Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
This paper describes a simple electrochemical sensing platform based on single‑ walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT ) electrodes for glucose detection. The device fabrication using O ‑plasma treatment allows precision and uniformity for the construction of three SWCNT electrodes on the flexible plastic substrate. Glucose assay can be simply accom‑ plished by introducing a glucose sample into the fabricated biosensor. The marked electrocatalytic and biocompat‑ ible properties of biosensors based on SWCNT electrodes with the incorporation of ferrocenecarboxylic acid and poly‑ ethylene glycol enable effective amperometric measurement of glucose at a low oxidation potential (0.3 V ) with low interferences from coexisting species. The device shows efficient electroanalytical performances with high sensitivity −1 −2 (5.5 μA·mM ·cm ), good reproducibility (CV less than 3%), and long‑term stability (over a month). A linear range of response was found from 0 to 10 mM of glucose with a fast response time of 10 s. This attractive electroanalytical device based on GOx/FCA/PEG/SWCNT electrodes offers a promising system to facilitate a new approach for diverse biosensors and electrochemical devices. Keywords Carbon nanotube, Electrochemical biosensor, Amperometry, Glucose, Ferrocenecarboxylic acid, Polyethylene glycol Introduction Glucose is one of the essential nutrients and has been widely used in the food and drug industry. It plays an important role in human life as a major energy source and metabolic intermediate. However, the abnormal level *Correspondence: of glucose in blood is considered to be responsible for Gi Hun Seong endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes mel- email@example.com litus, which may cause serious diseases (e.g., kidney fail- Division of Materials Analysis and Research, Korea Basic Science Institute, 169–148, Gwahak‑ro, Yuseong‑gu, Daejeon 34133, Republic of Korea ure, blindness, and heart disease) (Sun and James 2015). Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Center for Advanced According to the World Health Organization, more than Materials and Partsof Powders (CAMP2), Kongju National University, 400 million people suffer from diabetes, indicating that 1223‑24, Cheonan‑daero, Seobuk‑gu, Cheonan‑si, Chungcheongnam‑do 31080, Republic of Korea it has already become a worldwide public health threat Bio‑Chemical Analysis Team, Ochang Center, Korea Basic (WHO, 2022). For this reason, simple, sensitive, and Science Institute, 162 Yeongudanji‑ro, Ochang‑Eup, Cheongju‑si, easy-to-use glucose sensors are highly required for the Chungcheongbuk‑do 28119, Republic of Korea Department of Bionano Engineering, Center for Bionano Intelligence millions of diabetics supposed to check their own glu- Education and Research, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak‑ro, cose levels daily. Until now, various detection methods Sannok‑gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi‑do 15588, Republic of Korea have been attempted for the development of reliable and © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 2 of 8 sensitive glucose biosensor, such as electrochemistry (Hu nanotube (SWCNT) for glucose detection. The three et al. 2014), spectrometric colorimetry (Xu et al. 2019; SWCNT electrode system was simply fabricated on a Park et al. 2022), chemiluminescence (Hao et al. 2013; polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film by O -plasma Chaichi and Ehsani 2016), Raman scattering (Hu et al. treatment. The amperometric glucose sensor was con - 2017), and fluorometry (Liu et al. 2016). Among these structed with the incorporation of ferrocenecarboxylic methods, electrochemical sensing techniques provide acid (FCA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and glucose oxi- significant advantages over other techniques owing to dase (GOx) to achieve enhanced electron transfer and high sensitivity, simplicity, rapid response, miniaturiza- high biocompatibility. Well-fabricated SWCNT elec- tion, and portability. Moreover, it is readily amenable to trodes on plastic films were characterized by scanning commercialization because of low manufacturing cost electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. with the help of recent microfabrication advances. The impressive abilities of biosensors were investigated Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Iijima by cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric tech- 1991), they have attracted significant research attention niques. This simple glucose biosensor showed a fast in many fields due to their excellent electrical, mechani - response, high sensitivity, good reproducibility, and long- cal, thermal, and optical properties (Liu et al. 2011; Chen term stability. and Dai 2013; Hu et al. 2004). CNTs with such outstand- ing properties have been adopted in various applications Experimental section such as field emission displays, chemical sensors, thin Reagents film transistors, and transparent electrodes for optoelec - GOx from Aspergillus niger (EC 188.8.131.52), FCA, PEG (M tronic devices (Lee et al. 2017; Park et al. 2014; Wang 10,000), glucose, ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA) et al. 2014; Hwang et al. 2015; Schroeder et al. 2019). In were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, particular, the electrical conductivity and large surface USA) and used without further purification. A SWCNT have made them suitable for biosensors. CNT surfaces aqueous solution (0.2 mg/mL) was obtained from Topna- with abundant carboxylic acid sites created by the puri- nosys (Cheonan, South Korea). Positive photoresist fication process may provide special opportunities for polymer (AZ4620) and developer (AZ400K) were pur- the adsorption and encapsulation of biomolecules. The chased from AZ Electronic Materials (Somerville, NJ, remarkable electrical properties of CNTs have estab- USA). Phosphate-buffered saline (0.1 M PBS, pH 7.2) was lished them as the ideal electrode for electrochemical obtained from Biosesang (Seongnam, South Korea). All biosensors. Based on these advantages, CNTs have exten- aqueous solutions were prepared with double distilled sively been used in a wide range of electrochemical bio-water (ddH O). sensing studies, such as therapeutic drug sensors (Vashist et al. 2011; Chipeture et al. 2019), amperometric enzyme Preparation of conductive SWCNT film sensors (Erden et al. 2015; Fang et al. 2016), and immuno/ The homogeneous SWCNT films were fabricated by a DNA sensors (Li and Lee 2017). The high electrocatalytic vacuum filtration method (Wu et al. 2004). Briefly, the activity of CNTs promotes effective electron transfer in SWCNT aqueous solution was sonicated for 30 min and electrochemical reactions, making them greatly attractive then centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 10 min. A 200 μL for dehydrogenase/oxidase-based amperometric biosen- of the suspended solution was diluted with 100 mL of sors to determine clinically important analytes (e.g., glu- ddH O and filtered through an anodic aluminum oxide cose, cholesterol, lactate, pyruvate, and ethanol), which (AAO) membrane with 0.2 μm pore size. The AAO mem - generate the electrochemically detectable products brane under the SWCNT thin layer was removed in a (e.g., NADH and H O ) with the assistance of their cor- 3 M NaOH solution, and the remaining SWCNT thin 2 2 responding enzymes (Jacobs et al. 2010; Shi et al. 2011; layer was then transferred to a PET polymer film after Savk et al. 2019; Kul et al. 2013; Gao et al. 2010). Recently, adjusting the solution to neutral pH using ddH O. Then, several electrochemical biosensors using CNT com- the heat treatment at 60 °C for 30 min was carried out posites or modified CNTs have already been reported to increase the adhesion between the SWCNT layer and (Barsan et al. 2015; Yang et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2010; PET film substrate. Shrestha et al. 2016). However, they present some limi- tations for fabricating and miniaturizing sensors, such as Fabrication of three SWCNT electrodes on PET film using the need for complicated manufacturing processes, extra O ‑plasma treatment supporting electrodes, and external stirring/injecting Conductive SWCNT films were patterned using a equipment. standard photolithography method and subsequent In this paper, we developed a simple and facile electro- O -plasma treatment (Fig. 1a). A positive photoresist chemical sensing device based on single-walled carbon Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 3 of 8 Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a the fabrication of SWCNT electrodes by O ‑plasma treatment and b the construction of glucose biosensors based on a three SWCNT electrode system. The gap between the PET substrate and hydrophilic cover film produced by Teflon tape allows the capillary addition of a sample with a volume less than 10 μL. Dimensions represent millimeters polymer (AZ4620) was spin-coated onto the produced Construction of glucose biosensor based on GOx/FCA/PEG/ SWCNT films at 1,500 rpm for 1 min, followed by SWCNT electrodes exposure to UV light (~ 365 nm) through a designed To construct the glucose biosensor, ~ 100-μm-thick Tef- mask and development with the AZ400K solution lon tape was placed on the fabricated PET substrate with sequentially. O -plasma treatments were performed three SWCNT electrodes as shown in Fig. 1b. For glucose at a 100 mTorr chamber pressure, 500 W power, and assays, the casting mixture was prepared by dissolving a substrate reflective frequency of 13.56 MHz for 0.15 g of GOx and 3.5 mg of FCA in 15 mL of 0.1 g/mL 5 min. After O -plasma etching, the remaining pho- PEG at the molar ratio of 1:16. Then, 2 μL of the mixture toresist polymer on the SWCNT films was removed was drop-casted on the detecting zone of a SWCNT elec- with an ethanol solution and rinsed with ddH O. The trode used as working electrode. After that, it was allowed morphological and chemical changes of SWNCT film to dry at 25℃ and 70% humidity for 2 h to form a homoge- were characterized by SEM (Hitachi S-4800, Hitachi neous coating, then a hydrophilic cover film was overlaid Ltd., Japan) and Raman spectroscopy (Renishaw 2000, onto the PET substrate. A sample volume of less than 10 operating with a 633 nm He–Ne laser, Renishaw Inc., μL was required to fill up the biosensor by capillary flow. UK). The resulting array of three SWCNT electrodes (a working electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference Electrochemical characterization and analytical electrode) corresponds to Fig. 1b. Each electrode unit performances using glucose biosensor. has a square end (3.5 mm × 4.0 mm) for the electrical Cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measure- contact. ments were performed on the glucose biosensor with a Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 4 of 8 CHI660C electrochemical analyzer (CH Instruments of SWCNT fabrication using this method. For a more Inc., USA). In a three-electrode setup for electrochemical detailed characterization, the morphological changes of assays, each SWCNT electrode functioned as the work- the SWCNTs were investigated by SEM. In the left SEM ing electrode, the counter electrode, and the reference image, networks of carbon nanotubes showed no damage electrode. All electrochemical experiments were per- and a clear connection. However, the morphologies of formed in PBS solution at room temperature. the SWCNTs exposed to O -plasma treatment changed substantially. This morphology change can be described Results and discussion as the destruction of whole SWCNTs due to the chemical Fabrication and characterization of three SWCNT etching of O -plasma. The destruction started gradually electrodes system from SWCNT defects and resulted in the conversion of O plasma etching in a capacitively coupled plasma SWCNT to volatile C O , CO, and H O (Han et al. 2010; 2 2 2 (CCP) system was chosen for SWCNT electrode pat- Mathur et al. 2012; Su et al. 2013). The average resistiv - terning on PET substrate. Other plasma methods such ity and transparency of the fabricated SWCNT devices as an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a reactive ion were ~ 400 Ω/sq and 80%, respectively. The thickness of etching (RIE) plasma are widely used for CNT etching on the SWCNT electrode was controlled to be ~ 100 nm, a silicon wafer or metal substrates, but they are unsuit- which allowed the suitable resistivity and transparency able to be applied for polymer substrates. The reactive for use as a flexible electrode. SWCNT devices showed ion bombardment accelerated by radio frequency bias high flexibility with negligible changes in resistivity at and the high temperature resulting from plasma gen- hard bending. eration in ICP and RIE systems can cause polymer sub- Figure 3 shows Raman spectra of partial areas in strates to damage and deform easily (Paul et al. 2012; a patterned SWCNT film corresponding to Fig. 2. Powell et al. 2003; Behnam et al. 2007). In contrast with ICP and RIE etching, CCP-based plasma treatment has the advantages on: (1) uniformity of plasma density; (2) low operating temperature; (3) relatively low ion ener- gies, which allow the homogeneity of etched patterns on a large-scaled area and the favorable processes for plastic substrate with good reproducibility and reliability with high feature resolution Additional file 1: (Fig. S2). The plasma fabrication process for SWCNT films included photolithography and subsequent O -plasma treatment. During the plasma treatment, SWCNTs underneath the patterned photoresist polymer were protected from etch- ing and damage by O -plasma while the exposed SWC- NTs were destroyed. The area patterned by O -plasma treatment was more transparent than the area protected Fig. 3 Raman spectra of SWCNT films recorded from SWCNTs a protected with a photoresist polymer, and b exposed to O ‑plasma with the photoresist polymer as shown in Fig. 2. The etching clear electrode patterns demonstrated the effectiveness Fig. 2 Optical and SEM images of three SWCNT electrode‑based biosensor patterned by O plasma treatment. The left and right SEM images were obtained from patterned (gray) and etched (transparent) SWCNT areas on a PET substrate Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 5 of 8 −1 We noted the change in peaks at 1598 cm (G-line) −1 and 1335 cm (D-line) in SWCNTs corresponding to graphite/ordered carbons and amorphous/disor- der carbons, respectively (Park et al. 2015; Dennany et al. 2010). When comparing the PR-covered area (a) and exposed area (b), the representative CNTs peaks −1 −1 at 1598 cm and 1335 cm greatly decreased after O -plasma treatment and decreased by almost 99% compared with the PR-covered area. Moreover, the intensity ratio (I/ I ) increased from 0.128 (a) to 0.725 D G (b), which indicates an increase in disordered phases. This reveals that ordered carbons of CNTs changed to amorphous carbons by O -plasma etching, resulting in the conversion of disordered carbons to volatile CO . Fig. 4 Cyclic voltammetric curves of GOx/FCA/PEG/SWCNT electrode‑based biosensor at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s: a recorded in These results were consistent with those observed in the absence of glucose in a 0.1 M PBS solution, b recorded after the SEM images. addition of 10 mM glucose Morphologies of GOx/FCA/PEG‑modified SWCNT electrode Additional file 1: Figure S1 shows the dependence of GOx (FADH ) + 2M → GOx (FAD) + 2M + 2H surface morphologies of GOx/FCA/PEG-modified 2 (ox) (re) (2) SWCNT electrodes on incubation conditions. Mor- phological changes due to changes in relative humidity 2M → 2M + 2e (re) (ox) (3) were observed by optical microscopy. The surface mor - where M and M represent the oxidized (FCA ) and phology of GOx/FCA/PEG incubated at a humidity of (ox) (re) reduced (FCA) forms of FCA mediator (Wang 2008). In 20% was inhomogeneous and uneven, while the surface the absence of glucose, well-defined oxidation and reduc - homogeneity became better with an increase in incuba- tion peaks for FCA were observed at 0.25 and − 0.15 V. tion humidity. This indicates that a slow drying process After the addition of 10 mM glucose, the oxidation peak is favorable for the modification of GOx/FCA/PEG on current increased sharply, whereas the reduction peak SWCNT electrodes. Consequently, uniform and well- current disappeared. These electrochemical behaviors distributed GOx/FCA/PEG was achieved at a humidity of indicate that the FC A is converted to FCA through a 70%. This uniform surface modification on SWCNT elec - glucose enzymatic reaction and then re-oxidized to FC A trodes can provide a homogeneous reaction matrix with during the anodic sweep, which is dependent on the glu- entrapped GOx and FCA, resulting in an increase in the cose concentration. Moreover, the disappearance of the electrochemically effective surface area. Thus, the modi - reduction peak is attributed to the irreversible oxidation fication of GOx/FCA/PEG on the SWCNT electrode was of FCA in which electro-oxidized FC A is converted to carried out under humid conditions (70%) for further FCA through enzymatic reduction by GOx while staying experiments. in a reduced state (as presented in reaction 2). It reveals that the FCA in our device can act as an efficient electron Electrochemical characterization of GOx/FCA/PEG/ transfer shuttle between the FAD center of GOx and the SWCNT‑based biosensor SWCNT electrode. Figure 4 shows the typical cyclic voltammetric curves obtained at the three SWCNT electrodes with incorpo- rated GOx and FCA. An FCA mediator was chosen as an Glucose assay using GOx/FCA/PEG/SWCNT‑based artificial electron transferring agent due to some attrac - biosensor tive features: (a) the reaction of GOx with FCA is largely Figure 5a shows the current responses of a biosensor independent of oxygen concentration in the sample, and after the addition of a glucose solution. Chronoamper- (b) the interference of unwanted species such as uric ometric experiments were carried out at an oxidation acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) can be avoided due to potential of 0.3 V. As the concentration of glucose var- its low oxidation potentials. In the presence of FCA, the ies, the biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic electrochemical reaction of glucose can be described as oxidation activity for glucose. Each chronoamperomet- follows: ric current quickly reached a stable state, indicating the fast response of the biosensor, which was attributed to Glucose + GOx (FAD) → Gluconolactone + GOx (FADH ) the considerable electrical properties of SWCNT-based (1) Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 6 of 8 Fig. 6 a Long‑term stability and b selectivity of glucose biosensor. Fig. 5 a Chronoamperometry responses of glucose biosensor after Chronoamperometry responses were recorded in a 4 mM glucose the addition of a glucose solution with a concentration range of solution with/without 0.1 mM interfering species (AA and UA) 0–40 mM. All responses were obtained at a constant cell potential of 0.3 V. b Calibration plot for a glucose biosensor. Inset: corresponding Lineweaver–Burk plot 1/ISS = 1/Imax + K pp/(ImaxC) where I is the steady-state current after the addition of SS the substrate, C is the substrate concentration, and I is electrodes. Figure 5b shows the calibration curve to max the maximum current measured under a saturated sub- amperometric responses depending on glucose con- app strate condition. The K was determined by an analysis centration. The glucose biosensor exhibited a good m of the slope and intercept for the plot of the reciprocals linear range from 0 to 10 mM with a response time of of the steady-state current versus glucose concentra- 10 s. This biosensor offered a good sensitivity of 5.5 app −1 −2 tion. The K given in our study was calculated to be μA·mM ·cm and detection limit (LOD) of 28 μM m app 2.16 mM. The small value of K implies that the GOx/ with regression equation: I (μA) = 2.058 + 0.495 [glu- m FCA/PEG/SWCNT electrode possesses a high affinity to cose] (mM) (R = 0.989), indicating the high analytical glucose, resulting in the sensitive detection of glucose. performance and reliability of our device (Additional file 1: Table S1). The reproducibility of this device was investigated by testing glucose levels (in triplicate) on Stability and selectivity of biosensor independently prepared biosensors; the coefficient of Figure 6 shows the long-term stability and selectivity of variation (CV) was less than 3%, demonstrating good a glucose biosensor. To define the stability of this biosen - reproducibility. The apparent Michaelis–Menten con - sor, the amperometric responses were investigated in the app stant ( K ) gives an indication of the enzyme/analyte presence of a 4 mM glucose concentration, which is simi- kinetics for this device, and it can be determined by lar to a normal blood glucose level. The sensor displays the Lineweaver–Burk plot (inset of Fig. 5b) (Ang et al. a highly stable response during the extended experiment 2015; Wang et al. 2010). with storage at 4℃. The sensor retained 95% of its initial Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 7 of 8 Acknowledgements current response for glucose after one month, indicat- Not applicable. ing good stability of the sensor. For interference tests, the amperometric current responses to 0.1 mM of AA Author contributions DKH, CAL, and GHS contributed to the conceptualization and methodology and UA, which are present in physiological samples, were of the study. DKH and CAL performed the investigation, validation, and data examined together with 4 mM glucose (the physiologi- analysis. DKH wrote the original draft. SES assisted in the investigation and cal concentration range is from 0.03 to 0.15 mM for AA data analysis. SHS, KC, JSC, and GHS contributed to the data interpretation and writing—review and editing. All authors read and approved the final and from 0.1 to 0.4 mM for UA, respectively). In Fig. 6b, manuscript. the interference effects of AA and UA on glucose detec - tion were found to be 9.9% and 7.3%, respectively. These Funding This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Basic Science Institute results demonstrate the selective and stable analytical (C380300 and C330110). This research was also supported by the Basic Sci‑ performance of this glucose biosensor, which may be ence Research Program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) attributed to electric/electrocatalytic and biocompatible of Korea (2018R1A6A1A03024231 and 2021R1A2C1003566). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National properties of SWCNTs in cooperation with FCA and Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education PEG, making it more applicable for practical use. (2019R1A6A1A03032988). Availability of data and materials Conclusion All details of experimental data are presented in this article and additional file. In summary, we have successfully constructed an amper- ometric glucose biosensor based on three SWCNT elec- Declarations trodes. The developed electrochemical sensing device Competing interests offered attractive analytical behavior for glucose detec - There are no competing interests to declare. tion. The low-potential analysis attributed to the modifi - cation of GOx/FCA/PEG/SWCNT allowed the selective Received: 1 September 2022 Accepted: 18 January 2023 detection of glucose against other interfering species. This glucose biosensor showed a good linear range from 0 to 10 mM with a rapid response time of 10 s, high sen- −1 −2 sitivity of 5.5 μA·mM ·cm , and good stability over a References month. These remarkable results may be attributed to the Ang LF, Por LY, Yam MF. Development of an amperometric‑based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit. PLoS ONE. 2015;10: biocompatibility of the GOx/FCA/PEG/SWCNT elec- e0111859. trode and the fast electron transfer between SWCNT Barsan MM, Ghica ME, Brett CMA. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors and the redox center of GOx with the assistance of FCA. based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;881:1–23. We believe that this facile SWCNT-based biosensor Behnam A, Choi Y, Noriega L, Wu Z, Kravchenko I, Rinzler AG, Ural AJ. Nano‑ holds great promise for glucose analysis in point-of-care lithographic patterning of transparent, conductive single‑ walled carbon testing, and moreover it is amenable to various electro- nanotube films by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching. Vac Sci Technol B. 2007;25:348–54. chemical biosensing applications with the advantages of Chaichi MJ, Ehsani MA. Novel glucose sensor based on immobilization of simplicity, rapid response, sensitivity, and stability. glucose oxidase on the chitosan‑ coated Fe O nanoparticles and the 3 4 luminol‑H O ‑ gold nanoparticle chemiluminescence detection system. 2 2 Sens Actuators B Chem. 2016;223:713–22. Abbreviations Chen T, Dai L. Carbon nanomaterials for high‑performance supercapacitors. SWCNT Single ‑ walled carbon nanotube Mater Today. 2013;16:272–80. FCA Ferrocenecarboxylic acid Chipeture AT, Apath D, Moyo M, Shumba M. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes PEG Polyethylene glycol decorated with bismuth (III) oxide for electrochemical detection of an GOx Glucose oxidase antipyretic and analgesic drug paracetamol in biological samples. J PET Polyethylene terephthalate Analyt Sci Technol. 2019;10(1):1–3. UA Uric acid Dennany L, Sherrell P, Chen J, Innis PC, Wallacea GG, Minett AIEPR. characteri‑ AA Ascorbic acid sation of platinum nanoparticle functionalised carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:4135–41. Erden PE, Kaçar C, Öztürk F, Kılıç E. Amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Supplementary Information poly(vinylferrocene)‑ gelatin‑ carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. modified glassy carbon electrode. Talanta. 2015;134:488–95. org/ 10. 1186/ s40543‑ 023‑ 00371‑8. Fang Y, Umasankar Y, Ramasamy RP. A novel bi‑ enzyme electrochemical biosensor for selective and sensitive determination of methyl salicylate. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;81:39–45. Additional file 1: Fig S1. Microscope images of GOx/FCA/PEG‑modified Gao Q, Sun M, Peng P, Qi H, Zhang C. Electro‑ oxidative polymerization of SWCNT electrode. Fig S2. SEM images of SWCNT patterns on PET plastic phenothiazine dyes into a multilayer‑ containing carbon nanotube on a substrate treated by O2 plasma etching. Table S1. Comparison of analyti‑ glassy carbon electrode for the sensitive and low‑potential detection of cal performances with other reported methods. NADH. Microchim Acta. 2010;168:299–307. Han et al. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology (2023) 14:9 Page 8 of 8 Han KN, Li C, Bui MN, Seong GH. Patterning of single‑ walled carbon Vashist SK, Zheng D, Al‑Rubeaan K, Luong JHT, Sheu FS. Advances in carbon nanotube films on flexible, transparent plastic substrates. Langmuir. nanotube based electrochemical sensors for bioanalytical applications. 2010;26:598–602. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:169–88. Hao M, Liu N, Ma Z. A new luminol chemiluminescence sensor for glucose Wang J. Electrochemical glucose biosensors. Chem Rev. 2008;108:814–25. based on pH‑ dependent graphene oxide. Analyst. 2013;138:4393–7. Wang C, Li SJ, Wu ZQ, Xu JJ, Chen HY, Xia XH. Study on the kinetics of homo‑ Hu L, Hecht DS, Grüner G. Percolation in transparent and conducting carbon geneous enzyme reactions in a micro/nanofluidics device. Lab Chip. nanotube networks. Nano Lett. 2004;4:2513–7. 2010;10:639–46. Hu C, Yang DP, Zhu F, Jiang F, Shen S, Zhang J. Enzyme‑labeled Pt@BSA nano ‑ Wang X, Lu X, Liu B, Chen D, Tong Y, Shen G. Flexible energy‑storage devices: composite as a facile electrochemical biosensing interface for sensitive design consideration and recent progress. Adv Mater. 2014;26:4763–82. glucose determination. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014;6:4170–417. WHO, Diabetes. https:// www. who. int/ health‑ topics/ diabe tes# tab= tab_1, Hu Y, Cheng H, Zhao X, Wu J, Muhammad F, Lin S, He J, Zhou L, Zhang C, Deng 2022 (accessed 26 August 2022). Y, Wang P, Zhou Z, Nie S, Wei H. Surface‑ enhanced raman scattering Wu Z, Chen Z, Du X, Logan JM, Sippel J, Nikolou M, Kamaras K, Reynolds JR, active gold nanoparticles with enzyme‑mimicking activities for measur ‑ Tanner D, Hebard AF, Rinzler AG. Transparent, conductive carbon nano‑ ing glucose and lactate in living tissues. ACS Nano. 2017;11:5558–66. tube films. Science. 2004;305:1273–6. Hwang JY, Kim HS, Kim JH, Shin US, Lee SH. Carbon nanotube nanocompos‑ Xu W, Jiao L, Yan H, Wu Y, Chen L, Gu W, Du D, Lin Y, Zhu C. Glucose oxidase‑ ites with highly enhanced strength and conductivity for flexible electric integrated metal‑ organic framework hybrids as biomimetic cascade circuits. Langmuir. 2015;31:7844–51. nanozymes for ultrasensitive glucose biosensing. ACS Appl Mater Inter‑ Iijima S. Helical microtublules of graphitic carbon. Nature. 1991;354:56–8. faces. 2019;11:22096–101. Jacobs CB, Peairs MJ, Venton BJ. Review: Carbon nanotube based electro‑ Yang H, Zhu Y, Chen D, Li C, Chen S, Ge Z. Electrochemical biosensing plat‑ chemical sensors for biomolecules. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;662:105–27. forms using poly‑ cyclodextrin and carbon nanotube composite. Biosens Kul D, Ghica ME, Pauliukaite R, Brett CM. A novel amperometric sensor for Bioelectron. 2010;26:295–8. ascorbic acid based on poly(Nile blue A) and functionalised multi‑ walled Zhang Y, Wang J, Xu M. A sensitive DNA biosensor fabricated with gold carbon nanotube modified electrodes. Talanta. 2013;111:76–84. nanoparticles/ploy (p‑aminobenzoic acid)/carbon nanotubes modified Lee J, Lim M, Yoon J, Kim MS, Choi B, Kim DM, Kim DH, Park I, Choi SJ. Transpar‑ electrode. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces. 2010;75(1):179–85. ent, flexible strain sensor based on a solution‑processed carbon nano ‑ tube network. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9:26279–85. Publisher’s Note Li J, Lee EC. Functionalized multi‑ wall carbon nanotubes as an efficient Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub‑ additive for electrochemical DNA sensor. Sens Actuators B Chem. lished maps and institutional affiliations. 2017;239:652–9. Liu L, Ma W, Zhang Z. Macroscopic carbon nanotube assemblies: preparation, properties, and potential applications. Small. 2011;7:1504–20. Liu JW, Luo Y, Wang YM, Duan LY, Jiang JH, Yu RQ. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets‑based ratiometric fluorescent probe for highly sensi‑ tive detection of H O and glucose. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2 2 2016;8:33439–45. Mathur A, Roy SS, Hazra KS, Wadhwa S, Ray SC, Mitra SK, Misra DS, McLaughlin JA. Oxygen plasma assisted end‑ opening and field emission enhance ‑ ment in vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes. Mater Chem Phys. 2012;134:425–9. Park JS, Choi JS, Han DK. Platinum nanozyme‑hydrogel composite (PtNZHG)‑ impregnated cascade sensing system for one‑step glucose detection in serum, urine, and saliva. Sens Actuators B Chem. 2022;359:131585. Park S, Vosguerichian M, Bao Z. A review of fabrication and applications of car‑ bon nanotube film‑based flexible electronics. Nanoscale. 2014;5:1727–52. Park OK, Kim WY, Kim SM, You NH, Jeong Y, Lee HS, Ku BC. Eec ff t of oxygen plasma treatment on the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers. Mater Lett. 2015;156:17–20. Paul RK, Badhulika S, Saucedo NM, Mulchandani A. Graphene nanomesh as highly sensitive chemiresistor gas sensor. Anal Chem. 2012;84:8171–8. Powell HM, Lannutti JJ. Nanofibrillar surfaces via reactive ion etching. Lang‑ muir. 2003;19:9071–8. Savk A, Özdil B, Demirkan B, Nas MS, Calimli MH, Alma MH, Asiri AM, Şen F. Multiwalled carbon nanotube‑based nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid. Mater Sci Eng C. 2019;1(99):248–54. Schroeder V, Savagatrup S, He M, Lin S, Swager TM. Carbon nanotube chemical sensors. Chem Rev. 2019;119:599–663. Shi J, Claussen JC, McLamore ES, Haque A, Jaroch D, Diggs AR, Calvo‑Marzal P, Rickus JL, Porterfield DM. A comparative study of enzyme immobiliza‑ tion strategies for multi‑ walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors. Nanotechnol. 2011;22: 355502. Shrestha S, Mascarenhas RJ, D’Souza OJ, Satpati AK, Mekhalif Z, Dhason A, Martis P. Amperometric sensor based on multi‑ walled carbon nanotube and poly (Bromocresol purple) modified carbon paste electrode for the sensitive determination of L‑tyrosine in food and biological samples. J Electroanal Chem. 2016;778:32–40. Su Y, Pei S, Du J, Liu WB, Liu C, Cheng HM. Patterning flexible single ‑ walled carbon nanotube thin films by an ozone gas exposure method. Carbon. 2013;53:4–10. Sun X, James TD. Glucose sensing in supramolecular chemistry. Chem Rev. 2015;115:8001–37.
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 7, 2023
Keywords: Carbon nanotube; Electrochemical biosensor; Amperometry; Glucose; Ferrocenecarboxylic acid; Polyethylene glycol
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.