Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood

EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood EVIDENCE-BASED guidelines OPEN EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood 1 2 3 4,5,6,7  ✉ Michael Weller , Martin van den Bent , Matthias Preusser , Emilie Le Rhun , 8 9 10 11 12 Jörg C. Tonn , Giuseppe Minniti , Martin Bendszus , Carmen Balana , Olivier Chinot , 13,14 15 16 17,18 Linda Dirven , Pim French , Monika E. Hegi , Asgeir S. Jakola , 19,20 1 21 22 23 Michael Platten , Patrick Roth , Roberta Rudà , Susan Short , Marion Smits , 13,14 24,25 26 Martin J. B. Taphoorn , Andreas von Deimling , Manfred Westphal , 21 27,28 29,30 Riccardo Soffietti , Guido Reifenberger and Wolfgang Wick Abstract In response to major changes in diagnostic algorithms and the publication of mature results from various large clinical trials, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) recognized the need to provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. Through these evidence-based guidelines, a task force of EANO provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. The diagnostic component is based on the 2016 update of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System and the subsequent recommendations of the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumour Taxonomy — Not Officially WHO (cIMPACT-NOW). With regard to therapy, we formulated recommendations based on the results from the latest practice-changing clinical trials and also provide guidance for neuropathological and neuroradiological assessment. In these guidelines, we define the role of the major treatment modalities of surgery, radiotherapy and systemic pharmacotherapy, covering current advances and cognizant that unnecessary interventions and expenses should be avoided. This document is intended to be a source of reference for professionals involved in the management of adult patients with diffuse gliomas, for patients and caregivers, and for health-car e providers. The classification of gliomas has undergone major such as differential diagnosis, adverse effects of treat- changes through the revision of the fourth edition of the ment, and supportive and palliative care are beyond the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous scope of this guideline document. System in 2016. Further refinements of the classifica- tion were subsequently proposed by the Consortium Methods to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to These evidence- based guidelines were formulated by CNS Tumour Taxonomy — Not Officially WHO a task force nominated by the EANO Executive Board 2–4 (cIMPACT- NOW) . These documents enable a diag- following a proposal by the Chair of the EANO guide- nosis of glioblastoma to be made not only based on lines committee. This task force includes representa - histology but also on the basis of several molecular tives of all the disciplines involved in the diagnosis an d markers and propose the discontinuation of the term care of adults with glioma and reflects the multinational ‘IDH- mutant glioblastoma’. To reflect these changes, character of EANO. References were retrieved from the the European Association of Neuro- Oncology (EANO) PubMed database using the search terms ‘glioma’, ‘ana- considered it necessary to update its guidelines for the plastic’, ‘astrocytoma’, ‘oligodendroglioma’, ‘glioblastoma’, management of adult patients with gliomas (Box  1). In ‘trial’, ‘clinical’, ‘surgery’, ‘radiotherapy’ and ‘chemother - the present evidence- based guidelines, we cover the apy’ between January 2011 and July 2020. Publications e- mail: michael.weller@ prevention, early diagnosis and screening, integrated were also identified through searches of the authors’ own usz.ch histo molecular diagnostics, therapy and follow- up m on- libraries. Only publications in English were reviewed. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41571-020-00447- z itoring of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. Aspects Data available only in abstract form were included in 170 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s exceptional circumstances. The definitive reference list tuberous sclerosis, Turcot syndrome, Li–Fraumeni was generated based on relevance to the broad scope of syndrome and Lynch syndrome. Screening with neuro- these guidelines. The consensus recommendations were imaging is limited to patients with such syndromes at achieved through repeated circulation of manuscript the initial diagnostic work-u p . Repeat neuroimaging drafts and telephone conferences involving members of is not indicated unless new neurological symptoms and the task force to discuss the most controversial areas. signs, such a seizures, aphasia, hemiparesis or sensory The key recommendations for the diagnosis and man- deficits, develop that suggest an intracranial lesion. The agement of diffuse gliomas of adulthood, with their class counselling and screening of asymptomatic relatives of evidence (C) and level of recommendation (L) are of patients with glioma who are found to be carriers of reported at the end of each corresponding paragraph. germline mutations associated with gliomagenesis should be conducted with caution and in cooperation Epidemiology and prevention with clinical geneticists. No known measures to prevent The annual incidence of gliomas is approximately of the development of gliomas exist. six cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide. Men are 1.6- fold more likely to be diagnosed with gliomas than History and clinical examination women . While the vast majority of cases are sporadic, The evolution of neurological symptoms and signs certain familial tumour syndromes are associated with enables the estimation of the growth dynamics of glio- gliomagenesis, including neurofibromatosis type I, mas: tumours that cause symptoms only weeks before diagnosis are usually fast growing whereas those that cause symptoms for years before being diagnosed are Author addresses usually slow growing. In most individuals, the symp- Department of Neurology, clinical Neuroscience center, university hospital and toms and signs reported the year before diagnosis are 9–11 university of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. non- specific (for example, fatigue or headache) . Brain Tumor center at erasmus Mc cancer Institute, university Medical center A discussion of the patient’s history might reveal famil- rotterdam, rotterdam, Netherlands. ial risk or rare exogenous risk factors (such as exposure Division of oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical university of v ienna, to radiation) associated with the development of brain v ienna, austria. tumours. Information from relatives might be required Department of Neurosurgery, clinical Neuroscience center, university hospital and to obtain a reliable history. Firm recommendations on university of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 5 when and how to involve family members and caregiv- university of lille, u1192, lille, France. ers and how to assess the medical decision-m aking centre hospitalier universitaire (chu) lille, Neuro- oncology, General and Stereotaxic capacity in patients with brain tumours remain to be Neurosurgery Service, lille, France. 7 12 oscar lambret center, Neurology, lille, France. developed . Department of Neurosurgery, university hospital Munich lMu, Munich, Germany. Characteristic modes of clinical presentation include radiation oncology unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, new- onset epilepsy, focal deficits (such as pareses or university of Siena, Siena, Italy. sensory disturbances), neurocognitive impairment, and Department of Neuroradiology, university hospital heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure. catalan Institute of oncology (Ico), hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain. The physical examination of patients with brain tumours aix- Marseille université, assistance Publique–hôpitaux de Marseille (aPhM), chu focuses on the detection of systemic cancer to differen- Timone, Department of Neuro-o ncology, Marseille, France. 13 tiate primary brain tumours from brain metastases and Department of Neurology, leiden university Medical center, leiden, Netherlands. contraindications for neurosurgical procedures. The Department of Neurology, haaglanden Medical center, The hague, Netherlands. Neurological Assessment in Neuro- On cology (NANO) Department of Neurology, erasmus Mc, rotterdam, Netherlands. Department of clinical Neurosciences, university hospital lausanne, lausanne, scale can be used to document some of the results of the Switzerland. neurological examination . Neurocognitive assessment Department of Neurosurgery, Sahlgrenska university hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. using a standardized test battery , beyond documenting Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of clinical Neuroscience, performance status and performing a Mini Mental State Sahlgrenska academy, Gothenburg, Sweden. Examination (MMSE) or a Montreal Cognitive Assess- Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim center for ment (MoCA) , has become increasingly common. Translational Neuroscience (McTN), heidelberg university, Mannheim, Germany. Despite its limitations, the MMSE is widely used as a German consortium of Translational cancer research (DKTK), clinical cooperation screening instrument to detect neurocognitive impairment unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German cancer research center and remains freely available for individual use. (DKFZ), heidelberg, Germany. Department of Neuro- oncology, university hospital, Turin, Italy. leeds Institute of Medical research, St James’s university hospital, leeds, uK. Recommendations. Department of radiology and Nuclear Medicine, erasmus Mc, university Medical • Karnofsky performance score (KPS), neurologi- center rotterdam, rotterdam, Netherlands. cal function, age, and individual risks and benefits Department for Neuropathology, university hospital heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. should be considered for clinical decision- m aking. DKTK and clinical cooperation unit Neuropathology, DKFZ, heidelberg, Germany. C: IV; L: A. Department of Neurosurgery, university hospital hamburg, hamburg, Germany. • Screening and prevention have no major role for Department of Neuropathology, heinrich heine university Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, patients with gliomas. C: IV; L: C. Germany. 28 • Patients with relevant germline variants or suspected DKTK partner site essen/Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. hereditary cancer syndromes should receive genetic Neurology clinic and National center for Tumor Diseases, university hospital counselling and might subsequently be referred for heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. DKTK and clinical cooperation unit Neurooncology, DKFZ, heidelberg, Germany. molecular genetic testing. C: IV; L: C. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 171 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s neuroradiologists and neuropathologists as well as Box 1 Key new developments in the diagnosis and management of gliomas neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and dedicated (2016–2020) neuro- oncologists from neurology or medical onco -l • Glioblastoma is now defined as a diffuse astrocytic glioma with no mutations in ogy services and from paediatric oncology as needed. IDh genes nor histone h3 genes and is characterized by microvascular proliferation, Prior to surgery, corticosteroids can be administered to necrosis and/or specific molecular features, including TERT promoter mutation, EGFR decrease symptomatic tumour-a ssociated oedema unless gene amplification and/or a +7/–10 cytogenetic signature. primary cerebral lymphoma or inflammatory lesions are • IDh- mutant glioblastoma is now referred to as IDh- mutant astrocytoma, Who suspected. Alternative pharmacological measures, such grade 4. as osmotic agents, are rarely necessary. Patients who • homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B locus is a molecular marker of Who grade 4 have suffered epileptic seizures should receive anticon- in IDh- mutant astrocytomas. vulsant drugs preoperatively. Primary prophylaxis does • histone h3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric gliomas constitute a novel glioma not reduce the risk of a first seizure in patients with entity corresponding to Who grade 4. glioma without a history of seizures . • The value of the distinction between Who grades 2 and 3 in IDh- mutant gliomas is increasingly challenged, and ongoing clinical trials (such as coDel and eor Tc Tissue acquisition 1635 (ref. )) are enrolling patients with tumours of both grades. Treatment decisions in patients with glioma are made • In the ca TNoN trial , the combination of maintenance temozolomide with based on tissue diagnosis, including the assessment of radiotherapy prolonged survival only in patients with IDh- mutant gliomas of Who molecular markers relevant for diagnosis; therefore, grade 3 and not in those with tumours diagnosed as IDh- wild- type anaplastic upfront surgery is commonly performed with both diag- gliomas. nostic and therapeutic intent. The surgical management • The prolongation of maintenance temozolomide from 6 to 12 cycles extends neither of patients with glioma should take place in high- vo lume progression- free survival nor overall survival . specialist centres where large numbers of patients are • Bevacizumab does not prolong progression- free survival nor overall survival in referred to specialist neurosurgeons . A decision for pal- patients with 1p/19q-intact recurrent Who grade 2 or 3 glioma . liative care management without histological diagnosis • Nivolumab is not superior to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma . should be avoided unless the risk of adverse outcomes • Nivolumab is not superior to temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed from biopsy sampling is considered too high or if the glioblastoma without MGMT promoter methylation . prognosis is likely to be very unfavourable, for example, in patients with a high burden of comorbidities, large Preoperative diagnostics lesions with a typical radiological appearance of glioblas- Brain MRI, including T2- weighted, T2- weighted toma and rapid neurological deterioration. Definitive fluid-a ttenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences histological diagnoses aid in the counselling of patients and 3D T1-w eighted sequences before and after applica- and caregivers, even when no further tumour- specific tion of a gadolinium- b ased contrast agent, is the diagnos- therapy is recommended. tic gold standard to detect a brain tumour . Perfusion When microsurgical resection is not safely feasi- MRI and amino acid PET can help to define metabolic ble (for example, owing to the tumour location or the hotspots for specific tumour tissue sampling, a technique impaired clinical condition of the patient), a stereotactic that can be particularly useful if biopsy rather than open biopsy should be performed. Frame- b ased or frame-l ess resection is considered . Electroencephalography can be stereotactic biopsy sampling is associated with a low risk 22,23 helpful in the monitoring of tumoura - ssociated epilepsy of morbidity and a high level of diagnostic accuracy . and in determining the cause of altered consciousness. Serial samples of the tumour mass should be acquired A large number of studies has shown that cell- fr ee along the trajectory of the biopsy needle in order to tumour DNA can be detected in the plasma and cerebro- avoid sampling bias. Experienced teams can derive ade- spinal fluid of patients with glioma; however, the benefits quate tissue specimens for molecular profiling using of using liquid biopsies for the screening, early detec- these techniques . IDH mutations and 1p/19q code- tion or preoperative work- up of patients with gliomas letion as disease-def ining markers as well as MGMT 19 24 remain to be proven . promoter methylation are homogeneously present within tumours and, thus, the risk of sampling error for Recommendations. these markers is low. However, for additional markers • The first choice of diagnostic imaging modality of interest for which homogeneity has not been shown, is MRI without and with the administration of a sampling has to include different areas of the tumour; gadolinium- b ased contrast agent. C: IV; L: B. this principle applies for both stereotactic and open • Pseudoprogression should be considered in patients procedures. Intraoperative use of the fluorescent dye with an increase of abnormalities on neuroimaging in 5-a minolevulinic acid can be helpful to ensure adequate the first months after local therapeutic interventions, sampling during stereotactic biopsies . Some centres including radiotherapy, and after experimental local prefer open biopsy approaches to ensure that sufficient treatments. C: IV; L: B. tissue is obtained for any molecular studies that might be required to guide clinical decision- m aking. Preoperative management Patient management before surgery should follow Recommendations. written local standard operating procedures and • Clinical decision- m aking without obtaining a tis- involve multidisciplinary discussions, ideally by a sue diagnosis should be considered only in very dedicated multidisciplinary tumour board including exceptional situations. C: IV; L: not applicable. 172 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Histology Diffuse astrocytic or oligodendroglial glioma Midline location IDH-mutant IDH-mutant IDH wild type IDH wild type IDH wild type IDH Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX ATRX retained lost retained lost > retained 1p/19q 1p/19q 1p/19q codel intact CDKN2A/B CDKN2A/B CDKN2A/B retained homozygously deleted Necrosis TERT, EGFR TERT-mutant, TERT- and/or and/or +7/-10 EGFR-amplified mutant MVP and/or +7/-10 Necrosis H3.3 G34 H3.3 G34 H3.3 G34R/V- and/or MVP H3.3 G34R/V wild type wild type mutant H3 K27M- mutant (+ loss of H3 K27M H3K27me3) Oligodendroglioma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, Diffuse Diffuse Integrated IDH-mutant and IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH wild type, hemispheric glioma, midline glioma, diagnosis 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 or 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 4 H3.3 G34-mutant, H3 K27M-mutant, WHO grade 2 or 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 4 MGMT promoter methylation Fig. 1 Diagnostic algorithm for the integrated classification of the major diffuse gliomas in adults. Tissue specimens obtained through biopsy sampling in patients with diffuse gliomas are routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of R132H-mutant IDH1 and loss of nuclear ATRX. In patients aged >55 years with a histologically typical glioblastoma, without a pre-existing lower grade glioma, with a non- midline tumour location and with retained nuclear ATRX expression, immunohistochemical negativity for IDH1 R132H suffices for the classification as IDH-wild- type glioblastoma . In all other instances of diffuse gliomas, a lack of IDH1 R132H immunopositivity should be followed by IDH1 and IDH2 DNA sequencing to detect or exclude the presence of non-canonical mutations. IDH-wild- type diffuse astrocytic gliomas without microvascular proliferation or necrosis should be tested for EGFR amplification, TERT promoter mutation and a +7/–10 cytogenetic signature as molecular characteristics of IDH-wild- type glioblastomas . In addition, the presence of histone H3.3 G34R/V mutations should be assessed by immunohistochemistry or DNA sequencing to identify H3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric gliomas, in particular in young patients with IDH-wild- type gliomas (such as those <50 years of age with nuclear ATRX loss in tumour cells). Diffuse gliomas of the thalamus, brainstem or spinal cord should be evaluated for histone H3 K27M mutations and loss of nuclear K27-trimethylated histone H3 (H3K27me3) to identify H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas. The presence and absence of the diagnostically most relevant molecular alterations for each tumour type are highlighted with red and green boxes. MVP , microvascular proliferation. Integrated histomolecular classification samples. The diagnostic process should follow the WHO Intraoperative assessment of cytological specimens or classification of 2016 (ref. ) and the subsequent recom- 2–4 frozen sections ensures that sufficient tumour tissue is mendations from cIMPACT- NOW . Accordingly, gli- obtained to establish a diagnosis. Tumour tissue is for - oma classification integrates histological tumour typing malin fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological and grading as well as analyses of molecular markers and immunohistochemical staining as well as for molec- (fig.  1). The term ‘not otherwise specified’ was intro- ular genetic and cytogenetic studies. If possible, some duced to refer to gliomas that were not tested for mark- tumour tissue should be cryopreserved for molecular ers relevant to the diagnosis of specific subtypes or for assessments that require high- quality DNA and RNA which testing was inconclusive . Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 173 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s On the basis of the 2016 WHO classification and analysis. By contrast, retained nuclear ATRX positivity cIMPACT- NOW recommendations, the following in an IDH- mutant glioma should prompt analysis for molecular biomarkers are central to categorizing diffuse 1p/19q codeletion in order to distinguish IDH-m utant gliomas in adults: IDH mutation, 1p/19q co- de letion, his - astrocytoma from IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted tone H3 K27M mutation, histone H3.3 G34R/V muta tion, oligodendroglioma. ATRX immuno histochemistry is TERT promoter mutation, EGFR gene amplific ation, not necessary if IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion chromosome 7 gain combined with chromosome 10 status are captured within one more extensive mole c- loss (the +7/–10 signature), and homozygous deletions ular marker panel assay. IDH- m utant astrocytomas are on 9p21 involving the CDKN2A and CDKN2B gene loci now stratified into three WHO grades: astrocytoma, (CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion) (TaBle  1). Missense IDH-m utant, WHO grade 2; astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, mutations in codon 132 of IDH1 or codon 172 of IDH2 WHO grade 3 (instead of anaplastic astrocytoma, are the defining molecular feature of IDH- m utant astro- IDH- mutant, WHO grade 3); and astrocytoma, IDH- cytomas and are associated with the glioma CpG island mutant, WHO grade 4 (replacing the former term ‘glio- methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Dif fuse gliomas cor - blastoma, IDH-m utant, WHO grade 4’) . The term responding histologically to WHO grade 2 or 3 that ‘glio blastoma’ is no longer used to refer to IDH- m utant are immunohistochemically negative for IDH1 R132H astrocytic gliomas because these tumours are biologically should be sequenced for less common IDH1 and for distinct from the much more common IDH- wild-t ype IDH2 mutations. IDH-m utant astrocytomas usually also glioblastomas, although their histological appearance is have loss of nuclear expression of ATRX and mutations in similar . In addition to the established histological fea- TP53 but, by definition, lack 1p/19q codeletion. Indeed, tures, such as the presence of necrosis and/or microvas- the detection of nuclear ATRX loss in an IDH- m utant cular proliferation, homozygous CDKN2A/B deletion is glioma is sufficient for the diagnosis of an astrocytic indicative of a poor prognosis and is a marker of WHO lineage tumour without the need for 1p/19q codeletion grade 4 IDH- mutant astrocytomas . As the diagnostic Table 1 Molecular markers for the diagnosis and management of gliomas Molecular marker Biological function of affected genes Diagnostic roles IDH1 R132 or IDH2 Gain- of- function mutation Distinguishes diffuse gliomas with IDH R172 mutation mutation from IDH- wild- type glioblastomas and other IDH- wild- type gliomas 1p/19q codeletion Inactivation of putative tumour suppressor genes Distinguishes oligodendroglioma, on 1p (such as FUBP1) and 19q (such as CIC) IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted from astrocytoma, IDH- mutant Loss of nuclear Cell proliferation and promotion of cellular Loss of nuclear ATRX in an IDH- mutant glioma ATRX longevity by alternative lengthening of telomeres is diagnostic for astrocytic lineage tumours Histone H3 K27M Histone H3.3 (H3F3A) or histone H3.1 Defining molecular feature of diffuse midline mutation (HIST1H3B/C) missense mutation affecting glioma, H3 K27M-mutant epigenetic regulation of gene expression Histone H3.3 Histone mutation affecting epigenetic regulation Defining molecular feature of diffuse G34R/V mutation of gene expression hemispheric glioma, H3.3 G34-mutant MGMT promoter DNA repair None, but is a predictive biomarker of benefit methylation from alkylating chemotherapy in patients with IDH- wild- type glioblastoma Homozygous Encode cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors A marker of poor outcome and WHO grade 4 deletion of 2A and 2B and tumour suppressor ARF, which disease in IDH- mutant astrocytomas CDKN2A/CDKN2B function as regulators of Rb1 and p53- dependent signalling EGFR amplification Cell proliferation, invasion and resistance to EGFR amplification occurs in ~40–50% of induction of apoptosis glioblastoma, IDH wild type Molecular marker of glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) TERT promotor Cell proliferation; promotes cellular longevity TERT promoter mutation occurs in mutation by increasing TERT expression ~70% of glioblastoma, IDH wild type and >95% of oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted Molecular marker of glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) +7/–10 cytogenetic Gain of chromosome 7 (harbouring genes Molecular marker of glioblastoma, signature encoding, among others, PDGFA and EGFR) IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) combined with loss of chromosome 10 (harbouring genes including PTEN and MGMT) V600E BRAF mutation Oncogenic driver mutation leading to Rare in adult diffuse gliomas but amenable MAPK pathway activation to pharmacological intervention 174 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s term ‘astrocytoma, IDH- mutant’ can be associated with hemispheric glioma has been proposed as a new sub- different tumour grades and the roman numerals II and type of malignant glioma, characterized by missense 4,31 III are easily confused, cIMPACT-N OW recommended mutations affecting codon 34 of H3F3A . the use of Arabic numerals for the WHO-b ased grad- MGMT promoter methylation has limited diagnostic ing of these tumours . In line with the sixth update value but can guide treatment decisions on the use of of the cIMPACT- NOW recommendations , in these chemotherapy with alkylating agents for patients with evidence- based guidelines we use Arabic numerals for glioblastoma or other IDH- w ild- t ype gliomas . As out- WHO grades. lined below, MGMT promoter methylation enables the Special attention should be given to diffuse astro- prediction of benefit from alkylating agents in patients cytomas in the brainstem or cerebellum with hi-s with these tumours. MGMT promoter methylation sta- to logies corresponding to WHO grades 2, 3 and 4. tus should be tested using methylation- sp ecific PCR, Among infratentorial astrocytomas, the frequency of pyrosequencing or methylation arrays (such as the non- canonical IDH mutations is ~80%, in contrast with MGMT- STP27 model) . However, challenges remain, 27,28 <10% in those of the supratentorial compartment . including: (1) establishing reliable MGMT promoter Infratentorial diffuse gliomas therefore tend to be clas- methylation status assays that can be used with high sified incorrectly if examined by IDH1 R132H immuno- interlaboratory agreement, and (2) estimating the effect histochemistry only; accordingly, DNA sequencing for of limited MGMT promoter methylation, an intermedi- rare mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 is required. In addi- ate state between the non- methylated and methylated tion, infratentorial IDH- m utant astrocytomas have a loss phenotypes, on outcomes . Immunocytochemistry of nuclear ATRX expression as well as MGMT promoter is not an adequate method to determine the MGMT 27,28 34 methylation in only ~50% of patients . promoter methylation status . Oligodendroglial tumours are defined as IDH- m utant Next- generation sequencing- based gene pan- gliomas that also harbour 1p/19q codeletion and are els could enable the assessment of all or most genetic stratified into WHO grade 2 or 3 tumours based on the and chromosomal aberrations relevant for diagnosis 35,36 absence or presence of histological features of anapla- using a single assay . In addition, array- based DNA sia. The role of molecular alterations in the grading of methylation profiling has emerged as a powerful novel these tumours has not been defined. However, similar diagnostic method that is independent of histology and to IDH- mutant diffuse astrocytomas, the homozy- useful in the routine diagnostic work-u p . Moreover, gous deletion of CDKN2A at 9p21 has been associated RNA sequencing- based approaches present a prom- with shorter survival durations . Oligoastrocytomas ising approach for the detection of oncogenic gene lack characteristic genetic profiles and are no longer fusions with diagnostic and/or predictive value that considered as a distinct glioma subtype. can be found in rare subsets of diffuse gliomas, mainly 38,39 Astrocytic gliomas with a wild- typ e IDH and histone ID H- w i ld- t yp e g lio b l a s t om a s . Overall, molecular H3 status and with necrosis and/or microvascular pro- diagnostic algorithms for patients with glioma (fig.  1) liferation are classified as IDH- w ild- t ype, WHO grade 4 should be standardized and should not result in delays glioblastomas. In the absence of necrosis or microvascu- in the administration of radiotherapy or tumour-s pecific lar proliferation, such tumours should be evaluated for pharmacotherapy. glioblastoma- a ssociated genetic alterations, in particular EGFR gene amplifications, TERT promoter mutations Recommendations. and/or the +7/–10 signature . If one or more of these • Glioma classification should follow the most recent alterations is detected, these tumours are classified as WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central IDH- wild-t ype glioblastomas given their association Nervous System , complemented by cIMPACT- N OW 2–4 with a poor prognosis, even in the absence of necro- updates . C: IV; L: B. 1,30 sis and microvascular proliferation . IDH- w i ld- t yp e • Immunohistochemistry for mutant IDH1 R132H diffuse astrocytomas without any of these alterations, protein and nuclear expression of ATRX should be which cannot be assigned to other entities (for example, performed routinely in the diagnostic assessment of on the basis of DNA methylation profiling) are more diffuse gliomas. C: IV; L: B. often seen in paediatric, adolescent or young adult • If immunohistochemistry for IDH1 R132H is nega- patients and constitute rare glioma variants that require tive, sequencing of IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon further molecular assessment . 172 should be conducted in all WHO grade 2 and H3 K27M- mutant, WHO grade 4 diffuse midline 3 diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas as gliomas are defined as a diffuse glioma located in mi- d well as in all glioblastomas of patients aged <55 ye ars line structures, such as the thalamus, pons, brainstem to enable integrated diagnoses according to the and spinal cord, and carrying a lysine- to- methionine WHO classification and to guide treatment decisions. mutation at amino acid 27 of histone H3.3 (encoded by C: IV; L: B. H3F3A) or histone H3.1 (encoded by HIST1H3B and • 1p/19q codeletion status should be determined HIST1H3C) . H3 K27M- mutant diffuse midline glio - in all IDH- m utant gliomas with retained nuclear mas are typically positive for nuclear immunostaining o f expression of ATRX. C: II; L: B. H3 K27M with the corresponding loss of nuclear stain ing • MGMT promoter methylation status should be for K27- trimethylated histone H3 (H3K27me3), which determined in glioblastoma, notably in elderly or together serve as immunohistochemical markers of this frail patients, to aid in decision-m aking for the use tumour type. H3.3 G34- mutant, WHO grade 4 diffuse of temozolomide. C: I; L: B. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 175 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s • CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions should be with contrast; MRI should include diffusion- w eighted explored in IDH- m utant astrocytomas. C: IV; L: B. sequences to enable the detection of perioperative • Combined chromosome 7 gain and chromosome ischaemia . 10 loss (+7/–10 signature), EGFR amplification The role of the extent of resection and residual and TERT promoter mutation should be tested in tumour volume as prognostic factors remains contro- IDH- wild-t ype diffuse gliomas lacking microvas- versial within the neuro- o ncology community because cular proliferation and necrosis as histological fea- randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing this tures of WHO grade 4 to allow for a diagnosis of question are very difficult to perform, and almost IDH- wild- t ype glioblastoma. C: IV; L: B. no such trials exist. A lesser extent of resection and • Assessment of H3 K27M status should be done in larger post-s urgical residual tumour volumes are neg- diffuse gliomas involving the midline. C: IV; L: B. ative prognostic factors across gliomas of all grades V600 45,46 • BR AF mutations might be assessed in and subtypes . These observations have resulted IDH-wild-type diffuse gliomas. C: IV; L: C. in the multitude of technical developments to maxi- mize the extent of resection summarized above. Therapy — general recommendations Nevertheless, whether and why the extent of resection Prognostic factors. Younger age and better performance truly matters remain controversial questions. First, status at diagnosis are major therapy-in dependent prog- rather than the percentage of extent of resection, cli- nostic factors associated with favourable outcomes in nicians might need to consider the absolute volume of adults with glioma. Furthermore, molecular genetic remaining tumour tissue, including both enhancing 45–47 factors, notably 1p/19q codeletion and IDH mutation and non- enhancing tumour tissue . Second, early status, had a strong prognostic value in the classifica- (<3 weeks) as opposed to later (3–5 weeks) initiation tion of gliomas in the past but, since 2016, have become of postsurgical radiotherapy does not correlate with disease- defining features and are therefore no longer improved overall survival (OS). This finding is unex- prognostic within a given disease subtype. As a result, pected because one might predict that a longer time MGMT promoter methylation status has become the interval between surgery and start of radiotherapy single most important prognostic factor in an era in would favour regrowth of the tumour and thus confer which the vast majority of adults with glioma are treated a survival disadvantage . Third, evidence indicates with alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy. that resectable tumours have a different biology that is overall less malignant than that of non- res ectable Surgical therapy. The therapeutic goal of surgery is to tumours, which challenges the causal relationship remove as much tumour tissue as safely feasible using between extent of surgery and survival. For exam- microsurgical techniques, without compromising neuro- ple, in a prospective evaluation of the effect of sur - logical function. Several tools, including surgical naviga-gical resection on survival after controlling for IDH tion systems housing functional MRI or diffusion tensor status, the rate of gross total resection was higher in imaging datasets and intraoperative MRI, ultrasono- patients with IDH-m utant tumours than in those with graphy, functional monitoring and fluorescence- b ased IDH- wild- type tumours . Indeed, retrospective data visualization of tumour tissue with 5-a minolevulinic indicate that biopsy is more often the type of first sur- acid, help in reducing postoperative residual tumour gery in patients with IDH- wild- type tumours than in volumes while keeping the risk of new neurological patients with IDH-m utant tumours . Attributing the deficits low . The use of evoked potentials, electro- longer survival durations associated with IDH- m utant myography or brain mapping in awake patients under versus IDH- wild-t ype tumours to the rate of gross local anaesthesia to monitor and preserve language total resection would therefore probably not be the and cognition facilitates resections in eloquent areas . correct conclusion. With these considerations, we do Preventing new permanent neurological deficits that not intend to discourage efforts to achieve gross total might jeopardize independence, reduce quality of life resection but rather to acknowledge the limitations of (QOL) and increase the risk of additional complications data from retrospective uncontrolled studies. that might, in turn, delay or preclude further therapy is more important than the extent of resection because Recommendations. diffuse gliomas are not cured by surgery. Neurological • The extent of resection is a prognostic factor and deficits that occur because of surgery can sometimes be thus, efforts at obtaining complete resections are predicted preoperatively. In exceptional situations, anti- justified across all glioma entities. C: IV; L: B. cipated minor deficits (such as quadrantanopia) might • In the current surgical approach to gliomas, the be deemed acceptable but only after a thorough process prevention of new permanent neurological deficits of shared decision-m aking . Patients and their caregiv- has higher priority than the extent of resection. ers should also be informed that neurosurgery is always C: IV; L: C. associated with some unpredictable risks. Postoperative deficits owing to emerging surgical complications are a Radiotherapy. The goal of radiotherapy is to improve negative prognostic factor that can interfere with further local control without inducing neurotoxicity. Indeed, treatment and health-r elated QOL is of high priority to radiotherapy delayed neurological deterioration and patients and their caregivers . The extent of resec- increased survival in several early clinical trials conducted 50,51 tion should be assessed within 24–48 hours of surgery in the past century . The timing, dosing and schedul- through MRI (or CT if MRI is not possible), without and ing of radiotherapy are determined by the disease subtype 176 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s and prognostic factors, including age, KPS and resid- an oral DNA alkylating agent that penetrates the blood– ual tumour volume. Radiotherapy should start withi n brain barrier, is the most commonly used drug in gli- 3–5 weeks after surgery and is commonly administered oma treatment. This agent has a favourable safety profile, at 50–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy daily fractions. No evidence sug- with myelosuppression, notably thrombocytopenia, as gests additional benefit from high- dos e versus low- dos e its main dose- limiting toxicity . Hepatic function also radiation in patients with WHO grade 2 gliomas and, needs to be monitored regularly in patients receiving for those with higher WHO grade tumours, no data temozolomide. In contrast to temozolomide, alkylating from randomized studies support the use of doses agents from the nitrosourea class, such as lomustine, >60 Gy (ref. ). Hypofractionated radiotherapy with carmustine, nimustine or fotemustine, cause delayed a higher dose per fraction and a lower total dose (for (4–6 weeks) rather than early (2–3 weeks) and more often example, 15× 2.67 Gy) is appropriate in older patients cumulative leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Notably, (>65–70 years of age) and in those with a poor prognosis the latter can necessitate treatment interruptions, dose (typically defined by a KPS of <70) . reductions or even discontinuation and considera- The area of the surgical bed plus the residual tion of alternative treatments. Pulmonary fibrosis has tumour area identified on T1- weighted, T2- weighted been observed mainly with carmustine and is rare with and FLAIR MRI sequences is defined as the gross lomustine . Lomustine is often combined with procar- tumour volume. To account for microscopic invasion, bazine and vincristine in a regimen referred to as PCV. a margin of 1.0–2.0 cm is added to create the clinical Carmustine wafers implanted into the post- surgical target volume, which is generally modified to include cavity provided a modest OS benefit in patients with abnormalities visualized on the basis of T2- w eighted newly diagnosed WHO grade 3 or 4 gliomas or recur - 61,62 or FLAIR signals (for example, oedema) and con- rent glioblastoma ; however, in the pivotal trial of strained to anatomical barriers such as ventricles, this approach, patient outcomes were not statistically tentorium and falx. Finally, another margin, usually significantly different after patients with WHO grade 3 of 0.3–0.5 cm, is added to enable for uncertainties in tumours (the majority of which are now known to be patient set- up and treatment delivery, generating the IDH- mutant) were excluded from the survival analy- planning target volume . The use of amino acid PET sis. The benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy using tracers such as [ C- m et hy l]-l - m et hio nin e o r demonstrated in various RCTs (described later) has to O-(2-[ F]- f luoro et hy l)-l -tyrosine to improve target be weighed against the potential long- ter m toxicities delineation for radiotherapy has been evaluated in clin- and the risk of inducing a hypermutator phenotype that ical trials but is not currently part of standard practice. is associated with a more malignant phenotype, in par - Structures at higher risk of toxicity from radiother- ticular in patients with IDH-m utant gliomas, who have 63,64 apy, including the optic nerves, optic chiasm, retinae, a longer life expectancy . lenses, brainstem, pituitary, cochleae and hippocampi, Bevacizumab, an anti- VEGF antibody, is approved should be delineated. Modern, highly conformal radi- for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in the USA, ation techniques, including intensity-m odulated radio- Canada, Switzerland and several other countries ou-t therapy for newly diagnosed tumours and stereotactic side the European Union, but no OS benefit has been 65–67 radiotherapy and radiosurgery for recurrent tumours, demonstrated from its use . Patients with glioma could provide superior target coverage and sparing of receiving systemic therapy should carry a documen- non- malignant brain tissue. Proton or heavy ion radio- tation of treatment, including laboratory results and therapy might be options to consider for patients with information on complications and contraindications, tumours close to brain regions at risk or in those with to facilitate follow- up a nd to provide information to a favourable prognosis in order to avoid delayed toxici- physicians in an emergency setting. Clinical centres ties, but RCTs are required to determine the tolerability, managing patients with glioma should generate standard safety and efficacy of these approaches compared with operating procedures and instructions for standard- 56,57 standard radiotherapy . Accurate patient positioning ized application of chemotherapy as well as for the is required for all highly conformal approaches and is managem ent of adverse events and complications from achieved with reproducible immobilization and digital treatment. imaging during treatment. Interstitial brachytherapy approaches have been investigated over many years as an Monitoring and follow-u p assessments. Watch- and- wait alternative to external beam treatment but have not yet strategies without histological verification carry the been shown to have an application in routine practice . risk of underestimating the grade of malignancy when An MRI scan scheduled 3–4 weeks after completion of determined using only neuroimaging and thus require radiotherapy provides a new baseline to monitor the initial intervals of only 2–3 months between scan s. further course of disease. In addition to clinical examination, MRI is the stan- dard diagnostic measure for the evaluation of dis- Pharmacotherapy. Haematology, hepatic and renal lab- ease status or treatment response, using Response 68–70 oratory values within the normal physiological ranges Assessment in Neuro- Oncology (RANO) criteria and exclusion of major lung or heart disease or infection and identical MRI protocols according to published are required prior to and during most pharmacological recommendations . After the completion of therapy, treatments for patients with glioma. Most patients with an initial interval between scans of 2–6 months is com- glioma receive chemotherapy with alkylating agents mon practice for most patients depending on the disease at some point in their disease course. Temozolomide, histology but longer intervals might be appropriate in Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 177 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s cases of durable disease control and more benign tumours. in long- term survivors treated with radiotherapy and 81, Careful consideration of not only the most recent PCV and (2) whether the same improvement in OS MRI scan but also of the complete disease trajectory could be achieved with temozolomide- b ased chemo- is required, specifically in patients with slow- gr owing radiotherapy. Long- term results from the NOA-04 untreated lesions . Conversely, in the event of suspected trial showed that chemotherapy alone (either PCV o r disease progression, short- term control MRI within temozolomide) is not superior to radiotherapy alone 4–8 weeks might be reasonable to confirm progression. in any molecular subgroup of anaplastic glioma, thus Pseudoprogression (typically after chemoradiotherapy indicating that alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy or immunotherapy) and pseudoresponse (for example, alone is unlikely to result in the same outcome as radio- 82 83 after anti- angiogenic therapy) are most likely to occur therapy followed by PCV . The modified CODEL trial during the first 3 months of treatment but can also will address whether temozolomide- ba sed chemo- occur later . Particular attention is needed when inter - radiotherapy is similarly effective as radiotherapy preting scans during this period; in case of doubt, res- followed by PCV. canning after shorter intervals (4–8 weeks) is a pragmatic The choice of treatment at progression is influenced approach. Perfusion MRI and amino acid PET might by the choice of and response to first-lin e therapy (fig.  2). help to distinguish pseudoprogression from true disease Second surgery should always be considered. If neither progression . Biopsy sampling is not always informative radiotherapy nor alkylating agents are options owing to because viable tumour cells are regularly detected but ineffectiveness or intolerance in the first-lin e setting, their presence does not rule out pseudoprogression. bevacizumab can be used for symptom control; however, As for other non- curable diseases, patients with the antitumour efficacy of bevacizumab is unknown and gliomas should be offered counselling by specialized no evidence supports its combination with cytotoxic psychologists or nurses and palliative care specialists. agents in this setting. The need for occupational, speech and physical therapy as well as for counselling for social support should beID H-mutant astrocytoma, WHO grade 2. Most WHO assessed . grade 2 astrocytomas harbour IDH mutations. Gemisto- cytic astrocytoma is a distinct variant of IDH-mutant Therapy — specific recommendations astrocytoma, WHO grade 2. Maximal surgical resection , IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted oligodendroglioma, if safely feasible, is the best initial therapeutic approach. WHO grade 2. Surgery is the primary treatment modal- Watch- and- wait strategies without the establish- ity for patients with gliomas of this subtype. Following ment of an integrated diagnosis should only be con- surgery, watch- and- wait strategies are justified in sidered in exceptional situations, even for patients those with gross total resection and potentially als o with incidentally discovered lesions. Younger patients in younger patients (<40 years of age) with incomplete (pragmatic cut- off ~40–45 years of age) who are resection if the tumour has not yet caused neurological asymptomatic or with seizures only, can be managed deficits beyond symptomatic epilepsy. If further treat- through observation alone after gross total resection. ment bey ond surgery is deemed necessary, the standard Involved-f ield radiotherapy (50G y in 1.8 Gy fractions) of care is radiotherapy followed by PCV . The use of should be considered for patients with incomplete chemotherapy alone remains investigational but might resection and/or for patients aged >40  years. Early be an option to reduce the risk of late cognitive deficits radio therapy (as opposed to radio therapy after disease in patients with large tumours owing to the favourable progression) has been shown to prolong progression- f ree outcomes of this patient population relative to those with survival (PFS) but not OS . The use of chemotherapy 76,77 other subtypes . The choice of treatment at recurrence alone as frontline therapy remains investigational but depends on the initial treatment (TaBle  2, fig.  2). might be an option if radiotherapy is not feasible, for example, in patients with large tumours. However, the IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted oligodendroglioma, PFS is probably shorter with temozolomide than with WHO grade 3. In this subtype, the extent of resection radiotherapy in patients with IDH- mutant, grade 2 78 86 is a prognostic factor . The distinction of two grades diffuse astrocytomas . The RTOG 9802 trial reported (2 and 3) of IDH- mutant, 1p/19q- codeleted gliomas a major prolongation of OS with the addition of PCV remains controversial and, accordingly, watch- a nd- wait polychemotherapy to radiotherapy (54G y), from strategies after complete resection can also be consid- 7.8 years to 13.3 years in patients with high- risk WHO ered for younger patients (<40 years of age) with WHO grade 2 gliomas who were 18–39 years of age and had grade 3 tumours, specifically for those without homozy- undergone a subtotal resection or biopsy or in those aged gous CDKN2A/B deletion, although only after gross total ≥40 years . This benefit was reported across histological resection and in the absence of neurolog ical deficits. subgroups and, although cohort sizes were small, benefit Two large RCTs showed that the addition of PCV, either was observed in patients with either IDH- mutant astro- prior to or after radiotherapy, in the first- line of treat- cytomas or oligodendrogliomas but not in those with 79,80 87 ment approximately doubled the OS . Although these IDH- wild- type tumours . Thus, radiotherapy followed results stem from analyses of small cohorts of patients, by PCV constitutes the standard of care for patients with both studies showed similar results, thus vali da ting WHO grade 2 IDH- mutant astrocytomas deemed to the findings and defining the current standard of care. require post- surgical treatment. Important open questions include: (1) whether neuro- Treatment at progression depends on neurological cognitive function and health- r elated QOL are preserved status, patterns of progression and first- line therapy 178 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Table 2 | Key treatment recommendations for adult patients with common diffuse gliomas a b Tumour type Treatment at diagnosis Treatment at progression or Comments c,d recurrence Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO Wait- and- see or radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide (or nitrosourea) RTOG 9802 (ref. ) and per grade 2, including gemistocytic in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV (or extrapolation from WHO astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 2 temozolomide chemoradiotherapy) grade 3 tumours (cIMPACT-NOW , previously diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 2) Diffuse astrocytoma, IDH wild type, Wait- and- see (?); radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide; nitrosourea; Heterogeneous group of a,e f WHO grade 2 in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); radiotherapy bevacizumab tumours awaiting further followed by PCV or temozolomide subclassification chemoradiotherapy (by MGMT status?) Diffuse astrocytoma, NOS , WHO grade 2 See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, WHO See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, Per extrapolation because grade 2 WHO grade 2 most of these tumours carry IDH mutations Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 3 Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Nitrosourea; temozolomide (cIMPACT- NOW, previously anaplastic fractions) followed by temozolomide (or rechallenge astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 3)wait- and- see) Anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH wild type, Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in Temozolomide rechallenge; Per extrapolation WHO grade 3 1.8–2 Gy fractions); temozolomide nitrosourea; bevacizumabfrom IDH- wild- type 32,59 chemoradiotherapy, by MGMT promoter glioblastoma methylation status (?) Anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, WHO See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, WHO Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation because grade 3 grade 3 rechallenge most of these tumours carry IDH mutations Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and Wait- and- see; radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide Per extrapolation from 79,80 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 2 in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV WHO grade 3 tumours and RTOG 9802 (ref. ) Oligodendroglioma, NOS, WHO grade 2 See oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and See oligodendroglioma, Per extrapolation because 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- most of these tumours codeleted, WHO grade 2 carry IDH mutations 79,80 Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Temozolomide 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 3 fractions) followed by PCV (or (cIMPACT-NOW , previously anaplastic wait- and- see) oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 3) Anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS, See oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and See oligodendroglioma, Per extrapolation because WHO grade 3 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 3IDH- mutant and most of these tumours 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO carry IDH mutations grade 3 Oligoastrocytoma, NOS, WHO grade 2 Wait- and- see; radiotherapy (50–54 Gy in Temozolomide Per extrapolation from 79,80 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV WHO grade 3 tumours and RTOG 9802 (ref. ) 79,80 Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, NOS, WHO Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Temozolomide grade 3 fractions) followed by PCV (or wait- and- see) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 4 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation from (cIMPACT-NOW , previously glioblastoma, (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) rechallenge; bevacizumabIDH- mutant anaplastic IDH-mutant, WHO grade 4) (potentially without concomitant astrocytoma or from temozolomide) glioblastoma 59,94,96–98 Glioblastoma, IDH wild type, Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide WHO grade 4; giant cell glioblastoma; (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); for rechallenge; bevacizumab ; gliosarcoma; epithelioid glioblastoma patients aged >65–70 years and MGMT radiotherapy (for patients unmethylated tumours, radiotherapy not previously treated with (40 Gy in 2.67 Gy fractions); for patients radiotherapy) aged >65–70 years and MGMT methylated tumours, temozolomide chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Glioblastoma, NOS, WHO grade 4 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide; (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); for rechallenge; bevacizumab ; patients aged >65–70 years and MGMT radiotherapy (for patients unmethylated tumours, radiotherapy not previously treated with (40 Gy in 2.67 Gy fractions); for patients radiotherapy) aged >65–70 years and MGMT methylated tumours, temozolomide chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 179 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Table 2 (cont.) Key treatment recommendations for adult patients with common diffuse gliomas a b Tumour type Treatment at diagnosis Treatment at progression or Comments c,d recurrence Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant, Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation WHO grade 4 1.8–2 Gy fractions); temozolomide rechallenge; bevacizumab chemoradiotherapy Diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3.3 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation G34- mutant, WHO grade 4 rechallenge; bevacizumab 1 2–4 According to the 2016 WHO classification and cIMPACT- NOW updates 3, 5 and 6 (refs ). NOS, not otherwise specified; PCV, procarbazine, lomustine and a b vincristine. Provisional and NOS tumour categories are indicated in italics. Maximum safe resection is recommended whenever feasible in all patients with newly diagnosed gliomas. Second surgery should always be considered but clinical benefit might be limited to patients in whom a gross total resection can be achieved. Indications for reirradiation remain controversial. Re- exposure to temozolomide and nitrosoureas is associated with limited activity in tumours without MGMT promoter methylation. Diffuse astrocytomas, IDH wild type are a heterogeneous tumour group that should be further molecularly characterized to separate malignant tumours with molecular features of IDH-wild- type glioblastoma from indolent tumours (for example, corresponding to paediatric-type diffuse gliomas). f g Depending on local availability. Management recommendations for NOS categories are included, but evidence is low. Of note, most practice-defining trials included herein enrolled patients prior to the 2016 revision of the WHO classification. Tumour- treating fields remain controversial when applied in the temozolomide maintenance setting despite a phase III trial with positive results and are not widely available in Europe. (fig.  2). Second surgery should always be considered, patients with contrast-e nhancing recurrent IDH-m utant usually followed by radiotherapy in patients who had gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion . not previously received irradiation, or by alkylating agent-b ased chemotherapy. Temozolomide is often pre- Recommendations. ferred over PCV in this setting owing to its favourable • The standard of care for IDH- mutant astrocyto- safety profile and ease of administration. mas, WHO grade 2 requiring further treatment includes resection as feasible or biopsy followed by IDH- mutant astrocytoma, WHO grade 3. The standard involved field radiotherapy and maintenance PCV of care for patients with this disease subtype is maximal polychemotherapy (RTOG 9802) . C: II; L: B. surgical resection or biopsy followed by radiotherapy at • The standard of care for IDH- mutant astrocyto- 60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions (TaBle  1). This approach was mas, WHO grade 3 includes resection as feasible or established largely based on trials in which subgroups of biopsy followed by involved field radiotherapy an d patients with WHO grade 3 tumours were pooled with maintenance temozolomide (CATNON) . C: II; L: B. those with glioblastomas. The NOA-04 trial showed • Patients with IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted similar PFS and OS with PCV or temozolomide alone oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 requiring fur - 78,82 versus radiotherapy alone . The EORTC 26053 trial ther treatment should be treated with radiotherapy (CATNON) of radiotherapy alone, with concomitant or followed by PCV polychemotherapy. C: III; L: B. maintenance temozolomide or with both concomitant • Patients with IDH-m utant and 1p/19q-co deleted oli- and maintenance temozolomide showed a significant godendrogliomas, WHO grade 3 should be treated prolongation of OS in patients receiving radiotherapy with radiotherapy followed by PCV polychemotherap y 79,80 followed by 12 cycles of maintenance temozolomide (EORTC 26951, RTOG 9402) . C: II; L: B. and, thus, this approach should be considered standard • Temozolomide chemotherapy is standard treat- of care; however, the role of concomitant temozolo- ment at progression after surgery and radiotherapy mide remains uncertain . Indeed, updated data from for most patients with IDH- mutant gliomas, WHO CATNON indicate that concomitant temozolomide pro- grade 2 or 3. C: II; L: B. vides limited improvement to the overall favourable out- comes associated with maintenance chemotherapy and, IDH- wild- type glioblastoma, WHO grade 4. These more importantly, that only patients with IDH- m utant tumours include histologic variants such as giant cell tumours derive benefit from chemotherapy (either as glioblastoma, gliosarcoma and epithelioid glioblastoma. maintenance or concomitantly) . Tumours formerly diagnosed as IDH-m utant glioblas- First- line therapy informs the choice of treatment toma are now referred to as IDH- mutant astrocytoma, in the recurrent disease setting (f ig.  2). Second surgery WHO grade 4, and are managed either as IDH-w ild- t ype should be considered for all patients. For those with glioblastoma or as IDH- m utant astrocytoma, WHO disease relapse after radiotherapy, re-ir radiation after grade 3 (TaBle  2). a minimum interval of ~12 months following the first Surgery for glioblastoma should involve gross total course of radiotherapy is an option, although tumour resection whenever feasible . A small RCT in patients size and patterns of recurrence limit the option of aged >65 years at diagnosis of a WHO grade 3 or 4 gli- re- irradiation and the overall efficacy of this strategy oma reported longer OS durations with resection versus remains uncertain in the absence of data from RCTs. biopsy , but the relevance of this trial remains debatable Alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy should be consid- owing to the limited sample size and KPS imbalances ered for patients who have not received previous chemo- between treatment groups. therapy and with disease progression after radiotherapy. For decades, radiotherapy (60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy frac- Temozolomide and nitrosoureas are probably equally tions) has been the standard of care for glioblastoma, 90,91 50 effective in this setting . Adding bevacizumab to approximately doubling median OS durations . Radio- temozolomide prolongs neither PFS nor OS durations in therapy (50 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions) improved OS relative 180 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s IDH-mutant glioma Treatment at diagnosis Biopsy or resection followed by early (<48 h) postoperative MRI or CT (baseline for monitoring and detection of progression) Oligodendroglioma, Oligodendroglioma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, 1p/19q- IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, codeleted, 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 WHO grade 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 2 WHO grade 3 Favourable Less favourable Favourable Less favourable Prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors Age, neurological deficit, • Age <40 years • Age ≥40 years • Age <40 years • Age ≥40 years residual tumour, as for • No neurological deficits • Neurological deficits • No neurological deficits • Neurological deficits WHO grade 2/3 • Low tumour burden • Residual tumour • Low tumour burden • Residual tumour IDH-mutant astrocytomas • Grade 2 • Grade 3 • Grade 2 • Grade 3 Wait and see or Radiotherapy followed Wait and see or Radiotherapy followed Radiotherapy followed radiotherapy followed by PCV radiotherapy followed by temozolomide by temozolomide by PCV (temozolomide by PCV (radiotherapy followed (without or with (temozolomide chemoradiotherapy) (radiotherapy followed by PCV) concomitant chemoradiotherapy) by temozolomide) temozolomide) Follow-up 3–6-monthly intervals: neurological examination and imaging Progression or recurrence Options determined by KPS, neurological function and prior treatment • Repeat surgery • Alkylating chemotherapy • Re-irradiation • Experimental therapy Palliative care Fig. 2 Clinical pathway for IDH-mutant gliomas. KPS, Karnofsky performance status; PCV, procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine. to best supportive care in patients aged ≥70 years with a The addition of temozolomide to hypofractionated 51 54 good KPS (≥70) . Patients with unfavourable prognos- radiotherapy has also been shown to improve OS in tic factors (defined by age and/or KPS) can be treated patients aged ≥60 years . The benefit from temozolo- with hypofractionated radiotherapy (such as 40 Gy in 15 mide is largely limited to patients with MGMT promoter - 94,95 fractions), which has similar activity to irradiation with methylated glioblastoma . The results of the NOA-08 54 96,97 98 60 Gy in 30 fractions . Further hypo fractionation to (refs ) and Nordic trials led to MGMT promoter 5 × 5 Gy does not seem to compromise OS but is likely methylation testing becoming standard practice in to cause neurocognitive adverse events if, in the future, many European countries for the management of elderly elderly patients with glioblastoma live longer becausep atients not considered eligible for combined modality of improved systemic treatment. Neither accelerated treatment: patients with tumours lacking MGMT pro- hyperfractionated or hypofractionated regimens nor moter methylation or of unknown MGMT promoter brachytherapy, radiosurgery or a stereo tactic radio- methylation status should be treated with hypofraction- therapy boost are superior to standard radio therapy ated radiotherapy alone whereas those with tumours regimens in terms of OS . Concomitant radiotherapy with MGMT promoter methylation status should and chemotherapy with temozolomide (75m g/m daily receive temozolomide alone (5 out of 28 days until di -s throughout radiotherapy, including at weekends) plus six ease progression or for 12 months) . Until 2016, the cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 m g/m , broad consensus was that the results of all trials involv- 5 out of 28 days) is the standard of care for adults with ing patients with tumours without MGMT promoter newly diagnosed glioblastoma who are in good general methylation showed no detriment from the omission 59 99 and neurological condition and are aged <70 years . of temozolomide , challenging the view that this agent Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 181 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s should be used in every patient regardless of MGMT cohort, did not show superior PFS for the combination promoter methylation status. This notion has become and might deprive patients from lomustine, the standard controversial again after a minor OS prolongation with of care at recurrence; thus, the use of this regimen appears radiotherapy plus temozolomide versus radiotherapy to be largely restricted to some sites in German- sp eaking alone was observed in elderly patients with glioblasto- countries. The results of two phase III trials involving mas lacking MGMT promoter methylation and with adults with glioblastoma demonstrated a prolongation the negative outcome of the CheckMate 498 trial . of PFS (3–4 months) but not of OS when bevacizumab 108,109 An open- label phase III trial of the addition of was added to temozolomide chemoradiotherapy . tumour- treating fields to maintenance temozolomide A phase II trial involving a small cohort of elderly in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma revealed patients with MGMT promoter- unmethylated glio- superior PFS and OS outcomes across all patient and blastoma had similar results ; however, the clinical tumour subgroups , without relevant differences in significance of such PFS gains is unclear because the QOL between arms . However, questions have been reliability of assessing progression by neuroimaging can raised regarding the mode of action, the study design be questioned and because data from the RTOG 0825 without a sham control, the interpretation of data trial raised concerns of early cognitive decline in patients and the effect on health-r elated QOL in the general treated with bevacizumab . Bevacizumab has therefore patient population . Additionally, the feasibility and not been approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed cost- effectiveness of tumour- treating fields as a stan- glioblastoma, with very few exceptions worldwide, but dard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma remain could be useful in patients with large tumours who are highly controversial . A focus on supportive and highly symptomatic and who might not otherwise tole r- palliative care is appropriate for patients with large or ate radiotherapy. In the field of immunotherapy, negative multifocal lesions with a low KPS, notably if they a re phase III trials for OS include that of the EGFRt -a rgeted unable to provide consent for further therapy after vaccine rindopepimut in patients with EGFRvIII-p ositive 74 111 biopsy . glioblastoma and that of the immune checkpoint No benefit has been reported from increasing the inhibitor nivolumab in patients with MGMT promoter dose of temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed unmethylated glioblastoma . disease nor from extending the duration of chemother- Standard- of- care treatments for patients with recur- apy beyond six cycles . However, combining temozolo- rent glioblastoma are not well defined; treatment is mide with lomustine in the newly diagnosed setting might selected on the basis of prior therapy, age, KPS, MGMT extend OS in patients with MGMT promoter-m ethylated promoter methylation status and patterns of disease glioblastoma . This phase III trial involved a small progression (fig.  3). Second surgery is an option for Glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 Treatment at diagnosis Biopsy or resection followed by early (<48h) postoperative MRI or CT (baseline for monitoring and detection of progression) Favourable Unfavourable Unfavourable Unfavourable Very unfavourable prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors • Age <70 years • KPS <70 years • Age >70 years • Age >70 years • KPS <50 • KPS ≥70 • MGMT promoter • MGMT promoter or non-methylated methylated inability to consent to treatment Temozolomide Radiotherapy Radiotherapy Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy (hypofractionated) (hypofractionated) chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Follow-up 2–3-monthly intervals: neurological examination and imaging Progression/recurrence Options determined by KPS, neurological function and prior treatment • Repeat surgery • Alkylating chemotherapy Palliative care • Bevacizumab • Re-irradiation • Experimental therapy Fig. 3 Clinical pathway for IDH- wild- type glioblastomas, WHO grade 4. KPS, Karnofsky performance status. 182 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s ~20–30% of patients, commonly with symptomatic rare epithelioid glioblastomas, an entity that remains but circumscribed relapses diagnosed not earlier than controversial because of its similarity to anaplastic V600E 6 months after initial surgery. Second surgery earlier pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, harbour BRAF than 6 months after initial surgery increases the risk of mutations. Patients with such tumours might benefit unnecessary intervention on the basis of pseudopro- from BRAF inhibitors, at least in the setting of disease gression and is unlikely to provide durable benefit if the recurrence . initial surgery followed by radiotherapy did not provide tumour control for more than a few months. Second Recommendations. surgery can also be considered upon early progression • The standard of care for patients with IDH- wild- t ype in symptomatic patients who might not have had ade- glioblastoma aged <70 years and with a KPS > 70 quate initial surgery. This procedure might improve includes resection as feasible or biopsy followed by post- recurrence survival in patients who are candidates involved- field radiotherapy and concomitant radio- for gross total resection of enhancing tumour . therapy and six cycles of maintenance temozolo- The efficacy of re- irradiation and the value of mide chemotherapy (EORTC 26981- NCIC CE.3) . amino acid PET for target delineation remain debated. C: I; L: A. Radiation fractionation depends on tumour size. Larger • Temozolomide might only be active in patients with lesions require smaller single fraction sizes to improve MGMT promoter- methylated tumours whereas the safety and tolerability. Doses of conventional or its activity in patients with MGMT promoter- near conventional fractionation have been tested as unmethylated tumours is probably marginal. well as higher doses per fraction (5–6 G y) using stereo- C: II; L: B. tactic hypofractionated radiotherapy to a total dose • Elderly patients not considered candidates for of 30–36 Gy or even radiosurgery with a single dose of temozolomide chemoradiotherapy should be treated 15–20 Gy, all with acceptable toxicity profiles. The on the basis of MGMT promoter methylation status only RCT exploring bevacizumab plus radiotherapy (NOA-08, Nordic Trial) with radiotherapy (such as versus bevacizumab alone reported improved PFS but 15 × 2.66 Gy) or temozolomide (5 out of 28 days) 114 96,98,97 not OS . alone . C: II; L: B. The main systemic treatment options for patients • At recurrence, standards of care are less well defined. with disease progression include nitrosoureas, temozo- Surgery and radiotherapy might be considered. lomide rechallenge, bevacizumab (depending on avail- Nitrosourea regimens, temozolomide rechallenge ability) or inclusion into a clinical trial. Lomustine and, with consideration of the country- specific label, (90–110 mg/m ) has never been shown to have superi- bevacizumab are options of pharmacotherapy but an ority over another agent in an RCT but is increasingly impact on OS remains unproven. When available, considered as the most appropriate standard of care recruitment into appropriate clinical trials should be on the basis of its activity as the control arm of several considered. C: II; L: B. 65,115 116 RCTs and is also used in the AGILE trial , with 6- month PFS rates of ~20% . Similar results have been H3 K27M- mutant diffuse midline glioma, WHO grade 4. reported with alternative dosing schedules of temozolo- This tumour type includes the majority of brainstem, mide but activity is probably limited to patients with thalamic and spinal diffuse gliomas in children and 117,118 tumours with MGMT promoter methylation . No adults. Surgical options are limited and benefits from data from RCTs support the view that dose- intensified treatment options beyond radiotherapy have not been schedules are superior to standard-dos e temozolo- established because these tumours are rare and have mide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a not been studied in dedicated trials. In these tumours, temozolomide- free interval. the MGMT promoter is usually unmethylated. The Bevacizumab is not approved for patients with recur- prognosis of patients with this tumour type is poor. rent glioblastoma in the European Union, although it has been approved for this indication in other countries H3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric glioma, WHO on the basis of objective response rates of ~30% in two grade 4. These tumours mostly occur in adolescents and 66,67 uncontrolled phase II trials . Bevacizumab has not young adults and the MGMT promoter is more often been compared with placebo, and an effect on OS was methyl ated than unmethylated . These tumours were not observed upon combination with lomustine as com- pre viously classified as IDH- w ild-t ype glioblastomas pared with lomustine alone . To date, no active combi- and, thus, a reasonable treatment approach for such nation partner for bevacizumab to prolong OS has been patients is chemoradiotherapy. identified. The main value of this agent in routine clini- cal practice is transient symptom control and the option Discouraged treatments. Steroids should not be given to for sparing treatment with steroids in symptomatic treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic oedema patients with large tumours. and should be tapered as soon as possible, considering In other studies of potential treatments for recurrent their unfavourable safety profile upon long t - erm admin- glioblastoma, nivolumab was not superior to bevaciz- istration. Furthermore, steroid use has been shown to be umab and tumour- treating fields were not superior a negative prognostic factor for OS in patients with glio- 120 123 to physician’s choice of best treatment . So far, only blastoma from three separate large cohorts and might a limited role for targeted therapy in recurrent glio- interfere with the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy blastoma has been shown . Approximately 50% of the and immunotherapy. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 183 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Furthermore, we advocate against the use of any gliomas. The diagnosis and management plans should treatment beyond confirmed progression on that follow multidisciplinary tumour board recommend -a same treatment, including bevacizumab and tumour- tions throughout the course of disease. Multidisciplinary treating fields, because the clinical benefit of this prac- tumour board meetings are the fora for the discussion tice has not been established. Several chemotherapy of whether treatments should be delivered locally or regimens commonly used to treat other tumour types, at a specialized centre and in inpatient or outpatient including irinotecan and platinum compounds, are settings as well as to determine which neurorehabi-l known not to be active against gliomas and should itation measures would be useful. Local and national therefore not be used in this setting. guidelines as well as EANO guidelines provide further Given the poor outcomes of many patients with guidance. Guidelines reflect knowledge and consensus diffuse gliomas, new treatment concepts emerge and at a given time; information on future updates will be vanish that have never been tested in appropriate RCTs posted on the EANO website. For many of the newly and the use of which outside a clinical trial is discour - defined disease entities in the latest WHO classifica- aged. Examples include the cocktail of repurposed tion, data on specific treatments and outcomes are not drugs referred to as CUSP9, cannabinoids, methadone, yet available; extrapolating data from clinical trials to sulfasalazine and valproate (except for seizure control). these novel entities remains challenging. Wel desig l- ned, molecularly enriched RCTs are necessary to substantiate Conclusions some of the treatment recommendations of the present The revision of the WHO Classification of Tumors of guidelines. the Central Nervous System has led to major changes in the way we routinely diagnose and treat patients with Published online 8 December 2020 1. Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D. & 15. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. IDH- mutant gliomas. Neuro- Oncology 21, Cavenee, W. K. (eds) World Health Organization ‘Mini- mental state’. A practical method for grading 1519–1528 (2019). Histological Classification of Tumors of the Central the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. 30. Tesileanu, C. M. S. et al. Survival of diffuse astrocytic Nervous System (International Agency for Research J. Psychiatr. Res. 12, 189–198 (1975). glioma, IDH1/2 wildtype, with molecular features on Cancer, 2016) 16. Nasreddine, Z. S. et al. The montreal cognitive of glioblastoma, WHO grade IV: a confirmation of 2. Brat, D. J. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 3: assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for the cIMPACT- NOW criteria. Neuro- Oncology 22, recommended diagnostic criteria for ‘Diffuse astrocytic mild cognitive impairment. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 53, 515–523 (2020). glioma, IDH- wildtype, with molecular features of 31. Reuss, D. E. et al. Adult IDH wild type astrocytomas 695–699 (2005). glioblastoma, WHO grade IV’. Acta Neuropathol. 136, 17. Ellingson, B. M., Wen, P. Y. & Cloughesy, T. F. modified biologically and clinically resolve into other tumor 805–810 (2018). criteria for radiographic response assessment in entities. Acta Neuropathol. 130, 407–417 (2015). 3. Brat, D. J. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 5: glioblastoma clinical trials. Neurotherapeutics 14, 32. Wick, W. et al. Prognostic or predictive value of MGMT recommended grading criteria and terminologies for 307–320 (2017). promoter methylation in gliomas depends on IDH1 IDH- mutant astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol. 139, mutation. Neurology 81, 1515–1522 (2013). 18. Albert, N. L. et al. Response assessment in neuro- 603–608 (2020). oncology working group and european association 33. Bady, P., Delorenzi, M. & Hegi, M. E. Sensitivity 4. Louis, D. N. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 6: new for neuro- oncology recommendations for the clinical analysis of the MGMT- STP27 model and impact entity and diagnostic principle recommendations of use of PET imaging in gliomas. Neuro- Oncology 18, of genetic and epigenetic context to predict the the cIMPACT-Utr echt meeting on future CNS tumor 1199–1208 (2016). MGMT methylation status in gliomas and other classification and grading. Brain Pathol. 30, 844–856 tumors. J. Mol. Diagn. 18, 350–361 (2016). 19. Le Rhun, E., Seoane, J., Salzet, M., Soffietti, R. (2020). & Weller, M. Liquid biopsies for diagnosing and 34. Preusser, M. et al. Anti- O6-methylguanine- 5. Weller, M. et al. European association for neuro- monitoring primary tumors of the central nervous methyltransferase (MGMT) immunohistochemistry oncology (EANO) guideline on the diagnosis and system. Cancer Lett. 480, 24–28 (2020). in glioblastoma multiforme: observer variability and treatment of adult astrocytic and oligodendroglial 20. Roth, P. et al. Neurological and vascular complications lack of association with patient survival impede its gliomas. Lancet Oncol. 18, e315–e329 (2017). use as clinical biomarker. Brain Pathol. 18, 520–532 of primary and secondary brain tumors: EANO- ESMO 6. Brainin, M. et al. Guidance for the preparation Clinical Practice Guidelines for prophylaxis, diagnosis, (2008). of neurological management guidelines by EFNS treatment and follow- up. Ann. Oncol. https://doi.org/ 35. Sahm, F. et al. Next- generation sequencing in scientific task forces- revised recommendations 2004. 10.1093/annonc/mdx221 (2020). routine brain tumor diagnostics enables an Eur. J. Neurol. 11, 577–581 (2004). 21. Williams, M., Treasure, P., Greenberg, D., Brodbelt, A. integrated diagnosis and identifies actionable targets. 7. Ostrom, Q. T. et al. CBTRUS statistical report: Acta Neuropathol. 131, 903–910 (2016). & Collins, P. Surgeon volume and 30 day mortality primary brain and other central nervous system for brain tumours in England. Br. J. Cancer 115, 36. Zacher, A. et al. Molecular diagnostics of gliomas tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2012-2016. 1379–1382 (2016). using next generation sequencing of a glioma- tailored Neuro- Oncology 21 (Suppl. 5), v1–v100 (2019). 22. Eigenbrod, S. et al. Molecular stereotactic biopsy gene panel. Brain Pathol. 27, 146–159 (2017). 8. Rice, T. et al. Understanding inherited genetic risk of technique improves diagnostic accuracy and enables 37. Capper, D. et al. DNA methylation- based classification adult glioma - a review. Neurooncol. Pract. 3, 10–16 personalized treatment strategies in glioma patients. of central nervous system tumours. Nature 555, (2016). Acta Neurochir. 156, 1427–1440 (2014). 469–474 (2018). 9. Posti, J. P. et al. Presenting symptoms of glioma in 23. Hamisch, C. A. et al. Frame- based stereotactic 38. Ferguson, S. D. et al. Targetable gene fusions adults. Acta Neurol. Scand. 131, 88–93 (2015). biopsy of deep- seated and midline structures in 511 associate with the IDH wild- type astrocytic lineage 10. Rasmussen, B. K. et al. Epidemiology of glioma: procedures: feasibility, risk profile, and diagnostic in adult gliomas. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 77, clinical characteristics, symptoms, and predictors yield. Acta Neurochir. 161, 2065–2071 (2019). 437–442 (2018). of glioma patients grade I- IV in the the danish 24. Grasbon- Frodl, E. M. et al. Intratumoral homogeneity 39. Stichel, D. et al. Routine RNA sequencing of neuro- oncology registry. J. Neurooncol. 135, of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as formalin- fixed paraffin- embedded specimens in 571–579 (2017). demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens neuropathology diagnostics identifies diagnostically 11. Peeters, M. C. M. et al. Prediagnostic symptoms and from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. and therapeutically relevant gene fusions. signs of adult glioma: the patients’ view. J. Neurooncol. Int. J. Cancer 121, 2458–2464 (2007). Acta Neuropathol. 138, 827–835 (2019). 146, 293–301 (2020). 25. Millesi, M. et al. Is intraoperative pathology needed 40. Stummer, W. et al. Fluorescence- guided surgery 12. Pace, A. et al. Determining medical decision- making if 5-aminolevulinic- acid-induced tissue fluorescence with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant capacity in brain tumor patients: why and how? is found in stereotactic brain tumor biopsy? glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III Neurooncol. Pract. https://doi.org/10.1093/nop/ Neurosurgery 86, 366–373 (2020). trial. Lancet Oncol. 7, 392–401 (2006). npaa040 (2020). 26. Shirahata, M. et al. Novel, improved grading system(s) 41. De Witt Hamer, P. C., Robles, S. G., Zwinderman, A. H., 13. Nayak, L. et al. The neurologic assessment in neuro- for IDH-mut ant astrocytic gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. Duffau, H. & Berger, M. S. Impact of intraoperative oncology (NANO) scale: a tool to assess neurologic 136, 153–166 (2018). stimulation brain mapping on glioma surgery function for integration into the response assessment 27. Banan, R. et al. Infratentorial IDH- mutant astrocytoma outcome: a meta- analysis. J. Clin. Oncol. 30, in neuro- oncology (RANO) criteria. Neuro- Oncology is a distinct subtype. Acta Neuropathol. 140, 2559–2565 (2012). 19, 625–635 (2017). 569–581 (2020). 42. Brennum, J., Maier, C. M., Almdal, K., Engelmann, C. M. 14. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Bevacizumab and 28. Reinhardt, A. et al. Tumors diagnosed as cerebellar & Gjerris, M. Primo non nocere or maximum survival temozolomide in patients with first recurrence of WHO glioblastoma comprise distinct molecular entities. in grade 2 gliomas? A medical ethical question. grade II and III glioma, without 1p/19q co- deletion Acta Neuropathol. Commun. 7, 163 (2019). Acta Neurochir. 157, 155–164 (2015). (TAVAREC): a randomised controlled phase 2 EORTC 29. Appay, R. et al. CDKN2A homozygous deletion is a 43. Gulati, S., Jakola, A. S., Nerland, U. S., Weber, C. trial. Lancet Oncol. 19, 1170–1179 (2018). strong adverse prognosis factor in diffuse malignant & Solheim, O. The risk of getting worse: surgically 184 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s acquired deficits, perioperative complications, and 67. Kreisl, T. N. et al. Phase II trial of single- agent randomised, open- label intergroup study. Lancet functional outcomes after primary resection of bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus irinotecan https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31442-3 glioblastoma. World Neurosurg. 76, 572–579 (2011). at tumor progression in recurrent glioblastoma. (2017). 44. Bette, S. et al. Patterns and time dependence of J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 740–745 (2009). 89. van den Bent, M. et al. ACTR-11. Second interim unspecific enhancement in postoperative magnetic 68. Wen, P. Y. et al. Updated response assessment and 1st molecular analysis of the EORTC randomized resonance imaging after glioblastoma resection. criteria for high- grade gliomas: response assessment phase III intergroup CATNON trial on concurrent and World Neurosurg. 90, 440–447 (2016). in neuro-oncology w orking group. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, adjuvant temozolomide in anaplastic glioma without 45. Grabowski, M. M. et al. Residual tumor volume versus 1963–1972 (2010). 1p/19q codeletion. Neuro- Oncology 21, vi14–vi14 extent of resection: predictors of survival after surgery 69. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Response assessment (2019). for glioblastoma. J. Neurosurg. 121, 1115–1123 in neuro-oncology (a r eport of the RANO group): 90. Yung, W. K. et al. Multicenter phase II trial of (2014). assessment of outcome in trials of diffuse low- grade temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma 46. Molinaro, A. M. et al. Association of maximal extent gliomas. Lancet Oncol. 12, 583–593 (2011). or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma at first relapse. of resection of contrast- enhanced and non- contrast- 70. Radbruch, A. et al. Pseudoprogression in patients with Temodal Brain Tumor Group. J. Clin. Oncol. 17, enhanced tumor with survival within molecular glioblastoma: clinical relevance despite low incidence. 2762–2771 (1999). subgroups of patients with newly diagnosed Neuro- Oncology 17, 151–159 (2015). 91. Brada, M. et al. Temozolomide versus procarbazine, glioblastoma. JAMA Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1001/ 71. Ellingson, B. M. et al. Consensus recommendations lomustine, and vincristine in recurrent high- grade jamaoncol.2019.6143 (2020). for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol glioma. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 4601–4608 (2010). 47. Wijnenga, M. M. J. et al. The impact of surgery in in clinical trials. Neuro- Oncology 17, 1188–1198 92. Vuorinen, V., Hinkka, S., Färkkilä, M. & Jääskeläinen, J. molecularly defined low- grade glioma: an integrated (2015). Debulking or biopsy of malignant glioma in elderly clinical, radiological, and molecular analysis. 72. Gui, C., Lau, J. C., Kosteniuk, S. E., Lee, D. H. & people - a randomised study. Acta Neurochir. 145, Neuro- Oncology 20, 103–112 (2018). Megyesi, J. F. Radiology reporting of low- grade 5–10 (2003). 48. Press, R. H. et al. Optimal timing of glioma growth underestimates tumor expansion. 93. Roa, W. et al. International atomic energy agency chemoradiotherapy after surgical resection of Acta Neurochir. 161, 569–576 (2019). randomized phase III study of radiation therapy in glioblastoma: Stratification by validated prognostic 73. Zikou, A. et al. Radiation necrosis, pseudoprogression, elderly and/or frail patients with newly diagnosed classification. Cancer 126, 3255–3264 (2020). pseudoresponse, and tumor recurrence: imaging glioblastoma multiforme. J. Clin. Oncol. 33, 49. Beiko, J. et al. IDH1 mutant malignant astrocytomas challenges for the evaluation of treated gliomas. 4145–4150 (2015). are more amenable to surgical resection and have a Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 2018, 6828396 94. Perry, J. R. et al. Short- course radiation plus survival benefit associated with maximal surgical (2018). temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma. resection. Neuro- Oncology 16, 81–91 (2014). 74. Pace, A. et al. European association for neuro- N. Engl. J. Med. 376, 1027–1037 (2017). 50. Walker, M. D. et al. Evaluation of BCNU and/or oncology (EANO) guidelines for palliative care in 95. Hegi, M. E. et al. MGMT gene silencing and benefit radiotherapy in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. adults with glioma. Lancet Oncol. 18, e330–e340 from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. Med. A cooperative clinical trial. J. Neurosurg. 49, 333–343 (2017). 352, 997–1003 (2005). (1978). 75. Buckner, J. C. et al. Radiation plus procarbazine, 96. Wick, W. et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy alone 51. Keime- Guibert, F. et al. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma CCNU, and vincristine in low- grade glioma. versus radiotherapy alone for malignant astrocytoma in the elderly. N. Engl. J. Med. 356, 1527–1535 N. Engl. J. Med. 374, 1344–1355 (2016). in the elderly: the NOA-08 randomised, phase 3 trial. (2007). 76. Wahl, M. et al. Chemotherapy for adult low- grade Lancet Oncol. 13, 707–715 (2012). 52. Breen, W. G. et al. Final report from Intergroup NCCTG gliomas: clinical outcomes by molecular subtype 97. Wick, A. et al. Superiority of temozolomide over 86-72-51 (Alliance): a phase III randomized clinical in a phase II study of adjuvant temozolomide. radiotherapy for elderly patients with RTK II trial of high- dose versus low- dose radiation for adult Neuro- Oncology 19, 242–251 (2017). methylation class, MGMT promoter- methylated low- grade glioma. Neuro- Oncology 22, 830–837 77. Rudà, R. et al. Efficacy of initial temozolomide for malignant astrocytoma. Neuro- Oncology (2020). high-risk lo w grade gliomas in a phase II AINO (Italian https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa033 (2020). 53. Khan, L. et al. External beam radiation dose Association for Neuro- Oncology) study: a post- hoc 98. Malmström, A. et al. Temozolomide versus standard escalation for high grade glioma. Cochrane Database analysis within molecular subgroups of WHO 2016. 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated Syst. Rev. 5, CD011475 (2020). J. Neurooncol. 145, 115–123 (2019). radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with 54. Roa, W. et al. Abbreviated course of radiation therapy 78. Wick, W. et al. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. in older patients with glioblastoma multiforme: sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma Lancet Oncol. 13, 916–926 (2012). a prospective randomized clinical trial. J. Clin. Oncol. with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or 99. Weller, M. Where does O6 -methylguanine DNA 22, 1583–1588 (2004). temozolomide. J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 5874–5880 methyltransferase promoter methylation assessment 55. Niyazi, M. et al. ESTRO- ACROP guideline ‘target (2009). place temozolomide in the future standards of care delineation of glioblastomas’. Radiother. Oncol. 118, 79. Cairncross, G. et al. Phase III trial of for glioblastoma? Cancer 124, 1316–1318 (2018). 35–42 (2016). chemoradiotherapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: 100. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov 56. Harrabi, S. B. et al. Dosimetric advantages of proton long- term results of RTOG 9402. J. Clin. Oncol. 31, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02617589 therapy over conventional radiotherapy with photons 337–343 (2013). (2020). in young patients and adults with low- grade glioma. 80. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, 101. Stupp, R. et al. Effect of tumor- treating fields Strahlenther. Onkol. 192, 759–769 (2016). lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in newly plus maintenance temozolomide vs maintenance 57. Malouff, T. D., Peterson, J. L., Mahajan, A. & diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long- term temozolomide alone on survival in patients with Trifiletti, D. M. Carbon ion radiotherapy in the follow-up of EOR TC brain tumor group study 26951. glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 318, treatment of gliomas: a review. J. Neurooncol. 145, J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 344–350 (2013). 2306–2316 (2017). 102. Taphoorn, M. J. B. et al. Influence of treatment with 191–199 (2019). 81. Habets, E. J. J. et al. Health- related quality of life 58. Nachbichler, S. B. & Kreth, F.-W. Brachytherapy of and cognitive functioning in long- term anaplastic tumor- treating fields on health- related quality of intracranial gliomas. Prog. Neurol. Surg. 31, 72–86 oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma survivors. life of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: (2018). J. Neurooncol. 116, 161–168 (2014). a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. 59. Stupp, R. et al. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and 82. Wick, W. et al. Long- term analysis of the JAMA Oncol. 4, 495–504 (2018). 103. Wick, W. TTFields: where does all the skepticism come adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential Med. 352, 987–996 (2005). radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with PCV from? Neuro- Oncology 18, 303–305 (2016). 60. Weller, M. & Le Rhun, E. How did lomustine become or temozolomide. Neuro- Oncology 18, 1529–1537 104. Bernard- Arnoux, F. et al. The cost- effectiveness of standard of care in recurrent glioblastoma? Cancer (2016). tumor- treating fields therapy in patients with newly Treat. Rev. 87, 102029 (2020). 83. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov diagnosed glioblastoma. Neuro- Oncology 18, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00887146 1129–1136 (2016). 61. Brem, H. et al. Placebo- controlled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative controlled delivery (2020). 105. Gilbert, M. R. et al. Dose- dense temozolomide for by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy 84. Jakola, A. S. et al. Surgical resection versus watchful newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a randomized phase III for recurrent gliomas. The Polymer- brain Tumor waiting in low- grade gliomas. Ann. Oncol. 28, clinical trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 4085–4091 (2013). Treatment Group. Lancet 345, 1008–1012 (1995). 1942–1948 (2017). 106. Balana, C. et al. A phase II randomized, multicenter, 85. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Long- term efficacy open- label trial of continuing adjuvant temozolomide 62. Westphal, M. et al. A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine of early versus delayed radiotherapy for low- grade beyond six cycles in patients with glioblastoma (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: (GEINO 14-01). Neuro- Oncology https://doi.org/ primary malignant glioma. Neuro- Oncology 5, the EORTC 22845 randomised trial. Lancet 366, 10.1093/neuonc/noaa107 (2020). 79–88 (2003). 985–990 (2005). 107. Herrlinger, U. et al. Lomustine- temozolomide 86. Baumert, B. G. et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy combination therapy versus standard temozolomide 63. Wen, P. Y. et al. Glioblastoma in adults: a Society for Neuro- Oncology (SNO) and European Society of versus radiotherapy in high- risk low- grade glioma therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma Neuro- Oncology (EANO) consensus review on current (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open- label, with methylated MGMT promoter (CeTeG/NOA-09): management and future directions. Neuro- Oncology phase 3 intergroup study. Lancet Oncol. 17, a randomised, open- label, phase 3 trial. Lancet 393, https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa106 (2020). 1521–1532 (2016). 678–688 (2019). 87. Bell, E. H. et al. Comprehensive genomic analysis 108. Chinot, O. L. et al. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy- 64. Touat, M. et al. Mechanisms and therapeutic implications of hypermutation in gliomas. Nature 580, in NRG oncology/RTOG 9802: A phase III trial of temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. 517–523 (2020). radiation versus radiation plus procarbazine, lomustine N. Engl. J. Med. 370, 709–722 (2014). 65. Wick, W. et al. Lomustine and bevacizumab in (CCNU), and vincristine in high- risk low- grade glioma. 109. Gilbert, M. R., Sulman, E. P. & Mehta, M. P. progressive glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 377, J. Clin. Oncol. 38, 3407–3417 (2020). Bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. 88. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Interim results from the N. Engl. J. Med. 370, 2048–2049 (2014). 1954–1963 (2017). 66. Friedman, H. S. et al. Bevacizumab alone and in CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of 110. Wirsching, H.-G. et al. Bevacizumab plus combination with irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma. treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide hypofractionated radiotherapy versus radiotherapy J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 4733–4740 (2009). for 1p/19q non- co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, alone in elderly patients with glioblastoma: the Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 185 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s randomized, open-label, phase II AR TE trial. Ann. Oncol. 122. Sturm, D. et al. Hotspot mutations in H3F3A and IDH1 from Bristol Myers Squibb, Debiopharm, Medac, Merck, MSD, 29, 1423–1430 (2018). define distinct epigenetic and biological subgroups of QED and Roche. S.S. reports personal fees from Hox 111. Weller, M. et al. Rindopepimut with temozolomide for glioblastoma. Cancer Cell 22, 425–437 (2012). Therapeutics and Tocagen and personal fees and support of patients with newly diagnosed, EGFRvIII- expressing 123. Pitter, K. L. et al. Corticosteroids compromise survival reagents from Abbvie. M.S. reports other support from GE glioblastoma (ACT IV): a randomised, double- blind, in glioblastoma. Brain 139, 1458–1471 (2016). Healthcare and Parexel. A.vD. receives royalties for the diag- international phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 18, 124. Hovey, E. J. et al. Continuing or ceasing bevacizumab nostic use of IDH1 R132H mutant- specific antibody H09; all 1373–1385 (2017). beyond progression in recurrent glioblastoma: an terms are being managed by the German Cancer Research 112. Suchorska, B. et al. Complete resection of contrast- exploratory randomized phase II trial. Neurooncol Center in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. R.S. enhancing tumor volume is associated with improved Pract. 4, 171–181 (2017). reports personal fees from AstraZeneca, EISAI, Merck and survival in recurrent glioblastoma- results from the 125. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov Puma Biotechnologies. G.R. reports personal fees from DIRECTOR trial. Neuro- Oncology 18, 549–556 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03763422 Abbvie. G.M., L.D., P.F., R.R., M.J.B.T., M.W. and W.W. declare (2016). (2020). no competing interests. 113. Ryu, S. et al. The role of radiotherapy in the management of progressive glioblastoma: a systematic Author contributions Funding review and evidence- based clinical practice guideline. M.W. wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All other authors The preparation of these evidence- based guidelines was J. Neurooncol. 118, 489–499 (2014). reviewed the draft and approved the final version of the not funded. The members of the task force did not receive 114. Tsien, C. et al. ACTR-32. NRG ONCOLOGY RTOG manuscript. compensation for their participation. 1205: randomized phase II trial of concurrent bevacizumab and re- irradiation vs. bevacizumab Competing interests Peer review information alone as treatment for recurrent glioblastoma. M.W. reports grants and personal fees from Abbvie, Merck Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology thanks E.A. Chiocca, Neuro- Oncology 21, vi20–vi20 (2019). (EMD) and MSD, grants from Adastra, Dracen and Novocure, M. Prados, N. Sanai and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) 115. Batchelor, T. T. et al. Phase II study of cediranib, an personal fees from Basilea, BMS, Celgene, Medac, Nerviano for their contribution to the peer review of this work. oral pan- vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Medical Sciences, Orbus, Roche and Tocagen. M.vdB. reports tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with recurrent personal fees from Abbvie, Agios, Bayer, Carthera, Genenta, Publisher’s note glioblastoma. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 2817–2823 (2010). Karyopharm and Nerviano Medical Sciences. M.Preusser Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional 116. Becker Buxton, M. et al. GBM AGILE: A global, reports grants and personal fees from Abbvie, Daiichi Sankyo, claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. phase II/III adaptive platform trial to evaluate GlaxoSmithKline and MSD, grants from Böhringer Ingelheim, multiple regimens in newly diagnosed and recurrent Bristol Myers Squibb, Novocure and Roche, and personal fees Open Access This article is licensed under a glioblastoma. J. Clin. Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1200/ from AstraZeneca, Bayer, BMJ Journals, BMS, CMC Contrast, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 JCO.2020.38.15_suppl.TPS2579 (2020). Gerson Lehrman Group, Lilly, Medahead, MedMedia, International License, which permits use, 117. Perry, J. R. et al. Phase II trial of continuous Mundipharma, Novartis, Roche, Sanofi and Tocagen. E.L.R. sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any dose-intense temozolomide in recurrent malignant reports personal fees from Abbvie, Daiichy Sankyo medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to glioma: RESCUE study. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 2051–2057 and Tocagen. J.C.T. reports personal fees from BrainLab and the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the (2010). Carthera. M.B. reports grants and personal fees from Novartis, Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were 118. Weller, M. et al. MGMT promoter methylation is a grants from Siemens, and personal fees from B. Braun, Bayer, made. The images or other third party material in this article strong prognostic biomarker for benefit from dose- Boehringer Ingelheim, Grifols, Merck, Springer, Teva and are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless intensified temozolomide rechallenge in progressive Vascular Dynamics. C.B. reports personal fees from Celgene, indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material glioblastoma: the DIRECTOR trial. Clin. Cancer Res. Karyopharm, Lipopharma and Pharmamar, and other sup port is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and 21, 2057–2064 (2015). from Abbvie. O.C. reports personal fees and travel your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or 119. Reardon, D. A. et al. Effect of nivolumab vs support from Abbvie. M.E.H. reports funding from Bristol exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: Myers Squibb and Novocure. A.S.J. reports personal fees from directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this the CheckMate 143 phase 3 randomized clinical trial. INOMED. M.Pl. reports non- financial support from Pfizer license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. JAMA Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol. and Roche, personal fees and supply of reagents from 2020.1024 (2020). Bayer, and personal fees from Affiris, Apogenix and Novartis. 120. Stupp, R. et al. NovoTTF-100A versus physician’s In addition, M.Pl has six patents licensed to Bayer REla TEd lInks choice chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma: (EP2753315B1, WO2018146010A1, WO2019101643A1, european association of neuro- Oncology (eanO): a randomised phase III trial of a novel treatment WO2019101647A1, WO2019101641A1 and www.eano.eu modality. Eur. J. Cancer 48, 2192–2202 (2012). WO2019101642A1), one patent issued (EP2800580B1) 121. Kaley, T. et al. BRAF inhibition in BRAFV600-mutant and three patents pending (US20180155403A1, gliomas: results from the VE- BASKET study. US20180246118A1 and US20170254803A1). P.R. reports J. Clin. Oncol. 36, 3477–3484 (2018). grants and personal fees from Novocure and personal fees © The Author(s) 2020 186 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology Springer Journals

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer-journals/eano-guidelines-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-diffuse-gliomas-of-WQWjTX2V0g

References (167)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2020
ISSN
1759-4774
eISSN
1759-4782
DOI
10.1038/s41571-020-00447-z
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

EVIDENCE-BASED guidelines OPEN EANO guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of diffuse gliomas of adulthood 1 2 3 4,5,6,7  ✉ Michael Weller , Martin van den Bent , Matthias Preusser , Emilie Le Rhun , 8 9 10 11 12 Jörg C. Tonn , Giuseppe Minniti , Martin Bendszus , Carmen Balana , Olivier Chinot , 13,14 15 16 17,18 Linda Dirven , Pim French , Monika E. Hegi , Asgeir S. Jakola , 19,20 1 21 22 23 Michael Platten , Patrick Roth , Roberta Rudà , Susan Short , Marion Smits , 13,14 24,25 26 Martin J. B. Taphoorn , Andreas von Deimling , Manfred Westphal , 21 27,28 29,30 Riccardo Soffietti , Guido Reifenberger and Wolfgang Wick Abstract In response to major changes in diagnostic algorithms and the publication of mature results from various large clinical trials, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) recognized the need to provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. Through these evidence-based guidelines, a task force of EANO provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. The diagnostic component is based on the 2016 update of the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System and the subsequent recommendations of the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumour Taxonomy — Not Officially WHO (cIMPACT-NOW). With regard to therapy, we formulated recommendations based on the results from the latest practice-changing clinical trials and also provide guidance for neuropathological and neuroradiological assessment. In these guidelines, we define the role of the major treatment modalities of surgery, radiotherapy and systemic pharmacotherapy, covering current advances and cognizant that unnecessary interventions and expenses should be avoided. This document is intended to be a source of reference for professionals involved in the management of adult patients with diffuse gliomas, for patients and caregivers, and for health-car e providers. The classification of gliomas has undergone major such as differential diagnosis, adverse effects of treat- changes through the revision of the fourth edition of the ment, and supportive and palliative care are beyond the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous scope of this guideline document. System in 2016. Further refinements of the classifica- tion were subsequently proposed by the Consortium Methods to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to These evidence- based guidelines were formulated by CNS Tumour Taxonomy — Not Officially WHO a task force nominated by the EANO Executive Board 2–4 (cIMPACT- NOW) . These documents enable a diag- following a proposal by the Chair of the EANO guide- nosis of glioblastoma to be made not only based on lines committee. This task force includes representa - histology but also on the basis of several molecular tives of all the disciplines involved in the diagnosis an d markers and propose the discontinuation of the term care of adults with glioma and reflects the multinational ‘IDH- mutant glioblastoma’. To reflect these changes, character of EANO. References were retrieved from the the European Association of Neuro- Oncology (EANO) PubMed database using the search terms ‘glioma’, ‘ana- considered it necessary to update its guidelines for the plastic’, ‘astrocytoma’, ‘oligodendroglioma’, ‘glioblastoma’, management of adult patients with gliomas (Box  1). In ‘trial’, ‘clinical’, ‘surgery’, ‘radiotherapy’ and ‘chemother - the present evidence- based guidelines, we cover the apy’ between January 2011 and July 2020. Publications e- mail: michael.weller@ prevention, early diagnosis and screening, integrated were also identified through searches of the authors’ own usz.ch histo molecular diagnostics, therapy and follow- up m on- libraries. Only publications in English were reviewed. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41571-020-00447- z itoring of adult patients with diffuse gliomas. Aspects Data available only in abstract form were included in 170 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s exceptional circumstances. The definitive reference list tuberous sclerosis, Turcot syndrome, Li–Fraumeni was generated based on relevance to the broad scope of syndrome and Lynch syndrome. Screening with neuro- these guidelines. The consensus recommendations were imaging is limited to patients with such syndromes at achieved through repeated circulation of manuscript the initial diagnostic work-u p . Repeat neuroimaging drafts and telephone conferences involving members of is not indicated unless new neurological symptoms and the task force to discuss the most controversial areas. signs, such a seizures, aphasia, hemiparesis or sensory The key recommendations for the diagnosis and man- deficits, develop that suggest an intracranial lesion. The agement of diffuse gliomas of adulthood, with their class counselling and screening of asymptomatic relatives of evidence (C) and level of recommendation (L) are of patients with glioma who are found to be carriers of reported at the end of each corresponding paragraph. germline mutations associated with gliomagenesis should be conducted with caution and in cooperation Epidemiology and prevention with clinical geneticists. No known measures to prevent The annual incidence of gliomas is approximately of the development of gliomas exist. six cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide. Men are 1.6- fold more likely to be diagnosed with gliomas than History and clinical examination women . While the vast majority of cases are sporadic, The evolution of neurological symptoms and signs certain familial tumour syndromes are associated with enables the estimation of the growth dynamics of glio- gliomagenesis, including neurofibromatosis type I, mas: tumours that cause symptoms only weeks before diagnosis are usually fast growing whereas those that cause symptoms for years before being diagnosed are Author addresses usually slow growing. In most individuals, the symp- Department of Neurology, clinical Neuroscience center, university hospital and toms and signs reported the year before diagnosis are 9–11 university of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. non- specific (for example, fatigue or headache) . Brain Tumor center at erasmus Mc cancer Institute, university Medical center A discussion of the patient’s history might reveal famil- rotterdam, rotterdam, Netherlands. ial risk or rare exogenous risk factors (such as exposure Division of oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical university of v ienna, to radiation) associated with the development of brain v ienna, austria. tumours. Information from relatives might be required Department of Neurosurgery, clinical Neuroscience center, university hospital and to obtain a reliable history. Firm recommendations on university of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 5 when and how to involve family members and caregiv- university of lille, u1192, lille, France. ers and how to assess the medical decision-m aking centre hospitalier universitaire (chu) lille, Neuro- oncology, General and Stereotaxic capacity in patients with brain tumours remain to be Neurosurgery Service, lille, France. 7 12 oscar lambret center, Neurology, lille, France. developed . Department of Neurosurgery, university hospital Munich lMu, Munich, Germany. Characteristic modes of clinical presentation include radiation oncology unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, new- onset epilepsy, focal deficits (such as pareses or university of Siena, Siena, Italy. sensory disturbances), neurocognitive impairment, and Department of Neuroradiology, university hospital heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure. catalan Institute of oncology (Ico), hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain. The physical examination of patients with brain tumours aix- Marseille université, assistance Publique–hôpitaux de Marseille (aPhM), chu focuses on the detection of systemic cancer to differen- Timone, Department of Neuro-o ncology, Marseille, France. 13 tiate primary brain tumours from brain metastases and Department of Neurology, leiden university Medical center, leiden, Netherlands. contraindications for neurosurgical procedures. The Department of Neurology, haaglanden Medical center, The hague, Netherlands. Neurological Assessment in Neuro- On cology (NANO) Department of Neurology, erasmus Mc, rotterdam, Netherlands. Department of clinical Neurosciences, university hospital lausanne, lausanne, scale can be used to document some of the results of the Switzerland. neurological examination . Neurocognitive assessment Department of Neurosurgery, Sahlgrenska university hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. using a standardized test battery , beyond documenting Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of clinical Neuroscience, performance status and performing a Mini Mental State Sahlgrenska academy, Gothenburg, Sweden. Examination (MMSE) or a Montreal Cognitive Assess- Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim center for ment (MoCA) , has become increasingly common. Translational Neuroscience (McTN), heidelberg university, Mannheim, Germany. Despite its limitations, the MMSE is widely used as a German consortium of Translational cancer research (DKTK), clinical cooperation screening instrument to detect neurocognitive impairment unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German cancer research center and remains freely available for individual use. (DKFZ), heidelberg, Germany. Department of Neuro- oncology, university hospital, Turin, Italy. leeds Institute of Medical research, St James’s university hospital, leeds, uK. Recommendations. Department of radiology and Nuclear Medicine, erasmus Mc, university Medical • Karnofsky performance score (KPS), neurologi- center rotterdam, rotterdam, Netherlands. cal function, age, and individual risks and benefits Department for Neuropathology, university hospital heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. should be considered for clinical decision- m aking. DKTK and clinical cooperation unit Neuropathology, DKFZ, heidelberg, Germany. C: IV; L: A. Department of Neurosurgery, university hospital hamburg, hamburg, Germany. • Screening and prevention have no major role for Department of Neuropathology, heinrich heine university Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, patients with gliomas. C: IV; L: C. Germany. 28 • Patients with relevant germline variants or suspected DKTK partner site essen/Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. hereditary cancer syndromes should receive genetic Neurology clinic and National center for Tumor Diseases, university hospital counselling and might subsequently be referred for heidelberg, heidelberg, Germany. DKTK and clinical cooperation unit Neurooncology, DKFZ, heidelberg, Germany. molecular genetic testing. C: IV; L: C. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 171 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s neuroradiologists and neuropathologists as well as Box 1 Key new developments in the diagnosis and management of gliomas neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and dedicated (2016–2020) neuro- oncologists from neurology or medical onco -l • Glioblastoma is now defined as a diffuse astrocytic glioma with no mutations in ogy services and from paediatric oncology as needed. IDh genes nor histone h3 genes and is characterized by microvascular proliferation, Prior to surgery, corticosteroids can be administered to necrosis and/or specific molecular features, including TERT promoter mutation, EGFR decrease symptomatic tumour-a ssociated oedema unless gene amplification and/or a +7/–10 cytogenetic signature. primary cerebral lymphoma or inflammatory lesions are • IDh- mutant glioblastoma is now referred to as IDh- mutant astrocytoma, Who suspected. Alternative pharmacological measures, such grade 4. as osmotic agents, are rarely necessary. Patients who • homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/B locus is a molecular marker of Who grade 4 have suffered epileptic seizures should receive anticon- in IDh- mutant astrocytomas. vulsant drugs preoperatively. Primary prophylaxis does • histone h3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric gliomas constitute a novel glioma not reduce the risk of a first seizure in patients with entity corresponding to Who grade 4. glioma without a history of seizures . • The value of the distinction between Who grades 2 and 3 in IDh- mutant gliomas is increasingly challenged, and ongoing clinical trials (such as coDel and eor Tc Tissue acquisition 1635 (ref. )) are enrolling patients with tumours of both grades. Treatment decisions in patients with glioma are made • In the ca TNoN trial , the combination of maintenance temozolomide with based on tissue diagnosis, including the assessment of radiotherapy prolonged survival only in patients with IDh- mutant gliomas of Who molecular markers relevant for diagnosis; therefore, grade 3 and not in those with tumours diagnosed as IDh- wild- type anaplastic upfront surgery is commonly performed with both diag- gliomas. nostic and therapeutic intent. The surgical management • The prolongation of maintenance temozolomide from 6 to 12 cycles extends neither of patients with glioma should take place in high- vo lume progression- free survival nor overall survival . specialist centres where large numbers of patients are • Bevacizumab does not prolong progression- free survival nor overall survival in referred to specialist neurosurgeons . A decision for pal- patients with 1p/19q-intact recurrent Who grade 2 or 3 glioma . liative care management without histological diagnosis • Nivolumab is not superior to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma . should be avoided unless the risk of adverse outcomes • Nivolumab is not superior to temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed from biopsy sampling is considered too high or if the glioblastoma without MGMT promoter methylation . prognosis is likely to be very unfavourable, for example, in patients with a high burden of comorbidities, large Preoperative diagnostics lesions with a typical radiological appearance of glioblas- Brain MRI, including T2- weighted, T2- weighted toma and rapid neurological deterioration. Definitive fluid-a ttenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences histological diagnoses aid in the counselling of patients and 3D T1-w eighted sequences before and after applica- and caregivers, even when no further tumour- specific tion of a gadolinium- b ased contrast agent, is the diagnos- therapy is recommended. tic gold standard to detect a brain tumour . Perfusion When microsurgical resection is not safely feasi- MRI and amino acid PET can help to define metabolic ble (for example, owing to the tumour location or the hotspots for specific tumour tissue sampling, a technique impaired clinical condition of the patient), a stereotactic that can be particularly useful if biopsy rather than open biopsy should be performed. Frame- b ased or frame-l ess resection is considered . Electroencephalography can be stereotactic biopsy sampling is associated with a low risk 22,23 helpful in the monitoring of tumoura - ssociated epilepsy of morbidity and a high level of diagnostic accuracy . and in determining the cause of altered consciousness. Serial samples of the tumour mass should be acquired A large number of studies has shown that cell- fr ee along the trajectory of the biopsy needle in order to tumour DNA can be detected in the plasma and cerebro- avoid sampling bias. Experienced teams can derive ade- spinal fluid of patients with glioma; however, the benefits quate tissue specimens for molecular profiling using of using liquid biopsies for the screening, early detec- these techniques . IDH mutations and 1p/19q code- tion or preoperative work- up of patients with gliomas letion as disease-def ining markers as well as MGMT 19 24 remain to be proven . promoter methylation are homogeneously present within tumours and, thus, the risk of sampling error for Recommendations. these markers is low. However, for additional markers • The first choice of diagnostic imaging modality of interest for which homogeneity has not been shown, is MRI without and with the administration of a sampling has to include different areas of the tumour; gadolinium- b ased contrast agent. C: IV; L: B. this principle applies for both stereotactic and open • Pseudoprogression should be considered in patients procedures. Intraoperative use of the fluorescent dye with an increase of abnormalities on neuroimaging in 5-a minolevulinic acid can be helpful to ensure adequate the first months after local therapeutic interventions, sampling during stereotactic biopsies . Some centres including radiotherapy, and after experimental local prefer open biopsy approaches to ensure that sufficient treatments. C: IV; L: B. tissue is obtained for any molecular studies that might be required to guide clinical decision- m aking. Preoperative management Patient management before surgery should follow Recommendations. written local standard operating procedures and • Clinical decision- m aking without obtaining a tis- involve multidisciplinary discussions, ideally by a sue diagnosis should be considered only in very dedicated multidisciplinary tumour board including exceptional situations. C: IV; L: not applicable. 172 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Histology Diffuse astrocytic or oligodendroglial glioma Midline location IDH-mutant IDH-mutant IDH wild type IDH wild type IDH wild type IDH Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX Nuclear ATRX ATRX retained lost retained lost > retained 1p/19q 1p/19q 1p/19q codel intact CDKN2A/B CDKN2A/B CDKN2A/B retained homozygously deleted Necrosis TERT, EGFR TERT-mutant, TERT- and/or and/or +7/-10 EGFR-amplified mutant MVP and/or +7/-10 Necrosis H3.3 G34 H3.3 G34 H3.3 G34R/V- and/or MVP H3.3 G34R/V wild type wild type mutant H3 K27M- mutant (+ loss of H3 K27M H3K27me3) Oligodendroglioma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, Diffuse Diffuse Integrated IDH-mutant and IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH wild type, hemispheric glioma, midline glioma, diagnosis 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 or 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 4 H3.3 G34-mutant, H3 K27M-mutant, WHO grade 2 or 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 4 MGMT promoter methylation Fig. 1 Diagnostic algorithm for the integrated classification of the major diffuse gliomas in adults. Tissue specimens obtained through biopsy sampling in patients with diffuse gliomas are routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of R132H-mutant IDH1 and loss of nuclear ATRX. In patients aged >55 years with a histologically typical glioblastoma, without a pre-existing lower grade glioma, with a non- midline tumour location and with retained nuclear ATRX expression, immunohistochemical negativity for IDH1 R132H suffices for the classification as IDH-wild- type glioblastoma . In all other instances of diffuse gliomas, a lack of IDH1 R132H immunopositivity should be followed by IDH1 and IDH2 DNA sequencing to detect or exclude the presence of non-canonical mutations. IDH-wild- type diffuse astrocytic gliomas without microvascular proliferation or necrosis should be tested for EGFR amplification, TERT promoter mutation and a +7/–10 cytogenetic signature as molecular characteristics of IDH-wild- type glioblastomas . In addition, the presence of histone H3.3 G34R/V mutations should be assessed by immunohistochemistry or DNA sequencing to identify H3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric gliomas, in particular in young patients with IDH-wild- type gliomas (such as those <50 years of age with nuclear ATRX loss in tumour cells). Diffuse gliomas of the thalamus, brainstem or spinal cord should be evaluated for histone H3 K27M mutations and loss of nuclear K27-trimethylated histone H3 (H3K27me3) to identify H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline gliomas. The presence and absence of the diagnostically most relevant molecular alterations for each tumour type are highlighted with red and green boxes. MVP , microvascular proliferation. Integrated histomolecular classification samples. The diagnostic process should follow the WHO Intraoperative assessment of cytological specimens or classification of 2016 (ref. ) and the subsequent recom- 2–4 frozen sections ensures that sufficient tumour tissue is mendations from cIMPACT- NOW . Accordingly, gli- obtained to establish a diagnosis. Tumour tissue is for - oma classification integrates histological tumour typing malin fixed and embedded in paraffin for histological and grading as well as analyses of molecular markers and immunohistochemical staining as well as for molec- (fig.  1). The term ‘not otherwise specified’ was intro- ular genetic and cytogenetic studies. If possible, some duced to refer to gliomas that were not tested for mark- tumour tissue should be cryopreserved for molecular ers relevant to the diagnosis of specific subtypes or for assessments that require high- quality DNA and RNA which testing was inconclusive . Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 173 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s On the basis of the 2016 WHO classification and analysis. By contrast, retained nuclear ATRX positivity cIMPACT- NOW recommendations, the following in an IDH- mutant glioma should prompt analysis for molecular biomarkers are central to categorizing diffuse 1p/19q codeletion in order to distinguish IDH-m utant gliomas in adults: IDH mutation, 1p/19q co- de letion, his - astrocytoma from IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted tone H3 K27M mutation, histone H3.3 G34R/V muta tion, oligodendroglioma. ATRX immuno histochemistry is TERT promoter mutation, EGFR gene amplific ation, not necessary if IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion chromosome 7 gain combined with chromosome 10 status are captured within one more extensive mole c- loss (the +7/–10 signature), and homozygous deletions ular marker panel assay. IDH- m utant astrocytomas are on 9p21 involving the CDKN2A and CDKN2B gene loci now stratified into three WHO grades: astrocytoma, (CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion) (TaBle  1). Missense IDH-m utant, WHO grade 2; astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, mutations in codon 132 of IDH1 or codon 172 of IDH2 WHO grade 3 (instead of anaplastic astrocytoma, are the defining molecular feature of IDH- m utant astro- IDH- mutant, WHO grade 3); and astrocytoma, IDH- cytomas and are associated with the glioma CpG island mutant, WHO grade 4 (replacing the former term ‘glio- methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). Dif fuse gliomas cor - blastoma, IDH-m utant, WHO grade 4’) . The term responding histologically to WHO grade 2 or 3 that ‘glio blastoma’ is no longer used to refer to IDH- m utant are immunohistochemically negative for IDH1 R132H astrocytic gliomas because these tumours are biologically should be sequenced for less common IDH1 and for distinct from the much more common IDH- wild-t ype IDH2 mutations. IDH-m utant astrocytomas usually also glioblastomas, although their histological appearance is have loss of nuclear expression of ATRX and mutations in similar . In addition to the established histological fea- TP53 but, by definition, lack 1p/19q codeletion. Indeed, tures, such as the presence of necrosis and/or microvas- the detection of nuclear ATRX loss in an IDH- m utant cular proliferation, homozygous CDKN2A/B deletion is glioma is sufficient for the diagnosis of an astrocytic indicative of a poor prognosis and is a marker of WHO lineage tumour without the need for 1p/19q codeletion grade 4 IDH- mutant astrocytomas . As the diagnostic Table 1 Molecular markers for the diagnosis and management of gliomas Molecular marker Biological function of affected genes Diagnostic roles IDH1 R132 or IDH2 Gain- of- function mutation Distinguishes diffuse gliomas with IDH R172 mutation mutation from IDH- wild- type glioblastomas and other IDH- wild- type gliomas 1p/19q codeletion Inactivation of putative tumour suppressor genes Distinguishes oligodendroglioma, on 1p (such as FUBP1) and 19q (such as CIC) IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted from astrocytoma, IDH- mutant Loss of nuclear Cell proliferation and promotion of cellular Loss of nuclear ATRX in an IDH- mutant glioma ATRX longevity by alternative lengthening of telomeres is diagnostic for astrocytic lineage tumours Histone H3 K27M Histone H3.3 (H3F3A) or histone H3.1 Defining molecular feature of diffuse midline mutation (HIST1H3B/C) missense mutation affecting glioma, H3 K27M-mutant epigenetic regulation of gene expression Histone H3.3 Histone mutation affecting epigenetic regulation Defining molecular feature of diffuse G34R/V mutation of gene expression hemispheric glioma, H3.3 G34-mutant MGMT promoter DNA repair None, but is a predictive biomarker of benefit methylation from alkylating chemotherapy in patients with IDH- wild- type glioblastoma Homozygous Encode cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors A marker of poor outcome and WHO grade 4 deletion of 2A and 2B and tumour suppressor ARF, which disease in IDH- mutant astrocytomas CDKN2A/CDKN2B function as regulators of Rb1 and p53- dependent signalling EGFR amplification Cell proliferation, invasion and resistance to EGFR amplification occurs in ~40–50% of induction of apoptosis glioblastoma, IDH wild type Molecular marker of glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) TERT promotor Cell proliferation; promotes cellular longevity TERT promoter mutation occurs in mutation by increasing TERT expression ~70% of glioblastoma, IDH wild type and >95% of oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted Molecular marker of glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) +7/–10 cytogenetic Gain of chromosome 7 (harbouring genes Molecular marker of glioblastoma, signature encoding, among others, PDGFA and EGFR) IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 (ref. ) combined with loss of chromosome 10 (harbouring genes including PTEN and MGMT) V600E BRAF mutation Oncogenic driver mutation leading to Rare in adult diffuse gliomas but amenable MAPK pathway activation to pharmacological intervention 174 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s term ‘astrocytoma, IDH- mutant’ can be associated with hemispheric glioma has been proposed as a new sub- different tumour grades and the roman numerals II and type of malignant glioma, characterized by missense 4,31 III are easily confused, cIMPACT-N OW recommended mutations affecting codon 34 of H3F3A . the use of Arabic numerals for the WHO-b ased grad- MGMT promoter methylation has limited diagnostic ing of these tumours . In line with the sixth update value but can guide treatment decisions on the use of of the cIMPACT- NOW recommendations , in these chemotherapy with alkylating agents for patients with evidence- based guidelines we use Arabic numerals for glioblastoma or other IDH- w ild- t ype gliomas . As out- WHO grades. lined below, MGMT promoter methylation enables the Special attention should be given to diffuse astro- prediction of benefit from alkylating agents in patients cytomas in the brainstem or cerebellum with hi-s with these tumours. MGMT promoter methylation sta- to logies corresponding to WHO grades 2, 3 and 4. tus should be tested using methylation- sp ecific PCR, Among infratentorial astrocytomas, the frequency of pyrosequencing or methylation arrays (such as the non- canonical IDH mutations is ~80%, in contrast with MGMT- STP27 model) . However, challenges remain, 27,28 <10% in those of the supratentorial compartment . including: (1) establishing reliable MGMT promoter Infratentorial diffuse gliomas therefore tend to be clas- methylation status assays that can be used with high sified incorrectly if examined by IDH1 R132H immuno- interlaboratory agreement, and (2) estimating the effect histochemistry only; accordingly, DNA sequencing for of limited MGMT promoter methylation, an intermedi- rare mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 is required. In addi- ate state between the non- methylated and methylated tion, infratentorial IDH- m utant astrocytomas have a loss phenotypes, on outcomes . Immunocytochemistry of nuclear ATRX expression as well as MGMT promoter is not an adequate method to determine the MGMT 27,28 34 methylation in only ~50% of patients . promoter methylation status . Oligodendroglial tumours are defined as IDH- m utant Next- generation sequencing- based gene pan- gliomas that also harbour 1p/19q codeletion and are els could enable the assessment of all or most genetic stratified into WHO grade 2 or 3 tumours based on the and chromosomal aberrations relevant for diagnosis 35,36 absence or presence of histological features of anapla- using a single assay . In addition, array- based DNA sia. The role of molecular alterations in the grading of methylation profiling has emerged as a powerful novel these tumours has not been defined. However, similar diagnostic method that is independent of histology and to IDH- mutant diffuse astrocytomas, the homozy- useful in the routine diagnostic work-u p . Moreover, gous deletion of CDKN2A at 9p21 has been associated RNA sequencing- based approaches present a prom- with shorter survival durations . Oligoastrocytomas ising approach for the detection of oncogenic gene lack characteristic genetic profiles and are no longer fusions with diagnostic and/or predictive value that considered as a distinct glioma subtype. can be found in rare subsets of diffuse gliomas, mainly 38,39 Astrocytic gliomas with a wild- typ e IDH and histone ID H- w i ld- t yp e g lio b l a s t om a s . Overall, molecular H3 status and with necrosis and/or microvascular pro- diagnostic algorithms for patients with glioma (fig.  1) liferation are classified as IDH- w ild- t ype, WHO grade 4 should be standardized and should not result in delays glioblastomas. In the absence of necrosis or microvascu- in the administration of radiotherapy or tumour-s pecific lar proliferation, such tumours should be evaluated for pharmacotherapy. glioblastoma- a ssociated genetic alterations, in particular EGFR gene amplifications, TERT promoter mutations Recommendations. and/or the +7/–10 signature . If one or more of these • Glioma classification should follow the most recent alterations is detected, these tumours are classified as WHO Classification of Tumors of the Central IDH- wild-t ype glioblastomas given their association Nervous System , complemented by cIMPACT- N OW 2–4 with a poor prognosis, even in the absence of necro- updates . C: IV; L: B. 1,30 sis and microvascular proliferation . IDH- w i ld- t yp e • Immunohistochemistry for mutant IDH1 R132H diffuse astrocytomas without any of these alterations, protein and nuclear expression of ATRX should be which cannot be assigned to other entities (for example, performed routinely in the diagnostic assessment of on the basis of DNA methylation profiling) are more diffuse gliomas. C: IV; L: B. often seen in paediatric, adolescent or young adult • If immunohistochemistry for IDH1 R132H is nega- patients and constitute rare glioma variants that require tive, sequencing of IDH1 codon 132 and IDH2 codon further molecular assessment . 172 should be conducted in all WHO grade 2 and H3 K27M- mutant, WHO grade 4 diffuse midline 3 diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas as gliomas are defined as a diffuse glioma located in mi- d well as in all glioblastomas of patients aged <55 ye ars line structures, such as the thalamus, pons, brainstem to enable integrated diagnoses according to the and spinal cord, and carrying a lysine- to- methionine WHO classification and to guide treatment decisions. mutation at amino acid 27 of histone H3.3 (encoded by C: IV; L: B. H3F3A) or histone H3.1 (encoded by HIST1H3B and • 1p/19q codeletion status should be determined HIST1H3C) . H3 K27M- mutant diffuse midline glio - in all IDH- m utant gliomas with retained nuclear mas are typically positive for nuclear immunostaining o f expression of ATRX. C: II; L: B. H3 K27M with the corresponding loss of nuclear stain ing • MGMT promoter methylation status should be for K27- trimethylated histone H3 (H3K27me3), which determined in glioblastoma, notably in elderly or together serve as immunohistochemical markers of this frail patients, to aid in decision-m aking for the use tumour type. H3.3 G34- mutant, WHO grade 4 diffuse of temozolomide. C: I; L: B. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 175 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s • CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions should be with contrast; MRI should include diffusion- w eighted explored in IDH- m utant astrocytomas. C: IV; L: B. sequences to enable the detection of perioperative • Combined chromosome 7 gain and chromosome ischaemia . 10 loss (+7/–10 signature), EGFR amplification The role of the extent of resection and residual and TERT promoter mutation should be tested in tumour volume as prognostic factors remains contro- IDH- wild-t ype diffuse gliomas lacking microvas- versial within the neuro- o ncology community because cular proliferation and necrosis as histological fea- randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing this tures of WHO grade 4 to allow for a diagnosis of question are very difficult to perform, and almost IDH- wild- t ype glioblastoma. C: IV; L: B. no such trials exist. A lesser extent of resection and • Assessment of H3 K27M status should be done in larger post-s urgical residual tumour volumes are neg- diffuse gliomas involving the midline. C: IV; L: B. ative prognostic factors across gliomas of all grades V600 45,46 • BR AF mutations might be assessed in and subtypes . These observations have resulted IDH-wild-type diffuse gliomas. C: IV; L: C. in the multitude of technical developments to maxi- mize the extent of resection summarized above. Therapy — general recommendations Nevertheless, whether and why the extent of resection Prognostic factors. Younger age and better performance truly matters remain controversial questions. First, status at diagnosis are major therapy-in dependent prog- rather than the percentage of extent of resection, cli- nostic factors associated with favourable outcomes in nicians might need to consider the absolute volume of adults with glioma. Furthermore, molecular genetic remaining tumour tissue, including both enhancing 45–47 factors, notably 1p/19q codeletion and IDH mutation and non- enhancing tumour tissue . Second, early status, had a strong prognostic value in the classifica- (<3 weeks) as opposed to later (3–5 weeks) initiation tion of gliomas in the past but, since 2016, have become of postsurgical radiotherapy does not correlate with disease- defining features and are therefore no longer improved overall survival (OS). This finding is unex- prognostic within a given disease subtype. As a result, pected because one might predict that a longer time MGMT promoter methylation status has become the interval between surgery and start of radiotherapy single most important prognostic factor in an era in would favour regrowth of the tumour and thus confer which the vast majority of adults with glioma are treated a survival disadvantage . Third, evidence indicates with alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy. that resectable tumours have a different biology that is overall less malignant than that of non- res ectable Surgical therapy. The therapeutic goal of surgery is to tumours, which challenges the causal relationship remove as much tumour tissue as safely feasible using between extent of surgery and survival. For exam- microsurgical techniques, without compromising neuro- ple, in a prospective evaluation of the effect of sur - logical function. Several tools, including surgical naviga-gical resection on survival after controlling for IDH tion systems housing functional MRI or diffusion tensor status, the rate of gross total resection was higher in imaging datasets and intraoperative MRI, ultrasono- patients with IDH-m utant tumours than in those with graphy, functional monitoring and fluorescence- b ased IDH- wild- type tumours . Indeed, retrospective data visualization of tumour tissue with 5-a minolevulinic indicate that biopsy is more often the type of first sur- acid, help in reducing postoperative residual tumour gery in patients with IDH- wild- type tumours than in volumes while keeping the risk of new neurological patients with IDH-m utant tumours . Attributing the deficits low . The use of evoked potentials, electro- longer survival durations associated with IDH- m utant myography or brain mapping in awake patients under versus IDH- wild-t ype tumours to the rate of gross local anaesthesia to monitor and preserve language total resection would therefore probably not be the and cognition facilitates resections in eloquent areas . correct conclusion. With these considerations, we do Preventing new permanent neurological deficits that not intend to discourage efforts to achieve gross total might jeopardize independence, reduce quality of life resection but rather to acknowledge the limitations of (QOL) and increase the risk of additional complications data from retrospective uncontrolled studies. that might, in turn, delay or preclude further therapy is more important than the extent of resection because Recommendations. diffuse gliomas are not cured by surgery. Neurological • The extent of resection is a prognostic factor and deficits that occur because of surgery can sometimes be thus, efforts at obtaining complete resections are predicted preoperatively. In exceptional situations, anti- justified across all glioma entities. C: IV; L: B. cipated minor deficits (such as quadrantanopia) might • In the current surgical approach to gliomas, the be deemed acceptable but only after a thorough process prevention of new permanent neurological deficits of shared decision-m aking . Patients and their caregiv- has higher priority than the extent of resection. ers should also be informed that neurosurgery is always C: IV; L: C. associated with some unpredictable risks. Postoperative deficits owing to emerging surgical complications are a Radiotherapy. The goal of radiotherapy is to improve negative prognostic factor that can interfere with further local control without inducing neurotoxicity. Indeed, treatment and health-r elated QOL is of high priority to radiotherapy delayed neurological deterioration and patients and their caregivers . The extent of resec- increased survival in several early clinical trials conducted 50,51 tion should be assessed within 24–48 hours of surgery in the past century . The timing, dosing and schedul- through MRI (or CT if MRI is not possible), without and ing of radiotherapy are determined by the disease subtype 176 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s and prognostic factors, including age, KPS and resid- an oral DNA alkylating agent that penetrates the blood– ual tumour volume. Radiotherapy should start withi n brain barrier, is the most commonly used drug in gli- 3–5 weeks after surgery and is commonly administered oma treatment. This agent has a favourable safety profile, at 50–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy daily fractions. No evidence sug- with myelosuppression, notably thrombocytopenia, as gests additional benefit from high- dos e versus low- dos e its main dose- limiting toxicity . Hepatic function also radiation in patients with WHO grade 2 gliomas and, needs to be monitored regularly in patients receiving for those with higher WHO grade tumours, no data temozolomide. In contrast to temozolomide, alkylating from randomized studies support the use of doses agents from the nitrosourea class, such as lomustine, >60 Gy (ref. ). Hypofractionated radiotherapy with carmustine, nimustine or fotemustine, cause delayed a higher dose per fraction and a lower total dose (for (4–6 weeks) rather than early (2–3 weeks) and more often example, 15× 2.67 Gy) is appropriate in older patients cumulative leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Notably, (>65–70 years of age) and in those with a poor prognosis the latter can necessitate treatment interruptions, dose (typically defined by a KPS of <70) . reductions or even discontinuation and considera- The area of the surgical bed plus the residual tion of alternative treatments. Pulmonary fibrosis has tumour area identified on T1- weighted, T2- weighted been observed mainly with carmustine and is rare with and FLAIR MRI sequences is defined as the gross lomustine . Lomustine is often combined with procar- tumour volume. To account for microscopic invasion, bazine and vincristine in a regimen referred to as PCV. a margin of 1.0–2.0 cm is added to create the clinical Carmustine wafers implanted into the post- surgical target volume, which is generally modified to include cavity provided a modest OS benefit in patients with abnormalities visualized on the basis of T2- w eighted newly diagnosed WHO grade 3 or 4 gliomas or recur - 61,62 or FLAIR signals (for example, oedema) and con- rent glioblastoma ; however, in the pivotal trial of strained to anatomical barriers such as ventricles, this approach, patient outcomes were not statistically tentorium and falx. Finally, another margin, usually significantly different after patients with WHO grade 3 of 0.3–0.5 cm, is added to enable for uncertainties in tumours (the majority of which are now known to be patient set- up and treatment delivery, generating the IDH- mutant) were excluded from the survival analy- planning target volume . The use of amino acid PET sis. The benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy using tracers such as [ C- m et hy l]-l - m et hio nin e o r demonstrated in various RCTs (described later) has to O-(2-[ F]- f luoro et hy l)-l -tyrosine to improve target be weighed against the potential long- ter m toxicities delineation for radiotherapy has been evaluated in clin- and the risk of inducing a hypermutator phenotype that ical trials but is not currently part of standard practice. is associated with a more malignant phenotype, in par - Structures at higher risk of toxicity from radiother- ticular in patients with IDH-m utant gliomas, who have 63,64 apy, including the optic nerves, optic chiasm, retinae, a longer life expectancy . lenses, brainstem, pituitary, cochleae and hippocampi, Bevacizumab, an anti- VEGF antibody, is approved should be delineated. Modern, highly conformal radi- for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in the USA, ation techniques, including intensity-m odulated radio- Canada, Switzerland and several other countries ou-t therapy for newly diagnosed tumours and stereotactic side the European Union, but no OS benefit has been 65–67 radiotherapy and radiosurgery for recurrent tumours, demonstrated from its use . Patients with glioma could provide superior target coverage and sparing of receiving systemic therapy should carry a documen- non- malignant brain tissue. Proton or heavy ion radio- tation of treatment, including laboratory results and therapy might be options to consider for patients with information on complications and contraindications, tumours close to brain regions at risk or in those with to facilitate follow- up a nd to provide information to a favourable prognosis in order to avoid delayed toxici- physicians in an emergency setting. Clinical centres ties, but RCTs are required to determine the tolerability, managing patients with glioma should generate standard safety and efficacy of these approaches compared with operating procedures and instructions for standard- 56,57 standard radiotherapy . Accurate patient positioning ized application of chemotherapy as well as for the is required for all highly conformal approaches and is managem ent of adverse events and complications from achieved with reproducible immobilization and digital treatment. imaging during treatment. Interstitial brachytherapy approaches have been investigated over many years as an Monitoring and follow-u p assessments. Watch- and- wait alternative to external beam treatment but have not yet strategies without histological verification carry the been shown to have an application in routine practice . risk of underestimating the grade of malignancy when An MRI scan scheduled 3–4 weeks after completion of determined using only neuroimaging and thus require radiotherapy provides a new baseline to monitor the initial intervals of only 2–3 months between scan s. further course of disease. In addition to clinical examination, MRI is the stan- dard diagnostic measure for the evaluation of dis- Pharmacotherapy. Haematology, hepatic and renal lab- ease status or treatment response, using Response 68–70 oratory values within the normal physiological ranges Assessment in Neuro- Oncology (RANO) criteria and exclusion of major lung or heart disease or infection and identical MRI protocols according to published are required prior to and during most pharmacological recommendations . After the completion of therapy, treatments for patients with glioma. Most patients with an initial interval between scans of 2–6 months is com- glioma receive chemotherapy with alkylating agents mon practice for most patients depending on the disease at some point in their disease course. Temozolomide, histology but longer intervals might be appropriate in Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 177 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s cases of durable disease control and more benign tumours. in long- term survivors treated with radiotherapy and 81, Careful consideration of not only the most recent PCV and (2) whether the same improvement in OS MRI scan but also of the complete disease trajectory could be achieved with temozolomide- b ased chemo- is required, specifically in patients with slow- gr owing radiotherapy. Long- term results from the NOA-04 untreated lesions . Conversely, in the event of suspected trial showed that chemotherapy alone (either PCV o r disease progression, short- term control MRI within temozolomide) is not superior to radiotherapy alone 4–8 weeks might be reasonable to confirm progression. in any molecular subgroup of anaplastic glioma, thus Pseudoprogression (typically after chemoradiotherapy indicating that alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy or immunotherapy) and pseudoresponse (for example, alone is unlikely to result in the same outcome as radio- 82 83 after anti- angiogenic therapy) are most likely to occur therapy followed by PCV . The modified CODEL trial during the first 3 months of treatment but can also will address whether temozolomide- ba sed chemo- occur later . Particular attention is needed when inter - radiotherapy is similarly effective as radiotherapy preting scans during this period; in case of doubt, res- followed by PCV. canning after shorter intervals (4–8 weeks) is a pragmatic The choice of treatment at progression is influenced approach. Perfusion MRI and amino acid PET might by the choice of and response to first-lin e therapy (fig.  2). help to distinguish pseudoprogression from true disease Second surgery should always be considered. If neither progression . Biopsy sampling is not always informative radiotherapy nor alkylating agents are options owing to because viable tumour cells are regularly detected but ineffectiveness or intolerance in the first-lin e setting, their presence does not rule out pseudoprogression. bevacizumab can be used for symptom control; however, As for other non- curable diseases, patients with the antitumour efficacy of bevacizumab is unknown and gliomas should be offered counselling by specialized no evidence supports its combination with cytotoxic psychologists or nurses and palliative care specialists. agents in this setting. The need for occupational, speech and physical therapy as well as for counselling for social support should beID H-mutant astrocytoma, WHO grade 2. Most WHO assessed . grade 2 astrocytomas harbour IDH mutations. Gemisto- cytic astrocytoma is a distinct variant of IDH-mutant Therapy — specific recommendations astrocytoma, WHO grade 2. Maximal surgical resection , IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted oligodendroglioma, if safely feasible, is the best initial therapeutic approach. WHO grade 2. Surgery is the primary treatment modal- Watch- and- wait strategies without the establish- ity for patients with gliomas of this subtype. Following ment of an integrated diagnosis should only be con- surgery, watch- and- wait strategies are justified in sidered in exceptional situations, even for patients those with gross total resection and potentially als o with incidentally discovered lesions. Younger patients in younger patients (<40 years of age) with incomplete (pragmatic cut- off ~40–45 years of age) who are resection if the tumour has not yet caused neurological asymptomatic or with seizures only, can be managed deficits beyond symptomatic epilepsy. If further treat- through observation alone after gross total resection. ment bey ond surgery is deemed necessary, the standard Involved-f ield radiotherapy (50G y in 1.8 Gy fractions) of care is radiotherapy followed by PCV . The use of should be considered for patients with incomplete chemotherapy alone remains investigational but might resection and/or for patients aged >40  years. Early be an option to reduce the risk of late cognitive deficits radio therapy (as opposed to radio therapy after disease in patients with large tumours owing to the favourable progression) has been shown to prolong progression- f ree outcomes of this patient population relative to those with survival (PFS) but not OS . The use of chemotherapy 76,77 other subtypes . The choice of treatment at recurrence alone as frontline therapy remains investigational but depends on the initial treatment (TaBle  2, fig.  2). might be an option if radiotherapy is not feasible, for example, in patients with large tumours. However, the IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted oligodendroglioma, PFS is probably shorter with temozolomide than with WHO grade 3. In this subtype, the extent of resection radiotherapy in patients with IDH- mutant, grade 2 78 86 is a prognostic factor . The distinction of two grades diffuse astrocytomas . The RTOG 9802 trial reported (2 and 3) of IDH- mutant, 1p/19q- codeleted gliomas a major prolongation of OS with the addition of PCV remains controversial and, accordingly, watch- a nd- wait polychemotherapy to radiotherapy (54G y), from strategies after complete resection can also be consid- 7.8 years to 13.3 years in patients with high- risk WHO ered for younger patients (<40 years of age) with WHO grade 2 gliomas who were 18–39 years of age and had grade 3 tumours, specifically for those without homozy- undergone a subtotal resection or biopsy or in those aged gous CDKN2A/B deletion, although only after gross total ≥40 years . This benefit was reported across histological resection and in the absence of neurolog ical deficits. subgroups and, although cohort sizes were small, benefit Two large RCTs showed that the addition of PCV, either was observed in patients with either IDH- mutant astro- prior to or after radiotherapy, in the first- line of treat- cytomas or oligodendrogliomas but not in those with 79,80 87 ment approximately doubled the OS . Although these IDH- wild- type tumours . Thus, radiotherapy followed results stem from analyses of small cohorts of patients, by PCV constitutes the standard of care for patients with both studies showed similar results, thus vali da ting WHO grade 2 IDH- mutant astrocytomas deemed to the findings and defining the current standard of care. require post- surgical treatment. Important open questions include: (1) whether neuro- Treatment at progression depends on neurological cognitive function and health- r elated QOL are preserved status, patterns of progression and first- line therapy 178 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Table 2 | Key treatment recommendations for adult patients with common diffuse gliomas a b Tumour type Treatment at diagnosis Treatment at progression or Comments c,d recurrence Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO Wait- and- see or radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide (or nitrosourea) RTOG 9802 (ref. ) and per grade 2, including gemistocytic in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV (or extrapolation from WHO astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 2 temozolomide chemoradiotherapy) grade 3 tumours (cIMPACT-NOW , previously diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 2) Diffuse astrocytoma, IDH wild type, Wait- and- see (?); radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide; nitrosourea; Heterogeneous group of a,e f WHO grade 2 in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); radiotherapy bevacizumab tumours awaiting further followed by PCV or temozolomide subclassification chemoradiotherapy (by MGMT status?) Diffuse astrocytoma, NOS , WHO grade 2 See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, WHO See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, Per extrapolation because grade 2 WHO grade 2 most of these tumours carry IDH mutations Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 3 Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Nitrosourea; temozolomide (cIMPACT- NOW, previously anaplastic fractions) followed by temozolomide (or rechallenge astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 3)wait- and- see) Anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH wild type, Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in Temozolomide rechallenge; Per extrapolation WHO grade 3 1.8–2 Gy fractions); temozolomide nitrosourea; bevacizumabfrom IDH- wild- type 32,59 chemoradiotherapy, by MGMT promoter glioblastoma methylation status (?) Anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, WHO See astrocytoma, IDH- mutant, WHO Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation because grade 3 grade 3 rechallenge most of these tumours carry IDH mutations Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and Wait- and- see; radiotherapy (50–54 Gy Temozolomide Per extrapolation from 79,80 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 2 in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV WHO grade 3 tumours and RTOG 9802 (ref. ) Oligodendroglioma, NOS, WHO grade 2 See oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and See oligodendroglioma, Per extrapolation because 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- most of these tumours codeleted, WHO grade 2 carry IDH mutations 79,80 Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Temozolomide 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 3 fractions) followed by PCV (or (cIMPACT-NOW , previously anaplastic wait- and- see) oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO grade 3) Anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS, See oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and See oligodendroglioma, Per extrapolation because WHO grade 3 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 3IDH- mutant and most of these tumours 1p/19q- codeleted, WHO carry IDH mutations grade 3 Oligoastrocytoma, NOS, WHO grade 2 Wait- and- see; radiotherapy (50–54 Gy in Temozolomide Per extrapolation from 79,80 1.8–2 Gy fractions) followed by PCV WHO grade 3 tumours and RTOG 9802 (ref. ) 79,80 Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, NOS, WHO Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy Temozolomide grade 3 fractions) followed by PCV (or wait- and- see) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, WHO grade 4 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation from (cIMPACT-NOW , previously glioblastoma, (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions) rechallenge; bevacizumabIDH- mutant anaplastic IDH-mutant, WHO grade 4) (potentially without concomitant astrocytoma or from temozolomide) glioblastoma 59,94,96–98 Glioblastoma, IDH wild type, Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide WHO grade 4; giant cell glioblastoma; (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); for rechallenge; bevacizumab ; gliosarcoma; epithelioid glioblastoma patients aged >65–70 years and MGMT radiotherapy (for patients unmethylated tumours, radiotherapy not previously treated with (40 Gy in 2.67 Gy fractions); for patients radiotherapy) aged >65–70 years and MGMT methylated tumours, temozolomide chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Glioblastoma, NOS, WHO grade 4 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide; (54–60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions); for rechallenge; bevacizumab ; patients aged >65–70 years and MGMT radiotherapy (for patients unmethylated tumours, radiotherapy not previously treated with (40 Gy in 2.67 Gy fractions); for patients radiotherapy) aged >65–70 years and MGMT methylated tumours, temozolomide chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 179 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Table 2 (cont.) Key treatment recommendations for adult patients with common diffuse gliomas a b Tumour type Treatment at diagnosis Treatment at progression or Comments c,d recurrence Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant, Radiotherapy (54–60 Gy in Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation WHO grade 4 1.8–2 Gy fractions); temozolomide rechallenge; bevacizumab chemoradiotherapy Diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3.3 Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy Nitrosourea; temozolomide Per extrapolation G34- mutant, WHO grade 4 rechallenge; bevacizumab 1 2–4 According to the 2016 WHO classification and cIMPACT- NOW updates 3, 5 and 6 (refs ). NOS, not otherwise specified; PCV, procarbazine, lomustine and a b vincristine. Provisional and NOS tumour categories are indicated in italics. Maximum safe resection is recommended whenever feasible in all patients with newly diagnosed gliomas. Second surgery should always be considered but clinical benefit might be limited to patients in whom a gross total resection can be achieved. Indications for reirradiation remain controversial. Re- exposure to temozolomide and nitrosoureas is associated with limited activity in tumours without MGMT promoter methylation. Diffuse astrocytomas, IDH wild type are a heterogeneous tumour group that should be further molecularly characterized to separate malignant tumours with molecular features of IDH-wild- type glioblastoma from indolent tumours (for example, corresponding to paediatric-type diffuse gliomas). f g Depending on local availability. Management recommendations for NOS categories are included, but evidence is low. Of note, most practice-defining trials included herein enrolled patients prior to the 2016 revision of the WHO classification. Tumour- treating fields remain controversial when applied in the temozolomide maintenance setting despite a phase III trial with positive results and are not widely available in Europe. (fig.  2). Second surgery should always be considered, patients with contrast-e nhancing recurrent IDH-m utant usually followed by radiotherapy in patients who had gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion . not previously received irradiation, or by alkylating agent-b ased chemotherapy. Temozolomide is often pre- Recommendations. ferred over PCV in this setting owing to its favourable • The standard of care for IDH- mutant astrocyto- safety profile and ease of administration. mas, WHO grade 2 requiring further treatment includes resection as feasible or biopsy followed by IDH- mutant astrocytoma, WHO grade 3. The standard involved field radiotherapy and maintenance PCV of care for patients with this disease subtype is maximal polychemotherapy (RTOG 9802) . C: II; L: B. surgical resection or biopsy followed by radiotherapy at • The standard of care for IDH- mutant astrocyto- 60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy fractions (TaBle  1). This approach was mas, WHO grade 3 includes resection as feasible or established largely based on trials in which subgroups of biopsy followed by involved field radiotherapy an d patients with WHO grade 3 tumours were pooled with maintenance temozolomide (CATNON) . C: II; L: B. those with glioblastomas. The NOA-04 trial showed • Patients with IDH- mutant and 1p/19q- codeleted similar PFS and OS with PCV or temozolomide alone oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 requiring fur - 78,82 versus radiotherapy alone . The EORTC 26053 trial ther treatment should be treated with radiotherapy (CATNON) of radiotherapy alone, with concomitant or followed by PCV polychemotherapy. C: III; L: B. maintenance temozolomide or with both concomitant • Patients with IDH-m utant and 1p/19q-co deleted oli- and maintenance temozolomide showed a significant godendrogliomas, WHO grade 3 should be treated prolongation of OS in patients receiving radiotherapy with radiotherapy followed by PCV polychemotherap y 79,80 followed by 12 cycles of maintenance temozolomide (EORTC 26951, RTOG 9402) . C: II; L: B. and, thus, this approach should be considered standard • Temozolomide chemotherapy is standard treat- of care; however, the role of concomitant temozolo- ment at progression after surgery and radiotherapy mide remains uncertain . Indeed, updated data from for most patients with IDH- mutant gliomas, WHO CATNON indicate that concomitant temozolomide pro- grade 2 or 3. C: II; L: B. vides limited improvement to the overall favourable out- comes associated with maintenance chemotherapy and, IDH- wild- type glioblastoma, WHO grade 4. These more importantly, that only patients with IDH- m utant tumours include histologic variants such as giant cell tumours derive benefit from chemotherapy (either as glioblastoma, gliosarcoma and epithelioid glioblastoma. maintenance or concomitantly) . Tumours formerly diagnosed as IDH-m utant glioblas- First- line therapy informs the choice of treatment toma are now referred to as IDH- mutant astrocytoma, in the recurrent disease setting (f ig.  2). Second surgery WHO grade 4, and are managed either as IDH-w ild- t ype should be considered for all patients. For those with glioblastoma or as IDH- m utant astrocytoma, WHO disease relapse after radiotherapy, re-ir radiation after grade 3 (TaBle  2). a minimum interval of ~12 months following the first Surgery for glioblastoma should involve gross total course of radiotherapy is an option, although tumour resection whenever feasible . A small RCT in patients size and patterns of recurrence limit the option of aged >65 years at diagnosis of a WHO grade 3 or 4 gli- re- irradiation and the overall efficacy of this strategy oma reported longer OS durations with resection versus remains uncertain in the absence of data from RCTs. biopsy , but the relevance of this trial remains debatable Alkylating agent- b ased chemotherapy should be consid- owing to the limited sample size and KPS imbalances ered for patients who have not received previous chemo- between treatment groups. therapy and with disease progression after radiotherapy. For decades, radiotherapy (60 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy frac- Temozolomide and nitrosoureas are probably equally tions) has been the standard of care for glioblastoma, 90,91 50 effective in this setting . Adding bevacizumab to approximately doubling median OS durations . Radio- temozolomide prolongs neither PFS nor OS durations in therapy (50 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions) improved OS relative 180 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s IDH-mutant glioma Treatment at diagnosis Biopsy or resection followed by early (<48 h) postoperative MRI or CT (baseline for monitoring and detection of progression) Oligodendroglioma, Oligodendroglioma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant, 1p/19q- IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, IDH-mutant, codeleted, 1p/19q-codeleted, WHO grade 2 WHO grade 3 WHO grade 4 WHO grade 2 WHO grade 3 Favourable Less favourable Favourable Less favourable Prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors Age, neurological deficit, • Age <40 years • Age ≥40 years • Age <40 years • Age ≥40 years residual tumour, as for • No neurological deficits • Neurological deficits • No neurological deficits • Neurological deficits WHO grade 2/3 • Low tumour burden • Residual tumour • Low tumour burden • Residual tumour IDH-mutant astrocytomas • Grade 2 • Grade 3 • Grade 2 • Grade 3 Wait and see or Radiotherapy followed Wait and see or Radiotherapy followed Radiotherapy followed radiotherapy followed by PCV radiotherapy followed by temozolomide by temozolomide by PCV (temozolomide by PCV (radiotherapy followed (without or with (temozolomide chemoradiotherapy) (radiotherapy followed by PCV) concomitant chemoradiotherapy) by temozolomide) temozolomide) Follow-up 3–6-monthly intervals: neurological examination and imaging Progression or recurrence Options determined by KPS, neurological function and prior treatment • Repeat surgery • Alkylating chemotherapy • Re-irradiation • Experimental therapy Palliative care Fig. 2 Clinical pathway for IDH-mutant gliomas. KPS, Karnofsky performance status; PCV, procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine. to best supportive care in patients aged ≥70 years with a The addition of temozolomide to hypofractionated 51 54 good KPS (≥70) . Patients with unfavourable prognos- radiotherapy has also been shown to improve OS in tic factors (defined by age and/or KPS) can be treated patients aged ≥60 years . The benefit from temozolo- with hypofractionated radiotherapy (such as 40 Gy in 15 mide is largely limited to patients with MGMT promoter - 94,95 fractions), which has similar activity to irradiation with methylated glioblastoma . The results of the NOA-08 54 96,97 98 60 Gy in 30 fractions . Further hypo fractionation to (refs ) and Nordic trials led to MGMT promoter 5 × 5 Gy does not seem to compromise OS but is likely methylation testing becoming standard practice in to cause neurocognitive adverse events if, in the future, many European countries for the management of elderly elderly patients with glioblastoma live longer becausep atients not considered eligible for combined modality of improved systemic treatment. Neither accelerated treatment: patients with tumours lacking MGMT pro- hyperfractionated or hypofractionated regimens nor moter methylation or of unknown MGMT promoter brachytherapy, radiosurgery or a stereo tactic radio- methylation status should be treated with hypofraction- therapy boost are superior to standard radio therapy ated radiotherapy alone whereas those with tumours regimens in terms of OS . Concomitant radiotherapy with MGMT promoter methylation status should and chemotherapy with temozolomide (75m g/m daily receive temozolomide alone (5 out of 28 days until di -s throughout radiotherapy, including at weekends) plus six ease progression or for 12 months) . Until 2016, the cycles of maintenance temozolomide (150–200 m g/m , broad consensus was that the results of all trials involv- 5 out of 28 days) is the standard of care for adults with ing patients with tumours without MGMT promoter newly diagnosed glioblastoma who are in good general methylation showed no detriment from the omission 59 99 and neurological condition and are aged <70 years . of temozolomide , challenging the view that this agent Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 181 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s should be used in every patient regardless of MGMT cohort, did not show superior PFS for the combination promoter methylation status. This notion has become and might deprive patients from lomustine, the standard controversial again after a minor OS prolongation with of care at recurrence; thus, the use of this regimen appears radiotherapy plus temozolomide versus radiotherapy to be largely restricted to some sites in German- sp eaking alone was observed in elderly patients with glioblasto- countries. The results of two phase III trials involving mas lacking MGMT promoter methylation and with adults with glioblastoma demonstrated a prolongation the negative outcome of the CheckMate 498 trial . of PFS (3–4 months) but not of OS when bevacizumab 108,109 An open- label phase III trial of the addition of was added to temozolomide chemoradiotherapy . tumour- treating fields to maintenance temozolomide A phase II trial involving a small cohort of elderly in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma revealed patients with MGMT promoter- unmethylated glio- superior PFS and OS outcomes across all patient and blastoma had similar results ; however, the clinical tumour subgroups , without relevant differences in significance of such PFS gains is unclear because the QOL between arms . However, questions have been reliability of assessing progression by neuroimaging can raised regarding the mode of action, the study design be questioned and because data from the RTOG 0825 without a sham control, the interpretation of data trial raised concerns of early cognitive decline in patients and the effect on health-r elated QOL in the general treated with bevacizumab . Bevacizumab has therefore patient population . Additionally, the feasibility and not been approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed cost- effectiveness of tumour- treating fields as a stan- glioblastoma, with very few exceptions worldwide, but dard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma remain could be useful in patients with large tumours who are highly controversial . A focus on supportive and highly symptomatic and who might not otherwise tole r- palliative care is appropriate for patients with large or ate radiotherapy. In the field of immunotherapy, negative multifocal lesions with a low KPS, notably if they a re phase III trials for OS include that of the EGFRt -a rgeted unable to provide consent for further therapy after vaccine rindopepimut in patients with EGFRvIII-p ositive 74 111 biopsy . glioblastoma and that of the immune checkpoint No benefit has been reported from increasing the inhibitor nivolumab in patients with MGMT promoter dose of temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed unmethylated glioblastoma . disease nor from extending the duration of chemother- Standard- of- care treatments for patients with recur- apy beyond six cycles . However, combining temozolo- rent glioblastoma are not well defined; treatment is mide with lomustine in the newly diagnosed setting might selected on the basis of prior therapy, age, KPS, MGMT extend OS in patients with MGMT promoter-m ethylated promoter methylation status and patterns of disease glioblastoma . This phase III trial involved a small progression (fig.  3). Second surgery is an option for Glioblastoma, IDH wild type, WHO grade 4 Treatment at diagnosis Biopsy or resection followed by early (<48h) postoperative MRI or CT (baseline for monitoring and detection of progression) Favourable Unfavourable Unfavourable Unfavourable Very unfavourable prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors prognostic factors • Age <70 years • KPS <70 years • Age >70 years • Age >70 years • KPS <50 • KPS ≥70 • MGMT promoter • MGMT promoter or non-methylated methylated inability to consent to treatment Temozolomide Radiotherapy Radiotherapy Temozolomide chemoradiotherapy (hypofractionated) (hypofractionated) chemoradiotherapy or temozolomide Follow-up 2–3-monthly intervals: neurological examination and imaging Progression/recurrence Options determined by KPS, neurological function and prior treatment • Repeat surgery • Alkylating chemotherapy Palliative care • Bevacizumab • Re-irradiation • Experimental therapy Fig. 3 Clinical pathway for IDH- wild- type glioblastomas, WHO grade 4. KPS, Karnofsky performance status. 182 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s ~20–30% of patients, commonly with symptomatic rare epithelioid glioblastomas, an entity that remains but circumscribed relapses diagnosed not earlier than controversial because of its similarity to anaplastic V600E 6 months after initial surgery. Second surgery earlier pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, harbour BRAF than 6 months after initial surgery increases the risk of mutations. Patients with such tumours might benefit unnecessary intervention on the basis of pseudopro- from BRAF inhibitors, at least in the setting of disease gression and is unlikely to provide durable benefit if the recurrence . initial surgery followed by radiotherapy did not provide tumour control for more than a few months. Second Recommendations. surgery can also be considered upon early progression • The standard of care for patients with IDH- wild- t ype in symptomatic patients who might not have had ade- glioblastoma aged <70 years and with a KPS > 70 quate initial surgery. This procedure might improve includes resection as feasible or biopsy followed by post- recurrence survival in patients who are candidates involved- field radiotherapy and concomitant radio- for gross total resection of enhancing tumour . therapy and six cycles of maintenance temozolo- The efficacy of re- irradiation and the value of mide chemotherapy (EORTC 26981- NCIC CE.3) . amino acid PET for target delineation remain debated. C: I; L: A. Radiation fractionation depends on tumour size. Larger • Temozolomide might only be active in patients with lesions require smaller single fraction sizes to improve MGMT promoter- methylated tumours whereas the safety and tolerability. Doses of conventional or its activity in patients with MGMT promoter- near conventional fractionation have been tested as unmethylated tumours is probably marginal. well as higher doses per fraction (5–6 G y) using stereo- C: II; L: B. tactic hypofractionated radiotherapy to a total dose • Elderly patients not considered candidates for of 30–36 Gy or even radiosurgery with a single dose of temozolomide chemoradiotherapy should be treated 15–20 Gy, all with acceptable toxicity profiles. The on the basis of MGMT promoter methylation status only RCT exploring bevacizumab plus radiotherapy (NOA-08, Nordic Trial) with radiotherapy (such as versus bevacizumab alone reported improved PFS but 15 × 2.66 Gy) or temozolomide (5 out of 28 days) 114 96,98,97 not OS . alone . C: II; L: B. The main systemic treatment options for patients • At recurrence, standards of care are less well defined. with disease progression include nitrosoureas, temozo- Surgery and radiotherapy might be considered. lomide rechallenge, bevacizumab (depending on avail- Nitrosourea regimens, temozolomide rechallenge ability) or inclusion into a clinical trial. Lomustine and, with consideration of the country- specific label, (90–110 mg/m ) has never been shown to have superi- bevacizumab are options of pharmacotherapy but an ority over another agent in an RCT but is increasingly impact on OS remains unproven. When available, considered as the most appropriate standard of care recruitment into appropriate clinical trials should be on the basis of its activity as the control arm of several considered. C: II; L: B. 65,115 116 RCTs and is also used in the AGILE trial , with 6- month PFS rates of ~20% . Similar results have been H3 K27M- mutant diffuse midline glioma, WHO grade 4. reported with alternative dosing schedules of temozolo- This tumour type includes the majority of brainstem, mide but activity is probably limited to patients with thalamic and spinal diffuse gliomas in children and 117,118 tumours with MGMT promoter methylation . No adults. Surgical options are limited and benefits from data from RCTs support the view that dose- intensified treatment options beyond radiotherapy have not been schedules are superior to standard-dos e temozolo- established because these tumours are rare and have mide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after a not been studied in dedicated trials. In these tumours, temozolomide- free interval. the MGMT promoter is usually unmethylated. The Bevacizumab is not approved for patients with recur- prognosis of patients with this tumour type is poor. rent glioblastoma in the European Union, although it has been approved for this indication in other countries H3.3 G34- mutant diffuse hemispheric glioma, WHO on the basis of objective response rates of ~30% in two grade 4. These tumours mostly occur in adolescents and 66,67 uncontrolled phase II trials . Bevacizumab has not young adults and the MGMT promoter is more often been compared with placebo, and an effect on OS was methyl ated than unmethylated . These tumours were not observed upon combination with lomustine as com- pre viously classified as IDH- w ild-t ype glioblastomas pared with lomustine alone . To date, no active combi- and, thus, a reasonable treatment approach for such nation partner for bevacizumab to prolong OS has been patients is chemoradiotherapy. identified. The main value of this agent in routine clini- cal practice is transient symptom control and the option Discouraged treatments. Steroids should not be given to for sparing treatment with steroids in symptomatic treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic oedema patients with large tumours. and should be tapered as soon as possible, considering In other studies of potential treatments for recurrent their unfavourable safety profile upon long t - erm admin- glioblastoma, nivolumab was not superior to bevaciz- istration. Furthermore, steroid use has been shown to be umab and tumour- treating fields were not superior a negative prognostic factor for OS in patients with glio- 120 123 to physician’s choice of best treatment . So far, only blastoma from three separate large cohorts and might a limited role for targeted therapy in recurrent glio- interfere with the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy blastoma has been shown . Approximately 50% of the and immunotherapy. Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 183 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s Furthermore, we advocate against the use of any gliomas. The diagnosis and management plans should treatment beyond confirmed progression on that follow multidisciplinary tumour board recommend -a same treatment, including bevacizumab and tumour- tions throughout the course of disease. Multidisciplinary treating fields, because the clinical benefit of this prac- tumour board meetings are the fora for the discussion tice has not been established. Several chemotherapy of whether treatments should be delivered locally or regimens commonly used to treat other tumour types, at a specialized centre and in inpatient or outpatient including irinotecan and platinum compounds, are settings as well as to determine which neurorehabi-l known not to be active against gliomas and should itation measures would be useful. Local and national therefore not be used in this setting. guidelines as well as EANO guidelines provide further Given the poor outcomes of many patients with guidance. Guidelines reflect knowledge and consensus diffuse gliomas, new treatment concepts emerge and at a given time; information on future updates will be vanish that have never been tested in appropriate RCTs posted on the EANO website. For many of the newly and the use of which outside a clinical trial is discour - defined disease entities in the latest WHO classifica- aged. Examples include the cocktail of repurposed tion, data on specific treatments and outcomes are not drugs referred to as CUSP9, cannabinoids, methadone, yet available; extrapolating data from clinical trials to sulfasalazine and valproate (except for seizure control). these novel entities remains challenging. Wel desig l- ned, molecularly enriched RCTs are necessary to substantiate Conclusions some of the treatment recommendations of the present The revision of the WHO Classification of Tumors of guidelines. the Central Nervous System has led to major changes in the way we routinely diagnose and treat patients with Published online 8 December 2020 1. Louis, D. N., Ohgaki, H., Wiestler, O. D. & 15. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. IDH- mutant gliomas. Neuro- Oncology 21, Cavenee, W. K. (eds) World Health Organization ‘Mini- mental state’. A practical method for grading 1519–1528 (2019). Histological Classification of Tumors of the Central the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. 30. Tesileanu, C. M. S. et al. Survival of diffuse astrocytic Nervous System (International Agency for Research J. Psychiatr. Res. 12, 189–198 (1975). glioma, IDH1/2 wildtype, with molecular features on Cancer, 2016) 16. Nasreddine, Z. S. et al. The montreal cognitive of glioblastoma, WHO grade IV: a confirmation of 2. Brat, D. J. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 3: assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for the cIMPACT- NOW criteria. Neuro- Oncology 22, recommended diagnostic criteria for ‘Diffuse astrocytic mild cognitive impairment. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 53, 515–523 (2020). glioma, IDH- wildtype, with molecular features of 31. Reuss, D. E. et al. Adult IDH wild type astrocytomas 695–699 (2005). glioblastoma, WHO grade IV’. Acta Neuropathol. 136, 17. Ellingson, B. M., Wen, P. Y. & Cloughesy, T. F. modified biologically and clinically resolve into other tumor 805–810 (2018). criteria for radiographic response assessment in entities. Acta Neuropathol. 130, 407–417 (2015). 3. Brat, D. J. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 5: glioblastoma clinical trials. Neurotherapeutics 14, 32. Wick, W. et al. Prognostic or predictive value of MGMT recommended grading criteria and terminologies for 307–320 (2017). promoter methylation in gliomas depends on IDH1 IDH- mutant astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol. 139, mutation. Neurology 81, 1515–1522 (2013). 18. Albert, N. L. et al. Response assessment in neuro- 603–608 (2020). oncology working group and european association 33. Bady, P., Delorenzi, M. & Hegi, M. E. Sensitivity 4. Louis, D. N. et al. cIMPACT- NOW update 6: new for neuro- oncology recommendations for the clinical analysis of the MGMT- STP27 model and impact entity and diagnostic principle recommendations of use of PET imaging in gliomas. Neuro- Oncology 18, of genetic and epigenetic context to predict the the cIMPACT-Utr echt meeting on future CNS tumor 1199–1208 (2016). MGMT methylation status in gliomas and other classification and grading. Brain Pathol. 30, 844–856 tumors. J. Mol. Diagn. 18, 350–361 (2016). 19. Le Rhun, E., Seoane, J., Salzet, M., Soffietti, R. (2020). & Weller, M. Liquid biopsies for diagnosing and 34. Preusser, M. et al. Anti- O6-methylguanine- 5. Weller, M. et al. European association for neuro- monitoring primary tumors of the central nervous methyltransferase (MGMT) immunohistochemistry oncology (EANO) guideline on the diagnosis and system. Cancer Lett. 480, 24–28 (2020). in glioblastoma multiforme: observer variability and treatment of adult astrocytic and oligodendroglial 20. Roth, P. et al. Neurological and vascular complications lack of association with patient survival impede its gliomas. Lancet Oncol. 18, e315–e329 (2017). use as clinical biomarker. Brain Pathol. 18, 520–532 of primary and secondary brain tumors: EANO- ESMO 6. Brainin, M. et al. Guidance for the preparation Clinical Practice Guidelines for prophylaxis, diagnosis, (2008). of neurological management guidelines by EFNS treatment and follow- up. Ann. Oncol. https://doi.org/ 35. Sahm, F. et al. Next- generation sequencing in scientific task forces- revised recommendations 2004. 10.1093/annonc/mdx221 (2020). routine brain tumor diagnostics enables an Eur. J. Neurol. 11, 577–581 (2004). 21. Williams, M., Treasure, P., Greenberg, D., Brodbelt, A. integrated diagnosis and identifies actionable targets. 7. Ostrom, Q. T. et al. CBTRUS statistical report: Acta Neuropathol. 131, 903–910 (2016). & Collins, P. Surgeon volume and 30 day mortality primary brain and other central nervous system for brain tumours in England. Br. J. Cancer 115, 36. Zacher, A. et al. Molecular diagnostics of gliomas tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2012-2016. 1379–1382 (2016). using next generation sequencing of a glioma- tailored Neuro- Oncology 21 (Suppl. 5), v1–v100 (2019). 22. Eigenbrod, S. et al. Molecular stereotactic biopsy gene panel. Brain Pathol. 27, 146–159 (2017). 8. Rice, T. et al. Understanding inherited genetic risk of technique improves diagnostic accuracy and enables 37. Capper, D. et al. DNA methylation- based classification adult glioma - a review. Neurooncol. Pract. 3, 10–16 personalized treatment strategies in glioma patients. of central nervous system tumours. Nature 555, (2016). Acta Neurochir. 156, 1427–1440 (2014). 469–474 (2018). 9. Posti, J. P. et al. Presenting symptoms of glioma in 23. Hamisch, C. A. et al. Frame- based stereotactic 38. Ferguson, S. D. et al. Targetable gene fusions adults. Acta Neurol. Scand. 131, 88–93 (2015). biopsy of deep- seated and midline structures in 511 associate with the IDH wild- type astrocytic lineage 10. Rasmussen, B. K. et al. Epidemiology of glioma: procedures: feasibility, risk profile, and diagnostic in adult gliomas. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 77, clinical characteristics, symptoms, and predictors yield. Acta Neurochir. 161, 2065–2071 (2019). 437–442 (2018). of glioma patients grade I- IV in the the danish 24. Grasbon- Frodl, E. M. et al. Intratumoral homogeneity 39. Stichel, D. et al. Routine RNA sequencing of neuro- oncology registry. J. Neurooncol. 135, of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as formalin- fixed paraffin- embedded specimens in 571–579 (2017). demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens neuropathology diagnostics identifies diagnostically 11. Peeters, M. C. M. et al. Prediagnostic symptoms and from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. and therapeutically relevant gene fusions. signs of adult glioma: the patients’ view. J. Neurooncol. Int. J. Cancer 121, 2458–2464 (2007). Acta Neuropathol. 138, 827–835 (2019). 146, 293–301 (2020). 25. Millesi, M. et al. Is intraoperative pathology needed 40. Stummer, W. et al. Fluorescence- guided surgery 12. Pace, A. et al. Determining medical decision- making if 5-aminolevulinic- acid-induced tissue fluorescence with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant capacity in brain tumor patients: why and how? is found in stereotactic brain tumor biopsy? glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III Neurooncol. Pract. https://doi.org/10.1093/nop/ Neurosurgery 86, 366–373 (2020). trial. Lancet Oncol. 7, 392–401 (2006). npaa040 (2020). 26. Shirahata, M. et al. Novel, improved grading system(s) 41. De Witt Hamer, P. C., Robles, S. G., Zwinderman, A. H., 13. Nayak, L. et al. The neurologic assessment in neuro- for IDH-mut ant astrocytic gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. Duffau, H. & Berger, M. S. Impact of intraoperative oncology (NANO) scale: a tool to assess neurologic 136, 153–166 (2018). stimulation brain mapping on glioma surgery function for integration into the response assessment 27. Banan, R. et al. Infratentorial IDH- mutant astrocytoma outcome: a meta- analysis. J. Clin. Oncol. 30, in neuro- oncology (RANO) criteria. Neuro- Oncology is a distinct subtype. Acta Neuropathol. 140, 2559–2565 (2012). 19, 625–635 (2017). 569–581 (2020). 42. Brennum, J., Maier, C. M., Almdal, K., Engelmann, C. M. 14. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Bevacizumab and 28. Reinhardt, A. et al. Tumors diagnosed as cerebellar & Gjerris, M. Primo non nocere or maximum survival temozolomide in patients with first recurrence of WHO glioblastoma comprise distinct molecular entities. in grade 2 gliomas? A medical ethical question. grade II and III glioma, without 1p/19q co- deletion Acta Neuropathol. Commun. 7, 163 (2019). Acta Neurochir. 157, 155–164 (2015). (TAVAREC): a randomised controlled phase 2 EORTC 29. Appay, R. et al. CDKN2A homozygous deletion is a 43. Gulati, S., Jakola, A. S., Nerland, U. S., Weber, C. trial. Lancet Oncol. 19, 1170–1179 (2018). strong adverse prognosis factor in diffuse malignant & Solheim, O. The risk of getting worse: surgically 184 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s acquired deficits, perioperative complications, and 67. Kreisl, T. N. et al. Phase II trial of single- agent randomised, open- label intergroup study. Lancet functional outcomes after primary resection of bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus irinotecan https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31442-3 glioblastoma. World Neurosurg. 76, 572–579 (2011). at tumor progression in recurrent glioblastoma. (2017). 44. Bette, S. et al. Patterns and time dependence of J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 740–745 (2009). 89. van den Bent, M. et al. ACTR-11. Second interim unspecific enhancement in postoperative magnetic 68. Wen, P. Y. et al. Updated response assessment and 1st molecular analysis of the EORTC randomized resonance imaging after glioblastoma resection. criteria for high- grade gliomas: response assessment phase III intergroup CATNON trial on concurrent and World Neurosurg. 90, 440–447 (2016). in neuro-oncology w orking group. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, adjuvant temozolomide in anaplastic glioma without 45. Grabowski, M. M. et al. Residual tumor volume versus 1963–1972 (2010). 1p/19q codeletion. Neuro- Oncology 21, vi14–vi14 extent of resection: predictors of survival after surgery 69. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Response assessment (2019). for glioblastoma. J. Neurosurg. 121, 1115–1123 in neuro-oncology (a r eport of the RANO group): 90. Yung, W. K. et al. Multicenter phase II trial of (2014). assessment of outcome in trials of diffuse low- grade temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma 46. Molinaro, A. M. et al. Association of maximal extent gliomas. Lancet Oncol. 12, 583–593 (2011). or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma at first relapse. of resection of contrast- enhanced and non- contrast- 70. Radbruch, A. et al. Pseudoprogression in patients with Temodal Brain Tumor Group. J. Clin. Oncol. 17, enhanced tumor with survival within molecular glioblastoma: clinical relevance despite low incidence. 2762–2771 (1999). subgroups of patients with newly diagnosed Neuro- Oncology 17, 151–159 (2015). 91. Brada, M. et al. Temozolomide versus procarbazine, glioblastoma. JAMA Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1001/ 71. Ellingson, B. M. et al. Consensus recommendations lomustine, and vincristine in recurrent high- grade jamaoncol.2019.6143 (2020). for a standardized Brain Tumor Imaging Protocol glioma. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 4601–4608 (2010). 47. Wijnenga, M. M. J. et al. The impact of surgery in in clinical trials. Neuro- Oncology 17, 1188–1198 92. Vuorinen, V., Hinkka, S., Färkkilä, M. & Jääskeläinen, J. molecularly defined low- grade glioma: an integrated (2015). Debulking or biopsy of malignant glioma in elderly clinical, radiological, and molecular analysis. 72. Gui, C., Lau, J. C., Kosteniuk, S. E., Lee, D. H. & people - a randomised study. Acta Neurochir. 145, Neuro- Oncology 20, 103–112 (2018). Megyesi, J. F. Radiology reporting of low- grade 5–10 (2003). 48. Press, R. H. et al. Optimal timing of glioma growth underestimates tumor expansion. 93. Roa, W. et al. International atomic energy agency chemoradiotherapy after surgical resection of Acta Neurochir. 161, 569–576 (2019). randomized phase III study of radiation therapy in glioblastoma: Stratification by validated prognostic 73. Zikou, A. et al. Radiation necrosis, pseudoprogression, elderly and/or frail patients with newly diagnosed classification. Cancer 126, 3255–3264 (2020). pseudoresponse, and tumor recurrence: imaging glioblastoma multiforme. J. Clin. Oncol. 33, 49. Beiko, J. et al. IDH1 mutant malignant astrocytomas challenges for the evaluation of treated gliomas. 4145–4150 (2015). are more amenable to surgical resection and have a Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 2018, 6828396 94. Perry, J. R. et al. Short- course radiation plus survival benefit associated with maximal surgical (2018). temozolomide in elderly patients with glioblastoma. resection. Neuro- Oncology 16, 81–91 (2014). 74. Pace, A. et al. European association for neuro- N. Engl. J. Med. 376, 1027–1037 (2017). 50. Walker, M. D. et al. Evaluation of BCNU and/or oncology (EANO) guidelines for palliative care in 95. Hegi, M. E. et al. MGMT gene silencing and benefit radiotherapy in the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. adults with glioma. Lancet Oncol. 18, e330–e340 from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. Med. A cooperative clinical trial. J. Neurosurg. 49, 333–343 (2017). 352, 997–1003 (2005). (1978). 75. Buckner, J. C. et al. Radiation plus procarbazine, 96. Wick, W. et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy alone 51. Keime- Guibert, F. et al. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma CCNU, and vincristine in low- grade glioma. versus radiotherapy alone for malignant astrocytoma in the elderly. N. Engl. J. Med. 356, 1527–1535 N. Engl. J. Med. 374, 1344–1355 (2016). in the elderly: the NOA-08 randomised, phase 3 trial. (2007). 76. Wahl, M. et al. Chemotherapy for adult low- grade Lancet Oncol. 13, 707–715 (2012). 52. Breen, W. G. et al. Final report from Intergroup NCCTG gliomas: clinical outcomes by molecular subtype 97. Wick, A. et al. Superiority of temozolomide over 86-72-51 (Alliance): a phase III randomized clinical in a phase II study of adjuvant temozolomide. radiotherapy for elderly patients with RTK II trial of high- dose versus low- dose radiation for adult Neuro- Oncology 19, 242–251 (2017). methylation class, MGMT promoter- methylated low- grade glioma. Neuro- Oncology 22, 830–837 77. Rudà, R. et al. Efficacy of initial temozolomide for malignant astrocytoma. Neuro- Oncology (2020). high-risk lo w grade gliomas in a phase II AINO (Italian https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa033 (2020). 53. Khan, L. et al. External beam radiation dose Association for Neuro- Oncology) study: a post- hoc 98. Malmström, A. et al. Temozolomide versus standard escalation for high grade glioma. Cochrane Database analysis within molecular subgroups of WHO 2016. 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated Syst. Rev. 5, CD011475 (2020). J. Neurooncol. 145, 115–123 (2019). radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with 54. Roa, W. et al. Abbreviated course of radiation therapy 78. Wick, W. et al. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. in older patients with glioblastoma multiforme: sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma Lancet Oncol. 13, 916–926 (2012). a prospective randomized clinical trial. J. Clin. Oncol. with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or 99. Weller, M. Where does O6 -methylguanine DNA 22, 1583–1588 (2004). temozolomide. J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 5874–5880 methyltransferase promoter methylation assessment 55. Niyazi, M. et al. ESTRO- ACROP guideline ‘target (2009). place temozolomide in the future standards of care delineation of glioblastomas’. Radiother. Oncol. 118, 79. Cairncross, G. et al. Phase III trial of for glioblastoma? Cancer 124, 1316–1318 (2018). 35–42 (2016). chemoradiotherapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: 100. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov 56. Harrabi, S. B. et al. Dosimetric advantages of proton long- term results of RTOG 9402. J. Clin. Oncol. 31, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02617589 therapy over conventional radiotherapy with photons 337–343 (2013). (2020). in young patients and adults with low- grade glioma. 80. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, 101. Stupp, R. et al. Effect of tumor- treating fields Strahlenther. Onkol. 192, 759–769 (2016). lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in newly plus maintenance temozolomide vs maintenance 57. Malouff, T. D., Peterson, J. L., Mahajan, A. & diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long- term temozolomide alone on survival in patients with Trifiletti, D. M. Carbon ion radiotherapy in the follow-up of EOR TC brain tumor group study 26951. glioblastoma: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 318, treatment of gliomas: a review. J. Neurooncol. 145, J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 344–350 (2013). 2306–2316 (2017). 102. Taphoorn, M. J. B. et al. Influence of treatment with 191–199 (2019). 81. Habets, E. J. J. et al. Health- related quality of life 58. Nachbichler, S. B. & Kreth, F.-W. Brachytherapy of and cognitive functioning in long- term anaplastic tumor- treating fields on health- related quality of intracranial gliomas. Prog. Neurol. Surg. 31, 72–86 oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma survivors. life of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: (2018). J. Neurooncol. 116, 161–168 (2014). a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. 59. Stupp, R. et al. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and 82. Wick, W. et al. Long- term analysis of the JAMA Oncol. 4, 495–504 (2018). 103. Wick, W. TTFields: where does all the skepticism come adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential Med. 352, 987–996 (2005). radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with PCV from? Neuro- Oncology 18, 303–305 (2016). 60. Weller, M. & Le Rhun, E. How did lomustine become or temozolomide. Neuro- Oncology 18, 1529–1537 104. Bernard- Arnoux, F. et al. The cost- effectiveness of standard of care in recurrent glioblastoma? Cancer (2016). tumor- treating fields therapy in patients with newly Treat. Rev. 87, 102029 (2020). 83. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov diagnosed glioblastoma. Neuro- Oncology 18, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00887146 1129–1136 (2016). 61. Brem, H. et al. Placebo- controlled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative controlled delivery (2020). 105. Gilbert, M. R. et al. Dose- dense temozolomide for by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy 84. Jakola, A. S. et al. Surgical resection versus watchful newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a randomized phase III for recurrent gliomas. The Polymer- brain Tumor waiting in low- grade gliomas. Ann. Oncol. 28, clinical trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 4085–4091 (2013). Treatment Group. Lancet 345, 1008–1012 (1995). 1942–1948 (2017). 106. Balana, C. et al. A phase II randomized, multicenter, 85. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Long- term efficacy open- label trial of continuing adjuvant temozolomide 62. Westphal, M. et al. A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine of early versus delayed radiotherapy for low- grade beyond six cycles in patients with glioblastoma (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: (GEINO 14-01). Neuro- Oncology https://doi.org/ primary malignant glioma. Neuro- Oncology 5, the EORTC 22845 randomised trial. Lancet 366, 10.1093/neuonc/noaa107 (2020). 79–88 (2003). 985–990 (2005). 107. Herrlinger, U. et al. Lomustine- temozolomide 86. Baumert, B. G. et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy combination therapy versus standard temozolomide 63. Wen, P. Y. et al. Glioblastoma in adults: a Society for Neuro- Oncology (SNO) and European Society of versus radiotherapy in high- risk low- grade glioma therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma Neuro- Oncology (EANO) consensus review on current (EORTC 22033-26033): a randomised, open- label, with methylated MGMT promoter (CeTeG/NOA-09): management and future directions. Neuro- Oncology phase 3 intergroup study. Lancet Oncol. 17, a randomised, open- label, phase 3 trial. Lancet 393, https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa106 (2020). 1521–1532 (2016). 678–688 (2019). 87. Bell, E. H. et al. Comprehensive genomic analysis 108. Chinot, O. L. et al. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy- 64. Touat, M. et al. Mechanisms and therapeutic implications of hypermutation in gliomas. Nature 580, in NRG oncology/RTOG 9802: A phase III trial of temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. 517–523 (2020). radiation versus radiation plus procarbazine, lomustine N. Engl. J. Med. 370, 709–722 (2014). 65. Wick, W. et al. Lomustine and bevacizumab in (CCNU), and vincristine in high- risk low- grade glioma. 109. Gilbert, M. R., Sulman, E. P. & Mehta, M. P. progressive glioblastoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 377, J. Clin. Oncol. 38, 3407–3417 (2020). Bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. 88. van den Bent, M. J. et al. Interim results from the N. Engl. J. Med. 370, 2048–2049 (2014). 1954–1963 (2017). 66. Friedman, H. S. et al. Bevacizumab alone and in CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of 110. Wirsching, H.-G. et al. Bevacizumab plus combination with irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma. treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide hypofractionated radiotherapy versus radiotherapy J. Clin. Oncol. 27, 4733–4740 (2009). for 1p/19q non- co-deleted anaplastic glioma: a phase 3, alone in elderly patients with glioblastoma: the Na Ture r evIeWS | ClInICAl OnCOl Ogy volu M e 18 | March 2021 | 185 evid e nc e -Bas e d guid e lin e s randomized, open-label, phase II AR TE trial. Ann. Oncol. 122. Sturm, D. et al. Hotspot mutations in H3F3A and IDH1 from Bristol Myers Squibb, Debiopharm, Medac, Merck, MSD, 29, 1423–1430 (2018). define distinct epigenetic and biological subgroups of QED and Roche. S.S. reports personal fees from Hox 111. Weller, M. et al. Rindopepimut with temozolomide for glioblastoma. Cancer Cell 22, 425–437 (2012). Therapeutics and Tocagen and personal fees and support of patients with newly diagnosed, EGFRvIII- expressing 123. Pitter, K. L. et al. Corticosteroids compromise survival reagents from Abbvie. M.S. reports other support from GE glioblastoma (ACT IV): a randomised, double- blind, in glioblastoma. Brain 139, 1458–1471 (2016). Healthcare and Parexel. A.vD. receives royalties for the diag- international phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 18, 124. Hovey, E. J. et al. Continuing or ceasing bevacizumab nostic use of IDH1 R132H mutant- specific antibody H09; all 1373–1385 (2017). beyond progression in recurrent glioblastoma: an terms are being managed by the German Cancer Research 112. Suchorska, B. et al. Complete resection of contrast- exploratory randomized phase II trial. Neurooncol Center in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. R.S. enhancing tumor volume is associated with improved Pract. 4, 171–181 (2017). reports personal fees from AstraZeneca, EISAI, Merck and survival in recurrent glioblastoma- results from the 125. US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov Puma Biotechnologies. G.R. reports personal fees from DIRECTOR trial. Neuro- Oncology 18, 549–556 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03763422 Abbvie. G.M., L.D., P.F., R.R., M.J.B.T., M.W. and W.W. declare (2016). (2020). no competing interests. 113. Ryu, S. et al. The role of radiotherapy in the management of progressive glioblastoma: a systematic Author contributions Funding review and evidence- based clinical practice guideline. M.W. wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All other authors The preparation of these evidence- based guidelines was J. Neurooncol. 118, 489–499 (2014). reviewed the draft and approved the final version of the not funded. The members of the task force did not receive 114. Tsien, C. et al. ACTR-32. NRG ONCOLOGY RTOG manuscript. compensation for their participation. 1205: randomized phase II trial of concurrent bevacizumab and re- irradiation vs. bevacizumab Competing interests Peer review information alone as treatment for recurrent glioblastoma. M.W. reports grants and personal fees from Abbvie, Merck Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology thanks E.A. Chiocca, Neuro- Oncology 21, vi20–vi20 (2019). (EMD) and MSD, grants from Adastra, Dracen and Novocure, M. Prados, N. Sanai and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) 115. Batchelor, T. T. et al. Phase II study of cediranib, an personal fees from Basilea, BMS, Celgene, Medac, Nerviano for their contribution to the peer review of this work. oral pan- vascular endothelial growth factor receptor Medical Sciences, Orbus, Roche and Tocagen. M.vdB. reports tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with recurrent personal fees from Abbvie, Agios, Bayer, Carthera, Genenta, Publisher’s note glioblastoma. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 2817–2823 (2010). Karyopharm and Nerviano Medical Sciences. M.Preusser Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional 116. Becker Buxton, M. et al. GBM AGILE: A global, reports grants and personal fees from Abbvie, Daiichi Sankyo, claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. phase II/III adaptive platform trial to evaluate GlaxoSmithKline and MSD, grants from Böhringer Ingelheim, multiple regimens in newly diagnosed and recurrent Bristol Myers Squibb, Novocure and Roche, and personal fees Open Access This article is licensed under a glioblastoma. J. Clin. Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1200/ from AstraZeneca, Bayer, BMJ Journals, BMS, CMC Contrast, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 JCO.2020.38.15_suppl.TPS2579 (2020). Gerson Lehrman Group, Lilly, Medahead, MedMedia, International License, which permits use, 117. Perry, J. R. et al. Phase II trial of continuous Mundipharma, Novartis, Roche, Sanofi and Tocagen. E.L.R. sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any dose-intense temozolomide in recurrent malignant reports personal fees from Abbvie, Daiichy Sankyo medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to glioma: RESCUE study. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 2051–2057 and Tocagen. J.C.T. reports personal fees from BrainLab and the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the (2010). Carthera. M.B. reports grants and personal fees from Novartis, Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were 118. Weller, M. et al. MGMT promoter methylation is a grants from Siemens, and personal fees from B. Braun, Bayer, made. The images or other third party material in this article strong prognostic biomarker for benefit from dose- Boehringer Ingelheim, Grifols, Merck, Springer, Teva and are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless intensified temozolomide rechallenge in progressive Vascular Dynamics. C.B. reports personal fees from Celgene, indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material glioblastoma: the DIRECTOR trial. Clin. Cancer Res. Karyopharm, Lipopharma and Pharmamar, and other sup port is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and 21, 2057–2064 (2015). from Abbvie. O.C. reports personal fees and travel your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or 119. Reardon, D. A. et al. Effect of nivolumab vs support from Abbvie. M.E.H. reports funding from Bristol exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission bevacizumab in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: Myers Squibb and Novocure. A.S.J. reports personal fees from directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this the CheckMate 143 phase 3 randomized clinical trial. INOMED. M.Pl. reports non- financial support from Pfizer license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. JAMA Oncol. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol. and Roche, personal fees and supply of reagents from 2020.1024 (2020). Bayer, and personal fees from Affiris, Apogenix and Novartis. 120. Stupp, R. et al. NovoTTF-100A versus physician’s In addition, M.Pl has six patents licensed to Bayer REla TEd lInks choice chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma: (EP2753315B1, WO2018146010A1, WO2019101643A1, european association of neuro- Oncology (eanO): a randomised phase III trial of a novel treatment WO2019101647A1, WO2019101641A1 and www.eano.eu modality. Eur. J. Cancer 48, 2192–2202 (2012). WO2019101642A1), one patent issued (EP2800580B1) 121. Kaley, T. et al. BRAF inhibition in BRAFV600-mutant and three patents pending (US20180155403A1, gliomas: results from the VE- BASKET study. US20180246118A1 and US20170254803A1). P.R. reports J. Clin. Oncol. 36, 3477–3484 (2018). grants and personal fees from Novocure and personal fees © The Author(s) 2020 186 | March 2021 | volu M e 18 w w w.nature.com/nrclinonc

Journal

Nature Reviews Clinical OncologySpringer Journals

Published: Dec 8, 2020

There are no references for this article.