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Environmental Exposures and Lung Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Improving Respiratory Health

Environmental Exposures and Lung Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Improving... Purpose of ReviewInhaled environmental exposures cause over 12 million deaths per year worldwide. Despite localized efforts to reduce environmental exposures, tobacco smoking and air pollution remain the urgent public health challenges that are contributing to the growing prevalence of respiratory diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the mechanisms through which inhaled environmental exposures accelerate lung aging and cause overt lung disease.Recent FindingsEnvironmental exposures related to fossil fuel and tobacco combustion and occupational exposures related to silica and coal mining generate oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs. Sustained oxidative stress causes DNA damage, epigenetic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell cycle arrest in key progenitor cells in the lung. As a result, critical repair mechanisms are impaired, leading to premature destruction of the lung parenchyma.SummaryInhaled environmental exposures accelerate lung aging by injuring the lungs and damaging the cells responsible for wound healing. Interventions that minimize exposure to noxious antigens are critical to improve lung health, and novel research is required to expand our knowledge of therapies that may slow or prevent premature lung aging. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Environmental Health Reports Springer Journals

Environmental Exposures and Lung Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Improving Respiratory Health

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References (161)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2021
eISSN
2196-5412
DOI
10.1007/s40572-021-00328-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewInhaled environmental exposures cause over 12 million deaths per year worldwide. Despite localized efforts to reduce environmental exposures, tobacco smoking and air pollution remain the urgent public health challenges that are contributing to the growing prevalence of respiratory diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the mechanisms through which inhaled environmental exposures accelerate lung aging and cause overt lung disease.Recent FindingsEnvironmental exposures related to fossil fuel and tobacco combustion and occupational exposures related to silica and coal mining generate oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs. Sustained oxidative stress causes DNA damage, epigenetic instability, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell cycle arrest in key progenitor cells in the lung. As a result, critical repair mechanisms are impaired, leading to premature destruction of the lung parenchyma.SummaryInhaled environmental exposures accelerate lung aging by injuring the lungs and damaging the cells responsible for wound healing. Interventions that minimize exposure to noxious antigens are critical to improve lung health, and novel research is required to expand our knowledge of therapies that may slow or prevent premature lung aging.

Journal

Current Environmental Health ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 1, 2021

Keywords: Environmental exposures; Air pollution; Smoking; Occupational exposures; Lung aging; Lung disease

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