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Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India

Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS... Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-017-0585-6 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India 1 2 3 • • Ramesh L. Dikpal T. J. Renuka Prasad K. Satish Received: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published online: 1 July 2017 The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication Abstract The quantitative analysis of drainage system is indicates under very less structural disturbances, less runoff an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. conditions, constant of channel maintenance (C) 0.9 indi- Using watershed as a basin unit in morphometric analysis cates higher permeability of subsoil, elongation ratio (R ) is the most logical choice because all hydrological and 0.58, circularity ratio (R ) 0.75 and form factor (R ) 0.26 c f geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The signifies sub-circular to more elongated basin with high Budigere Amanikere watershed a tributary of Dakshina infiltration with low runoff. It was observed from the Pinakini River has been selected for case illustration. hypsometric curves and hypsometric integral values of the Geoinformatics module consisting of ArcGIS 10.3v and watershed along with their sub basins that the drainage Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 of system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic devel- resolution 1 arc Sec (*32 m) data obtained from Bhuvan opment. Additionally, Hypsometric curve and hypsometric is effectively used. Sheet and gully erosion are identified in integral value proves that the infiltration capacity is high as parts of the study area. Slope in the watershed indicating well as runoff is low in the watershed. Thus, these mor- moderate to least runoff and negligible soil loss condition. mometric analyses can be used as an estimator of erosion Third and fourth-order sub-watershed analysis is carried status of watersheds leading to prioritization for taking up out. Mean bifurcation ratio (R ) 3.6 specify there is no soil and water conservation measures. dominant influence of geology and structures, low drainage density (D ) 1.12 and low stream frequency (F ) 1.17 Keywords Morphometry  Cartosat-1DEM  Budigere d s implies highly infiltration subsoil material and low runoff, Amanikere watershed  Dakshina Pinakini  Hypsometric infiltration number (I )1.3 implies higher infiltration curve and hypsometric integral and RS and GIS capacity, coarse drainage texture (T) 3.40 shows high permeable subsoil, length of overland flow (L ) 0.45 Introduction & Ramesh L. Dikpal Drainage basin is a basic unit in morphometric investigation rameshldikpal@gmail.com because all the hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur T. J. Renuka Prasad within the watershed where denudational and aggradational drtjrprasad@gmail.com processes are most explicitly manifested and is indicated by K. Satish various morphometric studies (Horton 1945; Strahler geosatish.k@gmail.com 1952, 1964; Muller 1968; Shreve 1969; Evans 1972, 1984; Chorley et al. 1984; Merritts and Vincent 1989; Ohmori Karnataka State Natural Disaster Monitoring Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 1993; Cox 1994; Oguchi 1997; Burrough and McDonnell 1998; Hurtrez et al. 1999). Morphometry is the measurement Department of Geology, Bangalore University, Bangalore, and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth’s Karnataka, India surface, shape, and dimension of its landforms (Agarwal Impact College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1998; Obi Reddy et al. 2002; Clarke 1996). A most important Bangalore, Karnataka, India 123 4400 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 consequence in geomorphology over the past several dec- entire period or the ‘cycle of erosion’ can be divided into three ades has been on the growth of quantitative physiographic stages, viz., monandnock (old) (H 0.3), in which the water- si process to describe the progression and actions of surface shed is fully stabilized; equilibrium or mature stage (0.3 H si drainage networks (Horton 1945; Leopold and Maddock 0.6); and inequilibrium or young stage (H 0.6), in which the si 1953). River drainage morphometry plays vital role in watershed is highly susceptible to erosion (Strahler 1952). comprehension of soil physical properties, land processes, and erosional features. Study area Remote sensing techniques using satellite images are convenient tools for morphometric analysis. The satellite The watershed area of Budigere Amanikere River is 2 0 00 remote sensing has the ability to provide synoptic view of 141 km (Fig. 1) and located between latitude 1306 00 N 0 00 0 00 0 00 large area and is very useful in analyzing drainage mor- to 1312 00 N and longitude 7736 00 Eto 7746 00 E. phometry. The image interpretation techniques are less The Budigere River originates from the Narayanapura time consuming than the ground surveys, which coupled Village and flows towards east meets the Dakshina Pinakini with limited field checks yield valuable results. The satel- River at Budigere. The study area falls within Survey of G G lite data can be utilized effectively for morphometric India (1:50,000) toposheet numbers 57 / and 57 / are 12 16 analysis and accurate delineation of watershed, sub-wa- used. Annual normal rainfall of the area is 810 mm, major tershed, mini-watersheds and even micro-watersheds and rainfall of 350–500 mm will be received by South–West other morphometric parameters (Ahmed et al. 2010). monsoon in the months from June to September. The fast emerging spatial information technology, Study area has a tropical savanna climate (Ko¨ppen climate remote sensing, GIS, and GPS have effective tools to classification) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its overcome most of the problems of land and water resources high elevation, Budigere Amanikere watershed usually enjoys planning and management rather than conventional meth- a more moderate climate throughout the year, although ods of data process (Rao et al. 2010). Using the LPS occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncom- method for sensor geometry modeling the extraction of the fortable. The coolest month is January with an average low corresponding DEM produced good results that are suit- temperature of 15.1 C(59.2 F), and the hottest month is able for the operational use in planning and development of April with an average high temperature of 35 C(95 F). natural watersheds. The DEM accuracy, analyzed both at Northern fringe of the study area is holds of reserved forest the point mode and the surface mode, produced good with an area of 3.5 km and in the southern fringe protected 2 2 results (Murthy et al. 2008). Cartosat-1 stereo data can be forest of area 1.5 km . Apart from the forest area 134 km is considered as high accuracy (Dabrowski et al. 2008). The having agriculture land, different types of wastelands like images acquired by the satellite can be safely used for the Barren rocky, Stony waste, Sheet rock, and gullied land is purposes it has been designed for (Srivastava et al. 2007), involving moderate to steep slope results gradient surface i.e., gathering elevation data with accuracy sufficient for runoff, also in these wasteland water bodies are formed in maps with the scale of 1:25,000. abandoned quarry acts as recharge zones. The drainage delineation shows better accuracy and clear demarcation of catchment ridgeline and more reliable flow- Erosion classification scheme path prediction in comparison with ASTER. The results qualify Indian DEM for using it operationally which is The displacement of soil material by water can result in equivalent and better than the other publicly available DEMs either loss of topsoil or terrain deformation or both. This like SRTM and ASTERDEM (Muralikrishnan et al. 2013). category includes processes such as sheet erosion, rill, Strahler (1952) interpreted the shapes of the hypsomet- gully erosion, and ravines. Erosion by water in the study ric curves by analyzing numerous drainage basins and area is the most important land degradation process that classified the basins as young (convex upward curves), occurs on the surface of the earth. Rainfall, soil physical mature (S-shaped hypsometric curves which is concave properties, terrain slope, land cover, and management upwards at high elevations and convex downwards at low practices play a very significant role in soil erosion. A brief elevations) and peneplain or distorted (concave upward description of various erosion classes in the study area by curves). These hypsometric curve shapes described the water is given below (Fig. 2) (Erosion Map of India 2014): stages of the landscape evolution, which also provide an 1. Sheet Erosion: It is a common problem resulting from indication of erosion status of the watershed. loss of topsoil. The soil particles are removed from the The hypsometric integral is also an indication of the ‘cycle whole soil surface on a fairly uniform basis in the form of erosion’ (Strahler 1952;Garg 1983). The ‘cycle of erosion’ of thin layers. The severity of the problem is often is defined as the total time required for reduction of a land difficult to visualize with naked eyes in the field. topological unit to the base level i.e. the lowest level. This 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4401 Fig. 1 Location of Budigere Amanikere watershed 2. Gully Erosion: Gullies are formed as a result of localized in sloping lands, developed as a result of concentrated surface runoff affecting the unconsolidated material runoff over fairly long time. They are mostly associated resulting in the formation of perceptible channels with stream courses, sloping grounds with good rainfall causing undulating terrain. They are commonly found regions, and foothill regions. 123 4402 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 2 Types of erosion and the pour point are the two inputs parameters required Materials and methodology for the extraction function. The steps are as given below to Cartosat-1 stereo datasets are proved in high accuracy obtain watershed and stream orders derived from Cartosat- 1 DEM (Fig. 4) are as follows: compared to SRTM and ASTERDEM (Muralikrishnan et al. 2013) and tile extent/spatial extent of 1 9 1 from • Fill the sinks in the Cartosat:1 DEM X in 77–78 E and Y in 13–14 N is used to achieve drainage • Apply the flow direction function to the filled Car- network. The extracted stream network, slope, drainage tosat:1 DEM density, and basin are projected to the regional projection • Apply the flow accumulation function on the flow (WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_43 N). direction grid The unique characteristics of CartoSAT-1 stereo data and planned products are given below: Name of the dataset: C1_DEM_16b_2006- 2008_V1_77E13N_D43R Theme: Terrain Spheroid/datum: GCS, WGS-1984 Original source: Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m) stereo data Resolution: 1 arc s (32 m) Sensor: PAN (2.5 m) stereo data File format: Geotiff Bits per pixel: 16 bit Extraction of drainage network and watershed Extraction of stream orders using Hydrology tool from spatial analyst Arc toolbox is used and Eight Direction (D8) Flow Model (Fig. 3) is adopted in ArcGIS 10.3v Software (Advanced License type). The Cartosat-1 DEM Fig. 3 Eight-direction (D8) flow model 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4403 Fig. 4 Method of delineating stream order from Cartodat-1 DEM • Apply the logarithmic accumulation function from and the value of cells in the output raster will be the raster calculator number of cells that flow into each cell. • Apply the conditional function from raster calculator The direction of flow is determined by the direction of • Apply a threshold condition to the conditioned flow steepest descent, or maximum drop, from each cell. This is direction grid calculated as follows: • Obtain a streams grid from the threshold condition grid Maximum drop ¼ change in z value=distance  100: • Obtain the stream links grid The hypsometric curve (HC) and hypsometric integral • Obtain watersheds grid from the streams grid (HI) were calculated using GIS. The attribute feature • Vectorise the streams grid classes that accommodate these values were utilized to plot • Vectorise the watershed grid. the hypsometric curves for the watershed, from which the One of the keys to deriving hydrologic characteristics about HI values were calculated using the elevation-relief ratio a surface is the ability to determine the direction of flow from method elaborated by Pike and Wilson (1971). The every cell in the raster. This is done with the flow direction elevation-relief ratio method is found to be easy to apply function. This function takes a surface as input and outputs a and more accurate to calculate within the GIS environment. raster showing the direction of flow out of each cell. If the The relationship is expressed in the following equation is output drop raster option is chosen, an output raster is created mentioned in Plotting of Hypsometric Curves (HC) and showing a ratio of the maximum change in elevation from each estimation ofHypsometric Integrals (HI) heading. cell along the direction of flow to the path length between centers of cells and is expressed in percentages. If the force all edge cells to flow outward option is chosen, all cells at the edge Results and discussion of the surface raster will flow outward from the surface raster. There are eight valid output directions relating to the The morphometric analysis for the basic parameters of eight adjacent cells into which flow could travel. This stream order, stream length, mean stream length and approach is commonly referred to as an eight-direction derived parameters of bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, (D8) flow model, and follows an approach presented in stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, drainage Jenson and Domingue (1988). texture, length of overland flow, compactness constant, The Flow Accumulation function calculates accumu- constant of channel maintenance and the shape parameters lated flow as the accumulated weight of all cells flowing of elongation ratio, circularity ratio, Form factor for the into each down slope cell in the output raster. If no weight Budigere Amanikere watershed is achieved the formulas raster is provided, a weight of one is applied to each cell, described in Table 1. The total drainage area of the 123 4404 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 1 Methods followed to calculate morphometric parameters Morphometric Formula and description References parameters Basic parameters Stream order (U) Hierarchical order Strahler (1964) Stream length (L ) Length of the stream Horton (1945) Mean stream length (L ) L = L /N ; where L = Stream length of order ‘U’ Horton (1945) sm sm u u u N = Total number of stream segments of order ‘U’ Derived parameters Bifurcation ratio (R ) R = N /N ? 1; where N = Total number of stream segment of order ‘u’; Schumm (1956) b b u u u N ? 1 = Number of segment of next higher order Stream length ratio (R ) R = L /L ; where L = Total stream length of order ‘U’, Lu-1 = Stream Horton (1945) l l u u-1 u length of next lower order. Drainage density (D ) D = L/A where Horton (1945) d d L = Total length of streams; A = Area of watershed Drainage frequency (F ) F = N/A; where Horton (1945) s s N = Total number of streams; A = Area of watershed Infiltration number (I ) I = D 9 F Zavoiance (1985) f f d s where D = Drainage density (km/km ) and F = Drainage frequency Drainage texture (T) R = N /P; where N = total number of stream segments of all order in a Horton (1945) t u u basin; P = Perimeter Length of overland L = 1/2 D ; where D = Drainage density Horton (1945) g d d flow (L ) 0.5 Compactness constant (C ) C = 0.2821 9 P/A ;where P = Perimeter of the basin(km), A = Area of Horton (1945) c c the basin (km ) Constant of channel maintenance (C) C = 1/D ; where D = Drainage density Schumm (1956) d d Shape parameters Elongation ratio (R ) R = 2H(A/p)/L ; where A = Area of watershed, p = 3.14, Lb = Basin Schumm (1956) e e b length Circulatory ratio (R ) R = 4pA/P ; where A = Area of watershed, Miller (1953) c c p = 3.14, P = Perimeter of watershed Form factor (R ) R = A/(Lb) ; where A = Area of watershed, Horton (1932) f f L = Basin length Budigere Amanikere watershed is 141 km . The drainage neighbors’’ (Burrough 1986). The degree of slope in pattern is dendritic in nature and is influenced by the Budigere Amanikere watershed varies from 0.3 to [11 geology, topography, and rainfall condition of the area. (Table 2). Higher slope degree results in rapid runoff and Geology in the area is peninsular gneissic complex of increased erosion rate (potential soil loss) with less ground 2600–2350 m.y belonging to Archean to Proterozoic age. water recharge potential, whereas in the study area lower slope of degree present in peninsular gneissic mountain Slope range (Figs. 5, 6). The loss of soil is very negligible. Slope analysis is a significant parameter in geomorpho- Table 2 Types of slope logical studies for watershed development and important Sl no. Types of slope Slope in degree for morphometric analysis. The slope elements, in turn, are controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas 1 Nearly level 0.3–1.1 having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. 2011; 2 Very gentle slope 1.1–5.0 Gayen et al. 2013). A slope map of the study area is cal- 3 Gentle slope 5.0–8.3 culated based on Cartosat-1 DEM data using the spatial 4 Moderate slope 8.3–11.0 analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.3. Slope grid is identified as 5 Strong slope 11 and more ‘‘the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4405 Fig. 5 Slope map Fig. 6 3D model of Budigere Amanikere watershed Basic parameters third-order parameters were also calculated and are men- tioned in Table 3. Area of a basin (A) and perimeter (P) are the important parameters in quantitative geomorphology. Basin area directly affects the size of the storm hydrograph, the Stream order (N ) magnitudes of peak, and mean runoff. The perimeter (P)is the total length of the drainage basin boundary. The The count of stream channels in each order is termed as perimeter of the Budigere Amanikere Watershed is stream order. The streams of the study area have been 48.5 km. The area of the watershed (A) is 141 km . The ranked; when two first-order streams join, a stream seg- length of the basin (L ) measured parallel to the main ment of second order is formed. When two second-order drainage line, i.e., from west to north-east direction and is streams join, a segment of third order is formed, and so on. 21.8 km. In addition, sub-watersheds of fourth-order and In the present study, fifth-order drainage order (Fig. 7)is 123 4406 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 3 Basic parameters of Budigere Amanikere Watershed Watershed details Area in km Perimeter Basin Stream order Total number Stream Total stream in km length and number of of streams length length in km in km streams in km NW-1 12.98 15.07 4.83 1 8 12 7.82 14.12 2 3 4.05 3 1 2.25 NW-2 8.5 12.01 4.88 1 7 10 4.19 9.48 2 2 2.16 3 1 3.13 SW-1 11.45 15.56 4.7 1 10 14 7.84 13.68 2 3 2.93 3 1 2.91 SW-2 3.9 8.16 3.41 1 5 8 1.32 4.18 2 2 0.81 3 1 2.05 S-1 13.08 15.46 5.25 1 10 14 5.06 12.84 2 3 5.72 3 1 2.06 S-2 5.6 9.98 3.36 1 5 8 3.63 6.03 2 2 1.92 3 1 0.48 North 75.68 42.71 20.99 1 68 85 46.04 86.55 (fourth order) 2 14 19.11 3 2 5.38 4 1 16.02 South 63.02 35.64 17.23 1 58 77 32.85 68.1 (fourth order) 2 14 14.95 3 4 7.51 4 1 12.79 Entire Budigere Amanikere 141 48.5 22.92 1 128 165 79.65 157.31 watershed 2 28 34.06 3 6 12.89 4 2 28.81 5 1 1.9 acquired to morphometric analysis. Budigere Amanikere length method. It supports the theory of geometrical sim- watershed is consisting of dendritic type of drainage net- ilarity preserved generally in the basins of increasing cat- work with nearly even terrain (Table 3). Total of 165 egory. Mean length of channel segments of an existing stream line is recognized in the whole basin, out of which order is greater than that of the next lower order but less 77.57% (128) is 1st order, 17% (28) 2nd order, 3.6% (6) than that of the next higher order. Bifurcation ratio is the third order, 1.21% (2) fourth order, and 0.6% comprises 5th ratio of the number of stream channels of an order to the order stream (1). Sub-watershed stream orders were also number streams of the higher order. estimated and are mentioned in Table 3. Stream length ratio (R ) Derived parameters Stream length ratio (Horton’s law) states that mean stream Stream length (L ) and mean stream length (L ) length segments of each of the successive orders of a basin u sm tends to approximate a direct geometric series with streams The stream length and mean stream length of various length increasing towards higher order of streams. The R orders has been calculated from Horton’s law of stream 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4407 Fig. 7 Stream order in vector between streams of different order in the Budigere Ama- Higher R greater than 5 indicates some sort of geological nikere watershed area reveals that there is a variation in R . control. If the R is low, the basin produces a sharp peak in l b discharge and if it is high, the basin yields low, but Bifurcation ratio (R ) extended peak flow (Agarwal 1998). In well developed drainage network the bifurcation ratio is generally between Bifurcation ratio is closely related to the branching pattern 2 and 5. Study area prominently showing some sort of of a drainage network (Schumm 1956). It is related to the geological control. From the Table 4 mean bifurcation structural control on the drainage (Strahler 1964). A lower ratio of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 2.3 to 3.2, R range between 3 and 5 suggests that structure does not fourth-order sub-watersheds varies 3.9 and 4.6. The entire exercise a dominant influence on the drainage pattern. watershed is showing 3.6 and is revealed that the watershed Table 4 Derived parameters of Budigere Amanikere Watershed Watershed details Mean Drainage Stream Infiltration Drainage Length of Compactness Constant of Bifurcation density (km/ frequency number (I ) texture (T) overland flow constant (C ) channel f c ratio (R ) km ) (F ) (L ) maintenance (C) b s g NW-1 2.8 1.09 0.92 1.01 0.80 0.46 0.30 0.92 NW-2 2.8 1.12 1.18 1.31 0.83 0.45 0.34 0.90 SW-1 3.2 1.19 1.22 1.46 0.90 0.42 0.33 0.84 SW-2 2.3 1.07 2.05 2.20 0.98 0.47 0.41 0.93 S-1 3.2 0.98 1.07 1.05 0.91 0.51 0.31 1.02 S-2 2.3 1.08 1.43 1.54 0.80 0.46 0.38 0.93 North (fourth order) 4.6 1.14 1.12 1.28 1.99 0.44 0.21 0.87 South (fourth order) 3.9 1.08 1.22 1.32 2.16 0.46 0.21 0.93 Entire Budigere 3.6 1.12 1.17 1.30 3.40 0.45 0.17 0.90 Amanikere watershed 123 4408 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 8 Drainage density is in mature stage of erosion and structure does not exercise landform elements in stream-eroded topography and does a dominant influence on the drainage pattern. not change regularly with orders within the basin. From Table 4, drainage density of third-order sub-watersheds Drainage density (D ) varies from 0.98 to 1.19, and fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 1.08 and 1.14. Low (\2.0 km/km ) drainage The drainage density is an important indicator of the linear density from third order, fourth order, as well as entire scale of landform elements in stream-eroded topography. It Budigere Amanikere watershed is 1.12 (Fig. 8), leading to is the ratio of total channel segment lengths cumulated for highly permeable subsoil material. all orders within a basin to the basin area, which is expressed in terms of mi/sq.mi or km/sq.km. The drainage Stream frequency (F ) density indicates the closeness of spacing of channels, thus providing a quantitative measure of the average length of Stream frequency defined as the total number of stream stream channel for the whole basin. It has been observed segments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). The from drainage density measurements made over a wide occurrence of stream segments depends on the nature and range of geologic and climatic types that a low drainage structure of rocks, vegetation cover, nature and amount of density is more likely to occur in regions of highly resistant rainfall, and soil permeability. Table 4 indicating stream of highly permeable subsoil material under dense vegeta- frequency of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.92 tive cover, and where relief is low. High drainage density is to 2.05, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies 1.12 and 1.22. the resultant of weak or impermeable subsurface material, In Budigere, Amanikere watershed shows 1.17 of low sparse vegetation, and mountainous relief. Low drainage (below 2.5/km ) stream frequency of low relief and high density leads to coarse drainage texture, while high drai- infiltration capacity of the bedrock pointing towards the nage density leads to fine drainage texture (Strahler 1964). increase in stream population with respect to increase in On the one hand, the D is a result of interacting factors drainage density. The stream frequency of Budigere controlling the surface runoff; on the other hand, it is itself Amanikere basin shows that the basin has good vegetation, influencing the output of water and sediment from the medium relief, high infiltration capacity, and later peak drainage basin (Ozdemir and Bird 2009). D is known to discharges owing to low runoff rate. The stream frequency vary with climate and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), soil shows positive correlation with the drainage density. Les- and rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989), relief ser the drainage density and stream frequency in a basin, (Oguchi 1997), and landscape evolution processes. It is a the runoff is slower, and therefore, flooding is less likely in measure of the length of stream per unit (Horton 1932)in basins with a low to moderate drainage density and stream the watershed. It is significant point in the linear scale of frequency (Carlston 1963). 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4409 Infiltration number (I ) watersheds are 0.21, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed (Table 4) is 0.17 values indicating lesser elon- Infiltration number plays a significant role in observing the gated watershed however, a lesser elongated pattern facil- infiltration characteristics of the basin. It is inversely pro- itates the runoff is low, thereby favoring to development of portional to the infiltration capacity of the basin. The erosion is low. infiltration number of the third-order watersheds varies from 1.01 to 2.20, fourth-order watersheds varies from 1.28 Constant of channel maintenance (C) to 1.32, and entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 1.30 (Table 4) and considered as very low. It indicates that Constant of channel maintenance is the inverse of drainage runoff will be very low and the infiltration capacity very density (Schumm 1956). It is also the area required to high. maintain one linear kilometer of stream channel. Generally, a higher constant of channel maintenance of a basin indi- Drainage texture (T) cates higher permeability of rocks of that basin, and vice versa. It is inferred that the third-order sub-watersheds According to Horton (1945), Drainage texture (T) is the varies from 0.84 to 1.02, fourth-order sub-watersheds total number of stream segments of all orders per perimeter varies from 0.87 to 0.93, and the entire Budigere Amani- of that area. It is one of the important concepts of geo- kere watershed is 0.90 having more than 0.6 km area to morphology which means that the relative spacing of maintain 1 km length stream channel, which in turn indi- drainage lines. Drainage lines are numerous over imper- cates higher permeability of subsoil. meable areas than permeable areas. Five different texture ratios have been classified based on the drainage density Shape parameters (Smith 1950). In the study area texture ratio (Table 4)of third-order watersheds varies (\2) from 0.80 to 0.98 and Elongation ratio (R ) are indicating very coarse, fourth-order watersheds varies (\2 and 2–4) from 1.99 to 2.16 indicates very coarse to Elongation ratio is the ratio between the diameter of the coarse drainage texture and entire Budigere Amanikere circle of the same area as the drainage basin and the watershed (2–4) is 3.40 indicates related to coarse texture. maximum length of the basin. Analysis of elongation ratio indicates that the areas with higher elongation ratio values Length of overland flow (L ) have high infiltration capacity and low runoff. A circular basin is more efficient in the discharge of runoff than an It is the length of water over the ground before it gets elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). The elongation concentrated into definite streams channels (Horton 1932). ratio and shape of basin are generally varies from 0.6 to 1.0 This factor depends on the rock type, permeability, climatic over a wide variety of climate and geologic types. Values regime, vegetation cover and relief as well as duration of close to 1.0 are typical of regions of very low relief, erosion. The length of overland flow approximately equals whereas values in the range 0.6–0.8 are usually associated to half of the reciprocal of drainage density. Length of with high relief and steep ground slope. The Elongation overland flow of third-order sub-watersheds varies from ratio of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.65 to 0.42 to 0.51, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.44 0.84, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.47 and to 0.46 and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed 0.52, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed Budi- (Table 4) is 0.45 km. Length of overland flow in all the gere Amanikere catchment is 0.58 (Table 5) falling in sub- watersheds is greater than 0.25 are under very less struc- circular category. tural disturbance, less runoff conditions, and having higher overland flow. A larger value of length of overland flow Circularity ratio (R ) indicates longer flow path and thus gentler slopes. The circularity ratio is the ratio of the area of the basin to Compactness constant (C ) the area of a circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin (Miller 1953). It is influenced by the Compactness constant is defined as the ratio between the length and frequency of streams, geological structures, land area of the basin and the perimeter of the basin. Com- use/land cover, climate, relief and slope of the watershed. pactness constant is unity for a perfect circle, and increases In the present study (Table 5), the R values of third-order as the basin length increases. Thus, it is a direct indicator of sub-watersheds varies from 0.59 to 0.74, fourth-order sub- the elongated nature of the basin. The third-order sub- watersheds varies from 0.52 to 0.62 and the entire Budigere watersheds varies from 0.30 to 0.41, fourth-order sub- Amanikere watershed is 0.75. This anomaly is due to 123 4410 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 5 Shape parameters of Budigere Amanikere watershed and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 0.26, and the sub-watershed and the entire Budigere Amanikere Watershed details Elongation Circulatory Form watershed are belonging to sub-circular to less elongated. ratio (R ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) e c f NW-1 0.84 0.72 0.56 Plotting of hypsometric curves (HC) and estimation NW-2 0.67 0.74 0.36 of hypsometric integrals (HI) SW-1 0.81 0.59 0.52 SW-2 0.65 0.74 0.34 Hypsometric analysis aims at developing a relationship S-1 0.78 0.69 0.47 between horizontal cross-sectional area of the watershed S-2 0.79 0.71 0.50 and its elevation in a dimensionless form. Hypsometric North 0.47 0.52 0.17 curve is obtained by using percentage height (h/H) and (fourth order) percentage area relationship (a/A) (Luo 1998). The relative South 0.52 0.62 0.21 area is obtained as a ration of the area above a particular (fourth order) contour to the total area of the watershed encompassing the Entire Budigere 0.58 0.75 0.26 outlet (Fig. 9). Amanikere watershed In the present study, the hypsometric integral was esti- mated using the elevation-relief ratio method proposed by diversity of slope, relief and structural conditions prevail- Pike and Wilson (1971). The relationship is expressed as: ing in the watershed. Elev  Elve mean min E  H ¼ ; is Elev  Elve max min Form factor (R ) where E is the elevation-relief ratio equivalent to the Form factor is defined as the ratio of basin area to square of hypsometric integral H ; Elev is the weighted mean is mean the basin length (Horton 1932). The value of form factor elevation of the watershed estimated from the identifiable would always be greater than 0.7854 (for a perfectly cir- contours of the delineated watershed; Elev and Elev min max cular basin). Smaller the value of form factor, more elon- are the minimum and maximum elevations within the gated will be the basin. It is noted that the R values of watershed. third-order sub-watersheds varies (Table 5) from 0.34 to It was observed from the hypsometric curves of the 0.56, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.17 to 0.21, watershed along with their sub basins (Figs. 10, 11) that the Fig. 9 Calculation of hypsometric curve and their interpretation. convex curves represent youthful stages, s-shaped and concave curves a Schematic diagram shows procedure for calculating hypsometric represent mature and old stages. This behavior depends on variation curves using percentage height (h/H) and percentage area relationship in orogenic elevation during a geomorphic cycle (Perez-Pena et al. (a/A) (Luo 1998) and b Interpretation of different hypsometric curves: 2009) 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4411 drainage system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic development. The comparison between these curves shown in Figs. 12 and 13 indicated a minor variation in mass removal from the main watershed and their sub basins. It was also observed that there was a combination of concave up and S shape of the hypsometric curves for the watershed and their sub basins. This could be due to the soil erosion from the watershed and their sub basins resulting from the down slope movement of topsoil and bedrock material, washout of the soil mass. The HI value (Table 6) can be used as an indicator of the relative amount of land from the base of the mountain to its top that was removed by erosion (aeration). Statistical moments of different hypsometric curves can be used for Fig. 10 Third-order sub-watersheds further analysis (Harlin 1978; Luo 1998; Perez-Pena et al. 2009). The HI value (Table 6) for third-order sub-water- sheds are 0.50, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.50 to 0.51, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 0.51. It was observed from the HI value that the basin falls under mature stage of fluvial geomorphic cycle. Conclusions Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite to any hydrological study. Modernize technologies like ArcGIS 10.3v Software have resulted to be of immense utility in the quantitative analysis of the geomorphometric and hypsometric aspects of the drainage basin; in addition, Fig. 11 Fourth-order sub-watersheds cartosat-1 stereo spatial data can be effectively used Fig. 12 Hypsometric curve of Budigere Amanikere watershed 123 4412 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 13 Hypsometric curves for fourth-order sub-watersheds, viz., a North, b South and third-order sub-watersheds, viz., c NW-1, d NW-2, e SW-1, f SW-2, g S-1 and h S-2 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4413 Table 6 Estimated hypsometric integral values of the Budigere Amanikere watershed and Sub-watersheds Sl no. Basin description Area Minimum Maximum Mean Hypsometric Erosional stage (km ) elevation (m) elevation (m) elevation(m) integral 1 NW-1 12.98 809 857 833 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 2 NW-2 8.50 809 890 849.5 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 3 SW-1 11.45 802 862 832 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 4 SW-2 3.9 803 846 824.5 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 5 S-1 13.08 797 851 824 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 6 S-2 5.6 785 854 820.4 0.51 Mature stage (third order) 7 North 75.68 756 890 824.5 0.51 Mature stage (fourth order) 8 South 63.02 771 862 817 0.50 Mature stage (fourth order) Entire Budigere Amanikere watershed 141 756 890 824.5 0.51 Mature stage towards morphometric analysis and cartosat-1 stereo spa- drainage basin. From the derived parameters the watershed tial data resemble the manual outcome. Slope in the is low resistant, high permeable subsoil and overburden watershed indicating moderate to least runoff and negligi- materials with less runoff conditions and high overland ble soil loss condition. Budigere Amanikere watershed and flow indicating longer flow path and thus, gentler slopes. their sub-watersheds of third and fourth order have been Texture ratio (T) indicating the sub-watersheds are falls has been found with dendritic pattern drainage basin. These under very coarse to course drainage texture, wherein the sub basins are mainly dominated by lower order streams. entire watershed is belongs to related to course and per- The morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement meable subsoil. The shape parameters implies sub-circular of linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. The maximum to less elongated basin with high infiltration capacity. stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order Hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral study reveals streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed that for sub-watershed as well as entire watershed is passing there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order through a mature stage of the fluvial geomorphic cycle. increases and vice versa. The values of stream frequency Hence, from the study, it is highly comprehensible that GIS indicate that the basin shows ?ve correlation with technique is a competent tool in geomorphometric analysis increasing stream population with respect to increasing for geohydrological studies of drainage basins. These drainage density. The study reveals that the Budigere studies are very useful for planning and management of Amanikere basin is passing through a mature stage of the drainage basin. fluvial geomorphic cycle. Sheet and gully erosion are Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative identified in parts of the study area. Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons. From the basic parameters, derived parameters and org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and shape parameters indicate there is no geological or struc- reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the tural control over the basin. The mean R indicates that the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Com- mons license, and indicate if changes were made. drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures and in mature stage of erosion. Horton’s laws of stream numbers, stream lengths, and basin slopes conform References to the basin morphometric state. 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Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India

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Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-017-0585-6 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India 1 2 3 • • Ramesh L. Dikpal T. J. Renuka Prasad K. Satish Received: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published online: 1 July 2017 The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication Abstract The quantitative analysis of drainage system is indicates under very less structural disturbances, less runoff an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. conditions, constant of channel maintenance (C) 0.9 indi- Using watershed as a basin unit in morphometric analysis cates higher permeability of subsoil, elongation ratio (R ) is the most logical choice because all hydrological and 0.58, circularity ratio (R ) 0.75 and form factor (R ) 0.26 c f geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The signifies sub-circular to more elongated basin with high Budigere Amanikere watershed a tributary of Dakshina infiltration with low runoff. It was observed from the Pinakini River has been selected for case illustration. hypsometric curves and hypsometric integral values of the Geoinformatics module consisting of ArcGIS 10.3v and watershed along with their sub basins that the drainage Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 of system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic devel- resolution 1 arc Sec (*32 m) data obtained from Bhuvan opment. Additionally, Hypsometric curve and hypsometric is effectively used. Sheet and gully erosion are identified in integral value proves that the infiltration capacity is high as parts of the study area. Slope in the watershed indicating well as runoff is low in the watershed. Thus, these mor- moderate to least runoff and negligible soil loss condition. mometric analyses can be used as an estimator of erosion Third and fourth-order sub-watershed analysis is carried status of watersheds leading to prioritization for taking up out. Mean bifurcation ratio (R ) 3.6 specify there is no soil and water conservation measures. dominant influence of geology and structures, low drainage density (D ) 1.12 and low stream frequency (F ) 1.17 Keywords Morphometry  Cartosat-1DEM  Budigere d s implies highly infiltration subsoil material and low runoff, Amanikere watershed  Dakshina Pinakini  Hypsometric infiltration number (I )1.3 implies higher infiltration curve and hypsometric integral and RS and GIS capacity, coarse drainage texture (T) 3.40 shows high permeable subsoil, length of overland flow (L ) 0.45 Introduction & Ramesh L. Dikpal Drainage basin is a basic unit in morphometric investigation rameshldikpal@gmail.com because all the hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur T. J. Renuka Prasad within the watershed where denudational and aggradational drtjrprasad@gmail.com processes are most explicitly manifested and is indicated by K. Satish various morphometric studies (Horton 1945; Strahler geosatish.k@gmail.com 1952, 1964; Muller 1968; Shreve 1969; Evans 1972, 1984; Chorley et al. 1984; Merritts and Vincent 1989; Ohmori Karnataka State Natural Disaster Monitoring Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India 1993; Cox 1994; Oguchi 1997; Burrough and McDonnell 1998; Hurtrez et al. 1999). Morphometry is the measurement Department of Geology, Bangalore University, Bangalore, and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth’s Karnataka, India surface, shape, and dimension of its landforms (Agarwal Impact College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1998; Obi Reddy et al. 2002; Clarke 1996). A most important Bangalore, Karnataka, India 123 4400 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 consequence in geomorphology over the past several dec- entire period or the ‘cycle of erosion’ can be divided into three ades has been on the growth of quantitative physiographic stages, viz., monandnock (old) (H 0.3), in which the water- si process to describe the progression and actions of surface shed is fully stabilized; equilibrium or mature stage (0.3 H si drainage networks (Horton 1945; Leopold and Maddock 0.6); and inequilibrium or young stage (H 0.6), in which the si 1953). River drainage morphometry plays vital role in watershed is highly susceptible to erosion (Strahler 1952). comprehension of soil physical properties, land processes, and erosional features. Study area Remote sensing techniques using satellite images are convenient tools for morphometric analysis. The satellite The watershed area of Budigere Amanikere River is 2 0 00 remote sensing has the ability to provide synoptic view of 141 km (Fig. 1) and located between latitude 1306 00 N 0 00 0 00 0 00 large area and is very useful in analyzing drainage mor- to 1312 00 N and longitude 7736 00 Eto 7746 00 E. phometry. The image interpretation techniques are less The Budigere River originates from the Narayanapura time consuming than the ground surveys, which coupled Village and flows towards east meets the Dakshina Pinakini with limited field checks yield valuable results. The satel- River at Budigere. The study area falls within Survey of G G lite data can be utilized effectively for morphometric India (1:50,000) toposheet numbers 57 / and 57 / are 12 16 analysis and accurate delineation of watershed, sub-wa- used. Annual normal rainfall of the area is 810 mm, major tershed, mini-watersheds and even micro-watersheds and rainfall of 350–500 mm will be received by South–West other morphometric parameters (Ahmed et al. 2010). monsoon in the months from June to September. The fast emerging spatial information technology, Study area has a tropical savanna climate (Ko¨ppen climate remote sensing, GIS, and GPS have effective tools to classification) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its overcome most of the problems of land and water resources high elevation, Budigere Amanikere watershed usually enjoys planning and management rather than conventional meth- a more moderate climate throughout the year, although ods of data process (Rao et al. 2010). Using the LPS occasional heat waves can make summer somewhat uncom- method for sensor geometry modeling the extraction of the fortable. The coolest month is January with an average low corresponding DEM produced good results that are suit- temperature of 15.1 C(59.2 F), and the hottest month is able for the operational use in planning and development of April with an average high temperature of 35 C(95 F). natural watersheds. The DEM accuracy, analyzed both at Northern fringe of the study area is holds of reserved forest the point mode and the surface mode, produced good with an area of 3.5 km and in the southern fringe protected 2 2 results (Murthy et al. 2008). Cartosat-1 stereo data can be forest of area 1.5 km . Apart from the forest area 134 km is considered as high accuracy (Dabrowski et al. 2008). The having agriculture land, different types of wastelands like images acquired by the satellite can be safely used for the Barren rocky, Stony waste, Sheet rock, and gullied land is purposes it has been designed for (Srivastava et al. 2007), involving moderate to steep slope results gradient surface i.e., gathering elevation data with accuracy sufficient for runoff, also in these wasteland water bodies are formed in maps with the scale of 1:25,000. abandoned quarry acts as recharge zones. The drainage delineation shows better accuracy and clear demarcation of catchment ridgeline and more reliable flow- Erosion classification scheme path prediction in comparison with ASTER. The results qualify Indian DEM for using it operationally which is The displacement of soil material by water can result in equivalent and better than the other publicly available DEMs either loss of topsoil or terrain deformation or both. This like SRTM and ASTERDEM (Muralikrishnan et al. 2013). category includes processes such as sheet erosion, rill, Strahler (1952) interpreted the shapes of the hypsomet- gully erosion, and ravines. Erosion by water in the study ric curves by analyzing numerous drainage basins and area is the most important land degradation process that classified the basins as young (convex upward curves), occurs on the surface of the earth. Rainfall, soil physical mature (S-shaped hypsometric curves which is concave properties, terrain slope, land cover, and management upwards at high elevations and convex downwards at low practices play a very significant role in soil erosion. A brief elevations) and peneplain or distorted (concave upward description of various erosion classes in the study area by curves). These hypsometric curve shapes described the water is given below (Fig. 2) (Erosion Map of India 2014): stages of the landscape evolution, which also provide an 1. Sheet Erosion: It is a common problem resulting from indication of erosion status of the watershed. loss of topsoil. The soil particles are removed from the The hypsometric integral is also an indication of the ‘cycle whole soil surface on a fairly uniform basis in the form of erosion’ (Strahler 1952;Garg 1983). The ‘cycle of erosion’ of thin layers. The severity of the problem is often is defined as the total time required for reduction of a land difficult to visualize with naked eyes in the field. topological unit to the base level i.e. the lowest level. This 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4401 Fig. 1 Location of Budigere Amanikere watershed 2. Gully Erosion: Gullies are formed as a result of localized in sloping lands, developed as a result of concentrated surface runoff affecting the unconsolidated material runoff over fairly long time. They are mostly associated resulting in the formation of perceptible channels with stream courses, sloping grounds with good rainfall causing undulating terrain. They are commonly found regions, and foothill regions. 123 4402 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 2 Types of erosion and the pour point are the two inputs parameters required Materials and methodology for the extraction function. The steps are as given below to Cartosat-1 stereo datasets are proved in high accuracy obtain watershed and stream orders derived from Cartosat- 1 DEM (Fig. 4) are as follows: compared to SRTM and ASTERDEM (Muralikrishnan et al. 2013) and tile extent/spatial extent of 1 9 1 from • Fill the sinks in the Cartosat:1 DEM X in 77–78 E and Y in 13–14 N is used to achieve drainage • Apply the flow direction function to the filled Car- network. The extracted stream network, slope, drainage tosat:1 DEM density, and basin are projected to the regional projection • Apply the flow accumulation function on the flow (WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_43 N). direction grid The unique characteristics of CartoSAT-1 stereo data and planned products are given below: Name of the dataset: C1_DEM_16b_2006- 2008_V1_77E13N_D43R Theme: Terrain Spheroid/datum: GCS, WGS-1984 Original source: Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m) stereo data Resolution: 1 arc s (32 m) Sensor: PAN (2.5 m) stereo data File format: Geotiff Bits per pixel: 16 bit Extraction of drainage network and watershed Extraction of stream orders using Hydrology tool from spatial analyst Arc toolbox is used and Eight Direction (D8) Flow Model (Fig. 3) is adopted in ArcGIS 10.3v Software (Advanced License type). The Cartosat-1 DEM Fig. 3 Eight-direction (D8) flow model 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4403 Fig. 4 Method of delineating stream order from Cartodat-1 DEM • Apply the logarithmic accumulation function from and the value of cells in the output raster will be the raster calculator number of cells that flow into each cell. • Apply the conditional function from raster calculator The direction of flow is determined by the direction of • Apply a threshold condition to the conditioned flow steepest descent, or maximum drop, from each cell. This is direction grid calculated as follows: • Obtain a streams grid from the threshold condition grid Maximum drop ¼ change in z value=distance  100: • Obtain the stream links grid The hypsometric curve (HC) and hypsometric integral • Obtain watersheds grid from the streams grid (HI) were calculated using GIS. The attribute feature • Vectorise the streams grid classes that accommodate these values were utilized to plot • Vectorise the watershed grid. the hypsometric curves for the watershed, from which the One of the keys to deriving hydrologic characteristics about HI values were calculated using the elevation-relief ratio a surface is the ability to determine the direction of flow from method elaborated by Pike and Wilson (1971). The every cell in the raster. This is done with the flow direction elevation-relief ratio method is found to be easy to apply function. This function takes a surface as input and outputs a and more accurate to calculate within the GIS environment. raster showing the direction of flow out of each cell. If the The relationship is expressed in the following equation is output drop raster option is chosen, an output raster is created mentioned in Plotting of Hypsometric Curves (HC) and showing a ratio of the maximum change in elevation from each estimation ofHypsometric Integrals (HI) heading. cell along the direction of flow to the path length between centers of cells and is expressed in percentages. If the force all edge cells to flow outward option is chosen, all cells at the edge Results and discussion of the surface raster will flow outward from the surface raster. There are eight valid output directions relating to the The morphometric analysis for the basic parameters of eight adjacent cells into which flow could travel. This stream order, stream length, mean stream length and approach is commonly referred to as an eight-direction derived parameters of bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, (D8) flow model, and follows an approach presented in stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, drainage Jenson and Domingue (1988). texture, length of overland flow, compactness constant, The Flow Accumulation function calculates accumu- constant of channel maintenance and the shape parameters lated flow as the accumulated weight of all cells flowing of elongation ratio, circularity ratio, Form factor for the into each down slope cell in the output raster. If no weight Budigere Amanikere watershed is achieved the formulas raster is provided, a weight of one is applied to each cell, described in Table 1. The total drainage area of the 123 4404 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 1 Methods followed to calculate morphometric parameters Morphometric Formula and description References parameters Basic parameters Stream order (U) Hierarchical order Strahler (1964) Stream length (L ) Length of the stream Horton (1945) Mean stream length (L ) L = L /N ; where L = Stream length of order ‘U’ Horton (1945) sm sm u u u N = Total number of stream segments of order ‘U’ Derived parameters Bifurcation ratio (R ) R = N /N ? 1; where N = Total number of stream segment of order ‘u’; Schumm (1956) b b u u u N ? 1 = Number of segment of next higher order Stream length ratio (R ) R = L /L ; where L = Total stream length of order ‘U’, Lu-1 = Stream Horton (1945) l l u u-1 u length of next lower order. Drainage density (D ) D = L/A where Horton (1945) d d L = Total length of streams; A = Area of watershed Drainage frequency (F ) F = N/A; where Horton (1945) s s N = Total number of streams; A = Area of watershed Infiltration number (I ) I = D 9 F Zavoiance (1985) f f d s where D = Drainage density (km/km ) and F = Drainage frequency Drainage texture (T) R = N /P; where N = total number of stream segments of all order in a Horton (1945) t u u basin; P = Perimeter Length of overland L = 1/2 D ; where D = Drainage density Horton (1945) g d d flow (L ) 0.5 Compactness constant (C ) C = 0.2821 9 P/A ;where P = Perimeter of the basin(km), A = Area of Horton (1945) c c the basin (km ) Constant of channel maintenance (C) C = 1/D ; where D = Drainage density Schumm (1956) d d Shape parameters Elongation ratio (R ) R = 2H(A/p)/L ; where A = Area of watershed, p = 3.14, Lb = Basin Schumm (1956) e e b length Circulatory ratio (R ) R = 4pA/P ; where A = Area of watershed, Miller (1953) c c p = 3.14, P = Perimeter of watershed Form factor (R ) R = A/(Lb) ; where A = Area of watershed, Horton (1932) f f L = Basin length Budigere Amanikere watershed is 141 km . The drainage neighbors’’ (Burrough 1986). The degree of slope in pattern is dendritic in nature and is influenced by the Budigere Amanikere watershed varies from 0.3 to [11 geology, topography, and rainfall condition of the area. (Table 2). Higher slope degree results in rapid runoff and Geology in the area is peninsular gneissic complex of increased erosion rate (potential soil loss) with less ground 2600–2350 m.y belonging to Archean to Proterozoic age. water recharge potential, whereas in the study area lower slope of degree present in peninsular gneissic mountain Slope range (Figs. 5, 6). The loss of soil is very negligible. Slope analysis is a significant parameter in geomorpho- Table 2 Types of slope logical studies for watershed development and important Sl no. Types of slope Slope in degree for morphometric analysis. The slope elements, in turn, are controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas 1 Nearly level 0.3–1.1 having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. 2011; 2 Very gentle slope 1.1–5.0 Gayen et al. 2013). A slope map of the study area is cal- 3 Gentle slope 5.0–8.3 culated based on Cartosat-1 DEM data using the spatial 4 Moderate slope 8.3–11.0 analysis tool in ArcGIS 10.3. Slope grid is identified as 5 Strong slope 11 and more ‘‘the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4405 Fig. 5 Slope map Fig. 6 3D model of Budigere Amanikere watershed Basic parameters third-order parameters were also calculated and are men- tioned in Table 3. Area of a basin (A) and perimeter (P) are the important parameters in quantitative geomorphology. Basin area directly affects the size of the storm hydrograph, the Stream order (N ) magnitudes of peak, and mean runoff. The perimeter (P)is the total length of the drainage basin boundary. The The count of stream channels in each order is termed as perimeter of the Budigere Amanikere Watershed is stream order. The streams of the study area have been 48.5 km. The area of the watershed (A) is 141 km . The ranked; when two first-order streams join, a stream seg- length of the basin (L ) measured parallel to the main ment of second order is formed. When two second-order drainage line, i.e., from west to north-east direction and is streams join, a segment of third order is formed, and so on. 21.8 km. In addition, sub-watersheds of fourth-order and In the present study, fifth-order drainage order (Fig. 7)is 123 4406 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 3 Basic parameters of Budigere Amanikere Watershed Watershed details Area in km Perimeter Basin Stream order Total number Stream Total stream in km length and number of of streams length length in km in km streams in km NW-1 12.98 15.07 4.83 1 8 12 7.82 14.12 2 3 4.05 3 1 2.25 NW-2 8.5 12.01 4.88 1 7 10 4.19 9.48 2 2 2.16 3 1 3.13 SW-1 11.45 15.56 4.7 1 10 14 7.84 13.68 2 3 2.93 3 1 2.91 SW-2 3.9 8.16 3.41 1 5 8 1.32 4.18 2 2 0.81 3 1 2.05 S-1 13.08 15.46 5.25 1 10 14 5.06 12.84 2 3 5.72 3 1 2.06 S-2 5.6 9.98 3.36 1 5 8 3.63 6.03 2 2 1.92 3 1 0.48 North 75.68 42.71 20.99 1 68 85 46.04 86.55 (fourth order) 2 14 19.11 3 2 5.38 4 1 16.02 South 63.02 35.64 17.23 1 58 77 32.85 68.1 (fourth order) 2 14 14.95 3 4 7.51 4 1 12.79 Entire Budigere Amanikere 141 48.5 22.92 1 128 165 79.65 157.31 watershed 2 28 34.06 3 6 12.89 4 2 28.81 5 1 1.9 acquired to morphometric analysis. Budigere Amanikere length method. It supports the theory of geometrical sim- watershed is consisting of dendritic type of drainage net- ilarity preserved generally in the basins of increasing cat- work with nearly even terrain (Table 3). Total of 165 egory. Mean length of channel segments of an existing stream line is recognized in the whole basin, out of which order is greater than that of the next lower order but less 77.57% (128) is 1st order, 17% (28) 2nd order, 3.6% (6) than that of the next higher order. Bifurcation ratio is the third order, 1.21% (2) fourth order, and 0.6% comprises 5th ratio of the number of stream channels of an order to the order stream (1). Sub-watershed stream orders were also number streams of the higher order. estimated and are mentioned in Table 3. Stream length ratio (R ) Derived parameters Stream length ratio (Horton’s law) states that mean stream Stream length (L ) and mean stream length (L ) length segments of each of the successive orders of a basin u sm tends to approximate a direct geometric series with streams The stream length and mean stream length of various length increasing towards higher order of streams. The R orders has been calculated from Horton’s law of stream 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4407 Fig. 7 Stream order in vector between streams of different order in the Budigere Ama- Higher R greater than 5 indicates some sort of geological nikere watershed area reveals that there is a variation in R . control. If the R is low, the basin produces a sharp peak in l b discharge and if it is high, the basin yields low, but Bifurcation ratio (R ) extended peak flow (Agarwal 1998). In well developed drainage network the bifurcation ratio is generally between Bifurcation ratio is closely related to the branching pattern 2 and 5. Study area prominently showing some sort of of a drainage network (Schumm 1956). It is related to the geological control. From the Table 4 mean bifurcation structural control on the drainage (Strahler 1964). A lower ratio of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 2.3 to 3.2, R range between 3 and 5 suggests that structure does not fourth-order sub-watersheds varies 3.9 and 4.6. The entire exercise a dominant influence on the drainage pattern. watershed is showing 3.6 and is revealed that the watershed Table 4 Derived parameters of Budigere Amanikere Watershed Watershed details Mean Drainage Stream Infiltration Drainage Length of Compactness Constant of Bifurcation density (km/ frequency number (I ) texture (T) overland flow constant (C ) channel f c ratio (R ) km ) (F ) (L ) maintenance (C) b s g NW-1 2.8 1.09 0.92 1.01 0.80 0.46 0.30 0.92 NW-2 2.8 1.12 1.18 1.31 0.83 0.45 0.34 0.90 SW-1 3.2 1.19 1.22 1.46 0.90 0.42 0.33 0.84 SW-2 2.3 1.07 2.05 2.20 0.98 0.47 0.41 0.93 S-1 3.2 0.98 1.07 1.05 0.91 0.51 0.31 1.02 S-2 2.3 1.08 1.43 1.54 0.80 0.46 0.38 0.93 North (fourth order) 4.6 1.14 1.12 1.28 1.99 0.44 0.21 0.87 South (fourth order) 3.9 1.08 1.22 1.32 2.16 0.46 0.21 0.93 Entire Budigere 3.6 1.12 1.17 1.30 3.40 0.45 0.17 0.90 Amanikere watershed 123 4408 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 8 Drainage density is in mature stage of erosion and structure does not exercise landform elements in stream-eroded topography and does a dominant influence on the drainage pattern. not change regularly with orders within the basin. From Table 4, drainage density of third-order sub-watersheds Drainage density (D ) varies from 0.98 to 1.19, and fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 1.08 and 1.14. Low (\2.0 km/km ) drainage The drainage density is an important indicator of the linear density from third order, fourth order, as well as entire scale of landform elements in stream-eroded topography. It Budigere Amanikere watershed is 1.12 (Fig. 8), leading to is the ratio of total channel segment lengths cumulated for highly permeable subsoil material. all orders within a basin to the basin area, which is expressed in terms of mi/sq.mi or km/sq.km. The drainage Stream frequency (F ) density indicates the closeness of spacing of channels, thus providing a quantitative measure of the average length of Stream frequency defined as the total number of stream stream channel for the whole basin. It has been observed segments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). The from drainage density measurements made over a wide occurrence of stream segments depends on the nature and range of geologic and climatic types that a low drainage structure of rocks, vegetation cover, nature and amount of density is more likely to occur in regions of highly resistant rainfall, and soil permeability. Table 4 indicating stream of highly permeable subsoil material under dense vegeta- frequency of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.92 tive cover, and where relief is low. High drainage density is to 2.05, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies 1.12 and 1.22. the resultant of weak or impermeable subsurface material, In Budigere, Amanikere watershed shows 1.17 of low sparse vegetation, and mountainous relief. Low drainage (below 2.5/km ) stream frequency of low relief and high density leads to coarse drainage texture, while high drai- infiltration capacity of the bedrock pointing towards the nage density leads to fine drainage texture (Strahler 1964). increase in stream population with respect to increase in On the one hand, the D is a result of interacting factors drainage density. The stream frequency of Budigere controlling the surface runoff; on the other hand, it is itself Amanikere basin shows that the basin has good vegetation, influencing the output of water and sediment from the medium relief, high infiltration capacity, and later peak drainage basin (Ozdemir and Bird 2009). D is known to discharges owing to low runoff rate. The stream frequency vary with climate and vegetation (Moglen et al. 1998), soil shows positive correlation with the drainage density. Les- and rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989), relief ser the drainage density and stream frequency in a basin, (Oguchi 1997), and landscape evolution processes. It is a the runoff is slower, and therefore, flooding is less likely in measure of the length of stream per unit (Horton 1932)in basins with a low to moderate drainage density and stream the watershed. It is significant point in the linear scale of frequency (Carlston 1963). 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4409 Infiltration number (I ) watersheds are 0.21, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed (Table 4) is 0.17 values indicating lesser elon- Infiltration number plays a significant role in observing the gated watershed however, a lesser elongated pattern facil- infiltration characteristics of the basin. It is inversely pro- itates the runoff is low, thereby favoring to development of portional to the infiltration capacity of the basin. The erosion is low. infiltration number of the third-order watersheds varies from 1.01 to 2.20, fourth-order watersheds varies from 1.28 Constant of channel maintenance (C) to 1.32, and entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 1.30 (Table 4) and considered as very low. It indicates that Constant of channel maintenance is the inverse of drainage runoff will be very low and the infiltration capacity very density (Schumm 1956). It is also the area required to high. maintain one linear kilometer of stream channel. Generally, a higher constant of channel maintenance of a basin indi- Drainage texture (T) cates higher permeability of rocks of that basin, and vice versa. It is inferred that the third-order sub-watersheds According to Horton (1945), Drainage texture (T) is the varies from 0.84 to 1.02, fourth-order sub-watersheds total number of stream segments of all orders per perimeter varies from 0.87 to 0.93, and the entire Budigere Amani- of that area. It is one of the important concepts of geo- kere watershed is 0.90 having more than 0.6 km area to morphology which means that the relative spacing of maintain 1 km length stream channel, which in turn indi- drainage lines. Drainage lines are numerous over imper- cates higher permeability of subsoil. meable areas than permeable areas. Five different texture ratios have been classified based on the drainage density Shape parameters (Smith 1950). In the study area texture ratio (Table 4)of third-order watersheds varies (\2) from 0.80 to 0.98 and Elongation ratio (R ) are indicating very coarse, fourth-order watersheds varies (\2 and 2–4) from 1.99 to 2.16 indicates very coarse to Elongation ratio is the ratio between the diameter of the coarse drainage texture and entire Budigere Amanikere circle of the same area as the drainage basin and the watershed (2–4) is 3.40 indicates related to coarse texture. maximum length of the basin. Analysis of elongation ratio indicates that the areas with higher elongation ratio values Length of overland flow (L ) have high infiltration capacity and low runoff. A circular basin is more efficient in the discharge of runoff than an It is the length of water over the ground before it gets elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). The elongation concentrated into definite streams channels (Horton 1932). ratio and shape of basin are generally varies from 0.6 to 1.0 This factor depends on the rock type, permeability, climatic over a wide variety of climate and geologic types. Values regime, vegetation cover and relief as well as duration of close to 1.0 are typical of regions of very low relief, erosion. The length of overland flow approximately equals whereas values in the range 0.6–0.8 are usually associated to half of the reciprocal of drainage density. Length of with high relief and steep ground slope. The Elongation overland flow of third-order sub-watersheds varies from ratio of third-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.65 to 0.42 to 0.51, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.44 0.84, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.47 and to 0.46 and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed 0.52, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed Budi- (Table 4) is 0.45 km. Length of overland flow in all the gere Amanikere catchment is 0.58 (Table 5) falling in sub- watersheds is greater than 0.25 are under very less struc- circular category. tural disturbance, less runoff conditions, and having higher overland flow. A larger value of length of overland flow Circularity ratio (R ) indicates longer flow path and thus gentler slopes. The circularity ratio is the ratio of the area of the basin to Compactness constant (C ) the area of a circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin (Miller 1953). It is influenced by the Compactness constant is defined as the ratio between the length and frequency of streams, geological structures, land area of the basin and the perimeter of the basin. Com- use/land cover, climate, relief and slope of the watershed. pactness constant is unity for a perfect circle, and increases In the present study (Table 5), the R values of third-order as the basin length increases. Thus, it is a direct indicator of sub-watersheds varies from 0.59 to 0.74, fourth-order sub- the elongated nature of the basin. The third-order sub- watersheds varies from 0.52 to 0.62 and the entire Budigere watersheds varies from 0.30 to 0.41, fourth-order sub- Amanikere watershed is 0.75. This anomaly is due to 123 4410 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Table 5 Shape parameters of Budigere Amanikere watershed and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 0.26, and the sub-watershed and the entire Budigere Amanikere Watershed details Elongation Circulatory Form watershed are belonging to sub-circular to less elongated. ratio (R ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) e c f NW-1 0.84 0.72 0.56 Plotting of hypsometric curves (HC) and estimation NW-2 0.67 0.74 0.36 of hypsometric integrals (HI) SW-1 0.81 0.59 0.52 SW-2 0.65 0.74 0.34 Hypsometric analysis aims at developing a relationship S-1 0.78 0.69 0.47 between horizontal cross-sectional area of the watershed S-2 0.79 0.71 0.50 and its elevation in a dimensionless form. Hypsometric North 0.47 0.52 0.17 curve is obtained by using percentage height (h/H) and (fourth order) percentage area relationship (a/A) (Luo 1998). The relative South 0.52 0.62 0.21 area is obtained as a ration of the area above a particular (fourth order) contour to the total area of the watershed encompassing the Entire Budigere 0.58 0.75 0.26 outlet (Fig. 9). Amanikere watershed In the present study, the hypsometric integral was esti- mated using the elevation-relief ratio method proposed by diversity of slope, relief and structural conditions prevail- Pike and Wilson (1971). The relationship is expressed as: ing in the watershed. Elev  Elve mean min E  H ¼ ; is Elev  Elve max min Form factor (R ) where E is the elevation-relief ratio equivalent to the Form factor is defined as the ratio of basin area to square of hypsometric integral H ; Elev is the weighted mean is mean the basin length (Horton 1932). The value of form factor elevation of the watershed estimated from the identifiable would always be greater than 0.7854 (for a perfectly cir- contours of the delineated watershed; Elev and Elev min max cular basin). Smaller the value of form factor, more elon- are the minimum and maximum elevations within the gated will be the basin. It is noted that the R values of watershed. third-order sub-watersheds varies (Table 5) from 0.34 to It was observed from the hypsometric curves of the 0.56, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.17 to 0.21, watershed along with their sub basins (Figs. 10, 11) that the Fig. 9 Calculation of hypsometric curve and their interpretation. convex curves represent youthful stages, s-shaped and concave curves a Schematic diagram shows procedure for calculating hypsometric represent mature and old stages. This behavior depends on variation curves using percentage height (h/H) and percentage area relationship in orogenic elevation during a geomorphic cycle (Perez-Pena et al. (a/A) (Luo 1998) and b Interpretation of different hypsometric curves: 2009) 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4411 drainage system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic development. The comparison between these curves shown in Figs. 12 and 13 indicated a minor variation in mass removal from the main watershed and their sub basins. It was also observed that there was a combination of concave up and S shape of the hypsometric curves for the watershed and their sub basins. This could be due to the soil erosion from the watershed and their sub basins resulting from the down slope movement of topsoil and bedrock material, washout of the soil mass. The HI value (Table 6) can be used as an indicator of the relative amount of land from the base of the mountain to its top that was removed by erosion (aeration). Statistical moments of different hypsometric curves can be used for Fig. 10 Third-order sub-watersheds further analysis (Harlin 1978; Luo 1998; Perez-Pena et al. 2009). The HI value (Table 6) for third-order sub-water- sheds are 0.50, fourth-order sub-watersheds varies from 0.50 to 0.51, and the entire Budigere Amanikere watershed is 0.51. It was observed from the HI value that the basin falls under mature stage of fluvial geomorphic cycle. Conclusions Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite to any hydrological study. Modernize technologies like ArcGIS 10.3v Software have resulted to be of immense utility in the quantitative analysis of the geomorphometric and hypsometric aspects of the drainage basin; in addition, Fig. 11 Fourth-order sub-watersheds cartosat-1 stereo spatial data can be effectively used Fig. 12 Hypsometric curve of Budigere Amanikere watershed 123 4412 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 Fig. 13 Hypsometric curves for fourth-order sub-watersheds, viz., a North, b South and third-order sub-watersheds, viz., c NW-1, d NW-2, e SW-1, f SW-2, g S-1 and h S-2 123 Appl Water Sci (2017) 7:4399–4414 4413 Table 6 Estimated hypsometric integral values of the Budigere Amanikere watershed and Sub-watersheds Sl no. Basin description Area Minimum Maximum Mean Hypsometric Erosional stage (km ) elevation (m) elevation (m) elevation(m) integral 1 NW-1 12.98 809 857 833 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 2 NW-2 8.50 809 890 849.5 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 3 SW-1 11.45 802 862 832 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 4 SW-2 3.9 803 846 824.5 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 5 S-1 13.08 797 851 824 0.50 Mature stage (third order) 6 S-2 5.6 785 854 820.4 0.51 Mature stage (third order) 7 North 75.68 756 890 824.5 0.51 Mature stage (fourth order) 8 South 63.02 771 862 817 0.50 Mature stage (fourth order) Entire Budigere Amanikere watershed 141 756 890 824.5 0.51 Mature stage towards morphometric analysis and cartosat-1 stereo spa- drainage basin. From the derived parameters the watershed tial data resemble the manual outcome. Slope in the is low resistant, high permeable subsoil and overburden watershed indicating moderate to least runoff and negligi- materials with less runoff conditions and high overland ble soil loss condition. Budigere Amanikere watershed and flow indicating longer flow path and thus, gentler slopes. their sub-watersheds of third and fourth order have been Texture ratio (T) indicating the sub-watersheds are falls has been found with dendritic pattern drainage basin. These under very coarse to course drainage texture, wherein the sub basins are mainly dominated by lower order streams. entire watershed is belongs to related to course and per- The morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement meable subsoil. The shape parameters implies sub-circular of linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. The maximum to less elongated basin with high infiltration capacity. stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order Hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral study reveals streams and then for second order. Hence, it is noticed that for sub-watershed as well as entire watershed is passing there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order through a mature stage of the fluvial geomorphic cycle. increases and vice versa. The values of stream frequency Hence, from the study, it is highly comprehensible that GIS indicate that the basin shows ?ve correlation with technique is a competent tool in geomorphometric analysis increasing stream population with respect to increasing for geohydrological studies of drainage basins. These drainage density. The study reveals that the Budigere studies are very useful for planning and management of Amanikere basin is passing through a mature stage of the drainage basin. fluvial geomorphic cycle. Sheet and gully erosion are Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative identified in parts of the study area. Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons. From the basic parameters, derived parameters and org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and shape parameters indicate there is no geological or struc- reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the tural control over the basin. The mean R indicates that the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Com- mons license, and indicate if changes were made. drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures and in mature stage of erosion. Horton’s laws of stream numbers, stream lengths, and basin slopes conform References to the basin morphometric state. 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Applied Water ScienceSpringer Journals

Published: Jul 1, 2017

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