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Donato García was the mineralogy professor at the Royal Cabinet of Natural History and Central University of Madrid from 1816 to 1853. In addition to teaching mineralogy, he gathered geological and mineralogical material for didactic purposes, and for exhibitions in the hall of the Cabinet. He was a key figure in developing the subject matter of mineralogy in Spain during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donato Garcia likewise promoted the careers of very important future teach- ers at the Military Academy of Engineers, Natural Sciences Museums, and Universities, integrating oral lectures, mineral testing, visual recognition, and the use of crystallographic models. This paper investigates how the crystallographic system proposed by Haüy (in the mid-thirties) was assimilated through unpublished documents of Donato García’s mineralogical lessons from 1824 to 1825, obtained from Spain’s Archivo General de Palacio (Madrid). Hence, this manuscript can be considered the first scientific work reliably attributable to Donato and based on the notes of his pupil José Musso y Valiente, which stands as an early attempt to create a handbook of mineralogy in Spanish. The novel approach to teaching mineralogy is furthermore compared with lessons published by disciple Antonio María Cisneros y Lanuza in 1843. Keywords Mineralogical collections · Geological heritage · Haüy · José Musso y Valiente · Mineralogy Introduction distinguished students who graduated from his classrooms and who applied his teaching methodology. He oversaw the Despite his impact on Spanish mineralogy, the life and activ- chair of mineralogy in the RGHN, where his classes took ity of Donato García (1779 –1855) have gone largely unno- place (Torres González 1945). ticed. In the first half of the nineteenth century, he taught Didactic knowledge was improved and updated with his agriculture and applied botany in the Botanical Garden of field work in geology, as well as by his role as curator of Tenerife (Spain), mineralogy and geognosy courses in the scientific collections and his commitment to corporations Royal Cabinet of Natural History (Real Gabinete de Histo- linked to the sciences of his time. This context allowed him ria Natural, Madrid; RGHN), and mineralogy and botany at to follow new scientific developments in mineralogy at the the Central University of Madrid over nearly 40 years. He world level, and communicate with illustrious contemporary was an outstanding professor, as evidenced by the number of experts, especially René Just Haüy (Paris, 1743–1822) and Abraham Gottlob Werner (Saxon, 1749–1817). Donato García and his teaching practices influenced future promotions of * María Rosario Alcalde-Fuentes Spanish mineralogy, including the naturalist Juan Vilanova email@example.com Diocesan Historical Archive of Logroño: Libro 3, folio 308 v. Departamento de Geología y Geoquímica, Universidad [283v.] Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain Royal Botanic Garden Archive of Madrid: ARJBM: Sig. I-22–6-4 Centro Nacional Instituto Geológico y Minero de España ACN0176-021, Archive of the National Museum of Natural Sci- CSIC, 28003 Madrid, Spain ences (MNCN-CSIC) 3 4 Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Medio Ambiente, D622, 3Q-V, Filosofía Expediente personal del catedrático de dicha Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante, Spain facultad D. Donato García; Complutense University of Madrid: UCM Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 81 Page 2 of 9 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 Fig. 1 First page of the Musso manuscript Lecciones de min- eralogia explicadas por Donato Garcia en el Real Gabinete de Historia Natural de Madrid. Source: Municipal Archive of Lorca (AML. Fondo Casa de Guevara. Originales. Caja nº 1) y Piera (1821–1893), who held the chair of geology and Musso y Valiente (1785–1838). The latter figure has guided palaeontology at the University of Madrid; Felipe Naranjo this research because mineralogical notes by Musso are pre- y Garza (1809–1877), professor of geology and palaeontol- served in the Municipal Archive of Lorca, Murcia (AML. ogy at the School of Mining Engineers (Madrid), who came Fondo Casa de Guevara. Originales. Caja nº 1; Fig. 1) for the to fill the seat left vacant in natural science section by the same course (c. 1825) as described in the General Archive death of Donato García (Dupont 1857); Blas Manuel Teruel of Palace, Madrid (Archivo General de Palacio, Infante Don de los Escuderos (1777–1849), academic co-ordinator at the Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4; Fig. 2). Military Academy of Engineering of Guadalajara ; and José In the late eighteenth century, the discipline of min- eralogy in Spain was developed by Christian Herrgen (1765–1816; Herrgen 1802). His knowledge of chemistry Military General Archive of Segovia: 2579-AGMS-1-408 T-EXP01 prepared him for the position of collector of minerals at the 1 3 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 Page 3 of 9 81 Fig. 2 First page of the AGP manuscript Lecciones de min- eralogia explicadas por Donato Garcia en el Real Gabinete de Historia Natural de Madrid. Source: General Archive of Pal- ace (AGP, Infante Don Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4) RGHN and led to the creation of the School of Mineralogy involving crystallographic models (López-Acevedo (Escuela de Mineralogía; Parra and Pelayo 1996). Herrgen Cor nejo 2006, 2011), mineral testing, and visual based his teaching methods on Widenmann’s work (Widen- recognition. As for crystallography, Donato contributed mann 1797). However, during the second and third decade with diverse means of acquisition to create mineralogical of the nineteenth century, mineralogy in Spain underwent major changes as it progressively assimilated a new field: crystallography. In parallel, Professor Donato kept up with General Archive of Palace: AGP, Infante Don Antonio Pascual, the new European trend and became the main communicator Legajo 2286 of the theories of Abbé Haüy in Spain. 7 Library MNCN-CSIC—Ms.25. Mineralogy was taught by Donato in the School of Municipal Archive of Lorca: AML. Fondo Casa de Guevara. Origi- Mineralogy of RGHN through oral and practical lessons, nales. Caja nº 1 1 3 81 Page 4 of 9 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 and geological collections for the RGHN and for teaching (Germany; Wetterauische Gesellschaft 2023). Réné Just purposes. He collaborated with other important institutions Haüy (1745–1822) maintained correspondence with the (e.g. School of Civil Engineering or Special School of WGSGN (Touret 1997), and according to his manuscripts, Architecture ) until gathering thirty-six collections. the National Museum of Natural History of Paris (Musée Although the lack of Spanish textbooks on mineralogy was national d'histoire naturelle: MNHNP) collaborated with an obstacle, his students took notes from the professor. To foreign scientific institutions such as the WGSGN and the date, there are no known works by Donato on teaching Royal Matritense Academy (Real Academia Matritense) to mineralogy, but a manuscript with Donato’s classroom which Donato García belonged. As head of the exhibition notes, found in the General Archive of Palace (Archivo in the mineralogical halls of the RGHN in Madrid, Donato General de Palacio, Madrid, AGP), contributes to our was familiar with the collections of the Natural History knowledge of this documentary source and allows us to Trade House in Hanau. The incorporation of specimens delve deeper into the teaching practices of Donato. The for exhibition, teaching and chemical analysis was a lessons registered at the AGP have been compared with a regular practice for the professor. Testimony of purchases later publication, “Lecciones de Mineralogía”, published is detailed in the manuscript from the AGP. The scarce by Cisneros y Lanuza (1843). documentary sources related to Donato and the absence of publications by the professor, perhaps due to his excessive modesty (Anonymous 1851: p. 389), have thus far impeded Historical Context extending our knowledge of his mineralogy teachings. The recent discovery of the AGP manuscript and related Up to the mid-nineteenth century, geology, mineralogy, and research work provides new data. mining teaching took place in several Spanish institutions: the Almadén School of Mines (Escuela de Minas de Almadén); the Vergara Seminar (Seminario de Vergara); Professor Donato García the Royal Asturian Institute of Nautical and Mineralogy (Real Instituto Asturiano de Naútica y Mineralogía); and Donato García Negueruela was born in Ábalos (La Rioja, the RGHN, later called the Royal Natural Science Museum Spain) on December 12, 1779, although his birth was (Real Museo de Ciencias Naturales or RMCN; González erroneously attributed to a later date. His father, Santiago Lodeiro 2016). While Europe experienced great economic García Tejerizo (1753–1812), was a medical doctor at the and social development, Spain was more focused on royal hospitals (Real Inclusa) in Madrid, as well as a full mining. The RGHN was established with funds provided member of the Royal Medical Matritense Academy and by merchant Pedro Franco Dávila (Barreiro 1944), which Associate Professor of the Royal Bascongada Society. proved insufficient, and the project came to an end (Montero In this fruitful atmosphere, Donato García grew up in and Diéguez 1998). Political instability, especially during contact with several scientific institutions of the time, the Liberal Triennium (Rújula and Frasquet 2020) and the such as the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid (Real Jardín following decade (Antigüedad del Castillo Olivares and Botánico; Lagasca et al. 1802); after passing the botanical Alzaga Ruiz 2011), meant frequent changes of government exams, his interest in mineralogy led him to the RGHN and a waning interest in science (Calatayud Arinero 2002). (Pelayo 2023). Eventually Donato took over the direction Still, Donato maintained contact with the intellectual circle of the Botanical Garden of Tenerife, with a stay in the of his time, and they continued to acquire and exhibit Church of the Canary Islands (Spain). But his interest minerals for didactic purposes. in mineralogy led him to study with Professor Christian Meanwhile, the European centres of reference for Herrgen at the RGHN. Soon he became an assistant mineralogy were in Germany and France, e.g. the professor and then vice-rector in 1815. When Herrgen Wetterauische German Society for the General Study died, Donato took over his post. In 1824 he was appointed of Nature (Wetterauische Gesellschaft für die Gesamte director of the Board of Directors of the RGHN (Espasa Naturkunde: WGSGN) established in 1808 in Hanau File of appointment of Academics 1835–1837 of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Madrid—Archive of the Royal Academy of Donation of 220 minerals from the RGHN for the teaching of civil Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Spain engineering students in 1840 Diocesan Historical Archive of Logroño: Libro 3, folio 308 v. Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando: RABASF: Le-1– [283v.] 40-7 ARJBM. Sig. I-22–6-4 AGP, Infante Don Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4. Madrid (Spain) ACN0179-001 Archive of MNCN-CSIC 1 3 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 Page 5 of 9 81 1924, t. XXV; p. 758). The suspicion of being pro-French notes are handwritten and describe sixty-seven lessons, each conditioned his career. Yet the Museum Protection Board dated at the beginning of the lesson. Also included are addi- interceded to his aid, recognising his valuable work as tions made to the mineralogy course of 1824 to 1825, that professor of mineralogy. of 1825 to 1826, and 1827 to 1828, the latest date being In 1821, Donato was named a member of the San Fernando April 1828. Corrections, crossings out, and markings are Academy of Fine Arts (Academia de las Nobles Artes de San frequent in the documents from lesson 1 (Fig. 1) to 59, in Fernando) and of the Royal Matritense Academy in the Natural which the content about mineralogy is the same as in the Science section, an institution established in Madrid in 1734 to AGP manuscript. Lessons 60 to 67 deal with geognosy, fos- promote research in Natural History (Sánchez Granjel 2006), sils, and meteorites. and he became a corresponding member in the Medicine Academy of Murcia (Academia de Medicina de Murcia). In addition, Donato García was appointed Numerary Academician Mineralogy Lessons (the AGP Manuscript) of the Royal Academy of Science (Real Academia de Ciencias or RAC, Madrid), one of 18 scientists appointed by royal The unpublished document located in AGP (Fig. 2) on designation who in turn elected another 18 to conform the r fi st display refers to the lessons given in the 1824–1825 aca- 36 members of this Corporation (Bolado Somolinos 2012). demic year under the title “Mineralogy lessons explained This appointment was made by Royal Order on 4 March 1847, by Donato García at the Royal Cabinet of Natural His- days after launching the institution on 25 February. tory in Madrid” (Lecciones de mineralogia explicadas por Throughout his career, Donato conducted research in Donato Garcia en el Real Gabinete de Historia Natural de mineralogy in Spain (Ordaz 1978) and participated in a Madrid). The manuscript is unsigned and makes no refer- commission for collecting geological knowledge about ence to authorship. The mineralogy lessons explained in the the soil of Madrid and elsewhere in Spain. Furthermore, course that began on December 17, 1824, contains 59 les- through his e fi ld work, he formed or contributed to numerous sons. Furthermore, the manuscript has a chapter dedicated collections, and he classified the one sent from America by to mineral analysis, guidelines for the order of collections, Malespina (Espasa 1924, t. XXV; p. 758). Some collections and a synoptic table of permanent gases. were donated to other institutions. He advised archaeologists The lessons begin with an introduction to mineralogy, given his knowledge of mineralogy. In the middle of 1840s featuring a description of physical, chemical, and empirical and the early 1850s, he taught botany and mineralogy at the characters. This is followed by a description of minerals: the Central University of Madrid, until his retirement. The final forms and their characterization, properties, and curiosities years of his life were lived in Madrid, on a street named La in general. Firstly, it deals with different classes by anionic Corredera Baja de San Pablo; he died there in 1855. groups, and then, Donato establishes four classes in which Donato García did not live to witness the creation and all minerals are distributed: oxides (free or combined), distribution of academic medals (around 1856). He was metallic oxides (earths and alkalis), metals, and fuels. He succeeded as Academician by Felipe Naranjo y Garza uses the classifications proposed by Werner (Werner 1787, (1809–1877), who was therefore the first holder of medal 33 1792) and Haüy (Haüy 1801, 1809, 1822) as priority models. (Dupont 1857). For this reason, the number 33 is also conceded The guidelines for the order of collections describe the to Donato in recognition of his significance (Real Academia de circumstances governing their purchase. Two collections Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de España 2023). were commissioned: one is dedicated to oryctognosy (mineralogical collection) and consists of eight hundred pieces three inches long and the other to Geognosy The Mineralogical Notes of José Musso y (geological collection), comprising one hundred and Valiente (the Musso Manuscript) fifty pieces, four inches long. The dimensions of both collections suggest they were intended as hand specimens Documents in connection with the notes of José Musso y for practical classes. The order was placed at the National Valiente (The Musso manuscript) and his studies in min- History Trade House in Hanau, mentioned above. The eralogy are preserved in the Municipal Archive of Lorca price of the first was 720 francs and that of the second (Archivo Municipal de Lorca, Murcia, Spain, AML). The 96 francs. In addition, guidelines were established for Blake Donation, Legajo 3C, Military General Archive of Madrid: AGP, Infante Don Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4. Madrid AGMM (Spain) Semanario Pintoresco Español 26/03/1843, nº 13, p. 97 Ibid, “Circunstancias que deberan tenerse presentes para el pedido AML. Fondo Casa de Guevara. Originales. Caja nº 1 de la colección” 1 3 81 Page 6 of 9 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 the documentation of the collection. The specimens were Donato García’s Contributions marked and associated with a catalogue, with the names of the minerals and the corresponding localities, in French Based on the discovery of the AGP manuscript, the or English. Donato specifies in the document “guideline students corresponding to academic year 1824–1825 have for order of collections” that the catalogue be written in been identified. His student José Musso y Valiente is a French and Spanish, but not in German (most scientists figure of reference in the investigation of contributions by in those days being familiar with the French language). Donato to the RGHN during the 1820s and 1830s. The The collections travelled from the Spanish Embassy in location of the autobiographical diary of José Musso Saxony to the Spanish Embassy in Paris and finally to the in the Municipal Archive of Calasparra (Murcia, AMC) Spanish State Secretariat. The method of acquisition of moreover enabled us to analyse and connect functions of both collections was by purchase. Donato García at the RGHN with his teaching, divulgation, During this course, the lessons were followed by 18 stu- and exhibition roles. In particular, the diary of José Musso dents, including José Musso y Valiente (Molina Martínez y Valiente reflects the years 1829 to 1834 and the years 2004). The lessons were public, and listeners could attend 1836 and 1837. The diary is organised by years, months, without prior registration (Fabre 2004). and days, having booklets that include a table of contents and a description of each day. José Musso y Valiente also wrote a memorial of his life—a common practice in his The Lessons of Donato García by Antonio time—whose original and a copy thereof are preserved María Cisneros y Lanuza (Molina Martínez 2004; p.57). On 13 September 1836, José Musso y Valiente This publication contains seventy-three lessons. The lessons describes a meeting with his teacher (Donato García) in of Donato García by Cisneros y Lanuza (1843) are based on Madrid (Spain). In his diary, he reveals that Donato had the mineral classification of Haüy, in view of the external organised the RGHN mineralogical exhibition according morphology and structure of minerals. This method was also to system of Haüy because it was established throughout used in the mineral exhibition at the RGHN. Europe and proved superior to the first edition by The professor recommends considering the systems Abbé (Haüy 1801, 1822), highlighting crystallography published by Werner, Bruner, Haufman, Berzelius, as a separate branch of the science. The reception and and Beudant (Cisneros y Lanuza 1843; p. 67). assimilation of new concepts in the understanding of Lesson seventy-one describes the four main mineral European mineralogy and crystallography produce a classifications, considering (1) external characters, radical change in his teachings. (2) chemical composition, (3) external characters as In turn, the AGP and the Musso manuscripts have been well as chemical composition, and (4) properties and compared, in light of the posterior publication of Cisneros y structure of the crystalline form. The following lesson Lanuza (1843). Whereas the Musso manuscript contains the establishes relationships and limitations with regard to complete course of mineralogy lessons (c. 1825), the AGP mineral classifications. The discovery of isomorphic and manuscript is incomplete. Both have been cross-checked and polymorphic minerals conditioned the use of classification coincide from lessons 1 to 59. However, the Musso manu- systems based only on external morphology (Cisneros script has numerous crossed-out and corrected notes, and the y Lanuza 1843; Pelayo López and Gozalo Gutiérrez AGP document is a clean copy. 2012). Haüy rejected the notion of isomorphism, a notion Although the AGP manuscript does not record supported by Beudant and Berzelius (Berzelius 1826; authorship anywhere in the document, research suggests Beudant 1826, 1830). By 1830, the mineral classification that the lecture notes of Donato García referred to by by Beudant was based on crystallographic characters and Molina Martínez (2004; p.466) are those found in the some chemical aspects; 3 years later, Brogniart proposed AGP. Accordingly, José Musso y Valiente attended the a distribution table of mixed mineral species from a mineralogical lessons of Donato during the academic more chemical standpoint (Pelayo López and Gozalo course 1825 and successively until 1829, actively Gutiérrez 2012). Donato mentioned Mohs in the context participating in the classes. José Musso y Valiente wrote of his mineral classification based exclusively on external the lessons, after which then Donato García corrected them morphology and Bresdorf for developing a classification (Molina Martínez 2004) and updated them (Figs. 1 and 2). based on crystalline forms and atomic composition. Ibid. Fondo Valle de San Juan, Sección Murcia, Diarios José Musso, ACN0176-021, MNCN—CSIC Municipal Archive of Calasparra: AMC 1 3 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 Page 7 of 9 81 Even though the Musso manuscript only holds additions Haüy is manifested in the third decade of the nineteenth to the lessons up to April 1828, we suggest the possibility century. Until now it was believed that in mineralogy, the that several courses were devoted to improving the lessons classification system of Werner prevailed in Spain until preserved in the AGP. 1845, explaining in greater detail and therefore preferable for In addition, a handwriting study was performed. beginners (Gomis Blanco 1988). These findings shed new Graphological analysis of the AGP manuscript does not light on the inception of Crystallography in Spain, however. rule out the participation of a single person (a frequent Some of the most significant changes are related to the circumstance due to the use of amanuensis), but the teaching and organisation of the RGHN halls by Donato. writing appears more ornamental in the first lessons and The halls are partially described by José Musso y Valiente is simplified as the lessons progress (Ladrón de Guevara and led to the acquisition of new collections. The mineral Guerrero, pers. comm., November 2021). In parallel, the collection of the RMCN was enriched by donations, Donato lessons from academic year 1825 (the AGP and exchanges, or purchases (Calatayud Arinero 2002). Most Musso manuscripts) were analysed, with organisation acquisitions came from Europe and attest to the evolution and classification of the minerals that the professor that mineralogy was undergoing: the intellectual network describes. While his predecessor, Christian Herrgen—a of the time was fluid and facilitated the consolidation disciple of the school of Abraham Gottlob Werner—based of collections under sound criteria. Moreover, the his lessons on the treatise by Johann Friedrich Wilhelm collaboration of scientific societies (e.g. Royal Matritense Widenmann (1764–1798; Widenmann 1797), it is clear Academy or WGSGN with the Natural History Museum from the manuscript of the lessons that Donato envisaged of Paris ) could have contributed to Donato Garcia’s a classification halfway between those of Werner and the knowledge of scientific novelties and the approach by Haüy French school. and regarding the mineral trade. In the guidelines for the Two decades later, a printed text on public lessons of order of collections at the Natural History Trade House Donato García (Cisneros y Lanuza 1843) was published in Hanau, a specimen (Apophyllite) and an ancient label to make up for the lack of a proper mineralogy handbook. were found at the National Museum of Natural Science Notwithstanding the existence of the manuscript describ- (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales: MNCN, Madrid, ing course 1825, Cisneros y Lanuza (1843) asserts that Spain). These collections would be managed for education there were no further complete notes by other disciples of and exhibitions. Donato García. Hence, he was not aware of the record of these mineralogy lessons from the AGP manuscript. When comparing the AGP manuscript and the Conclusions lessons of Cisneros y Lanuza (1843), an evolution in the discipline of mineralogy of Donato is evident. Whereas the Professor Donato García took in new discoveries in the lessons from AGP use a chemical classification based on field of mineralogy and was responsible for disseminating anionic groups, as proposed by Werner and Haüy, in the the crystallographic system put forth by Haüy, in the publication of Cisneros y Lanuza (1843), Donato classified 1830s, both in the context of teaching and in exhibition at the minerals following the system of Haüy. He also notes the RGHN. During his long career, he firmly established that the mineralogical cabinets of Madrid and Paris were the Haüy system as a reference in his lessons and arranged according to Haüy’s crystallographic system exhibitions, although he was no stranger to accepting other (Cisneros y Lanuza 1843; p. 67). The interest in suggesting mineral classifications. His teaching practices contributed bibliographical sources in relation to different proposals to the development of Spanish mineralogy and encouraged for mineral classifications responds to the fact that Donato the interest of many pupils with professional projection. was aware of the complexity of classification systems. This outstanding professor promoted the acquisition of Despite Haüy’s rejection of the notion of isomorphism, collections for his practical classes and for the RGHN. his mineral classification dominated in Europe during the The material preserved at the MNCN evidences the second decade of the nineteenth century. acquisition of specimens from Hanau (Germany) and Comparing the lessons of courses 1825 and 1843 (Cisneros y Lanuza 1843) in view of the autobiographical Fondo Valle de San Juan, Sección Murcia, Diarios José Musso, diary preserved in the AMC, the process of assimilation of AMC the European trend imposed by crystallographic system of [Diplômes de sociétés savantes étrangères],1776–1833, feuillets manuscrits, fonds Jussieu, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Ms Jus 21 / 10 © Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 24 27 AGP, Infante Don Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4. Madrid AGP, Infante Don Gabriel y sucesores, Anexo, legajo 4. Madrid (Spain) (Spain) 1 3 81 Page 8 of 9 Geoheritage (2023) 15:81 Antigüedad del Castillo-Olivares MD, Alzaga Ruiz A (2011) Colecci- sheds light on the pedagogical and museum methods used ones, expolio, museos y mercado artístico en España en los siglos by this naturalist over his long career. The localization and XVIII y XIX. Editorial Universitaria Ramon Areces, Madrid study of two unpublished documents related with Donato Barreiro AJ (1944) El Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Con- García’s mineralogy lessons (c. 1825) from the Municipal sejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales “José Acosta”, Madrid Archive of Lorca (the Musso manuscript) and the General Berzelius J (1826) Des Changemens dans le systeme de Minéralogie Archive of Palace (the AGP manuscript) provide new chimique, qui doivent nécessairement résulter de la propriété que information about his role in the Royal Cabinet of Natural possedent les corps isomorphes, de se remplacer mutuellement History. The notes of José Musso y Valiente and the en proportions indefinies. Annales De Chimie Et De Physique 31:5–37 memorial of his life come to reinforce the idea that the Beudant FS (1826) Sur la Classification des substances minérales. AGP manuscript would be the first authentic record of Annales de chimie et de physique 31:181–205 and 225–243 Donato García to date and one of the first attempts to Beudant FS (1830) Traité élémentaire de minéralogie. París, Chez Ver- create a handbook of mineralogy in Spanish. diere, 2ª ed. 2 vols Bolado Somolinos JM (2012) Ciento diecisiete años de enseñanza de Acknowledgements This work has been possible thanks to the com- la Geología en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Cen- ments and suggestions of an anonymous reviewer and the team of tral/Complutense de Madrid (1857-1974). Facultad de Ciencias editors who have contributed to improving the final version of the Geológicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid manuscript. Also, to Cristiano Ferraris, curator of the mineralogy Calatayud Arinero MA (2002) Catálogo crítico de los documentos collections of the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris and del Real Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid (1816–1845). Aurelio Nieto Codina and Javier García Guinea for the access to the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid material in the MNCN. Professor Alberto Gomis Blanco for provid- Cisneros y Lanuza AM (1843) Lecciones de mineralogía. Imprenta ing some documentary sources and Ilmo. Sr. D. Javier Ladrón de nacional, Madrid Guevara Guerrero by handwriting diagnosis. Also, thanks to Enrique Dupont P (1857) Revue des Sociétés Savantes. Imprimerie nationale, Díaz Martínez for making his project's remnant funds available for Paris, Vol. 2 the review of the English text and to the staff of the AGP, Archivo of Espasa J (1924) Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada europeo-ameri- MNCN-CSIC, AML, AMC, AGMS, AGMM, ARSEMAP, Diocesan cana. J Espasa é hijos (ed.) t. XXV, p 758 Historical Archive of Logroño (La Rioja, Spain), and Bibliothèque Fabre MG (2004) Aportación científica del ingeniero de minas centrale du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Transnational D. Casiano de Prado y Vallo (1797–1866) en su contexto Access—Synthesys + Grant (FR-TAF_Call3_033). histórico. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Funding Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC Gomis Blanco A (1988) Las ciencias naturales en España en el siglo agreement with Springer Nature. XIX (1833–1874): morfología, fisiología y sistemática. PhD The- sis collections Complutense University editorial 186/89. Madrid González Lodeiro F (2016) La enseñanza y la investigación en Cien- Declarations cias de la Tierra en la Universidad de Granada hasta la creación de las enseñanzas de Geología. Discurso para el acto de su recep- Ethics Approval The authors declare they have complied with all ethi- ción como académico numerario de la Academia de Ciencias cal responsibilities. Matemáticas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales de Granada. Unpub- lished document Conflict of Interest The authors declare no competing interests. Haüy RJ (1801) Traite de Mineralogie, vol. 1–5. 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Geoheritage – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2023
Keywords: Mineralogical collections; Geological heritage; Haüy; José Musso y Valiente; Mineralogy
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