, 8(6): 2531–2539 Louis. He is currently an Assistant Profes- Yang H, Min X, Xu S, Wang Y (2019a). Lanthanum(III)-coated ceramics sor at the University of Wisconsin – as a promising material in point-of-use water treatment for arsenite Milwaukee. His research focuses on the and arsenate removal. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7 development of efﬁcient and sustainable (10): 9220–9227 solutions to address water-related grand Yang H, Wang Y, Bender J, Xu S (2019b). Removal of arsenate and challenges.
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 1, 2020
Keywords: Point-of-use water treatment; Ceramic water filter; Bacterial removal; Surface modification; Water quality
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