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Bolte et al. Annals of Forest Science (2023) 80:7 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13595-022-01172-6 Annals of Forest Science Open Access EDITORIAL Forest adaptation and restoration under global change 1* 2 3 4 5 Andreas Bolte , Stephanie Mansourian , Palle Madsen , Mercy Derkyi , Michael Kleine and 3,6 John Stanturf Forests and forest landscapes, characterised by dominant been lost between 2015 and 2020 (FAO and UNEP 2020) forest areas with other embedded land uses, fulfil mul - and an even larger amount is estimated to be degraded. tiple essential ecosystem services (ES). These include (i) Environmental and climate changes are rapidly altering provisioning services such as the provision of food, raw the growth, survival, and regeneration conditions for for- materials, freshwater and medicinal resources; (ii) regu- est ecosystems with direct and dramatic impacts on 3.2 lating services such as carbon sequestration and stor- billion people, in particular the most vulnerable (IPBES age for climate protection, regulation of the landscape Land degradation assessment collaboration 2018). Tropi- water cycling and climate, moderation of extreme events cal forests, for example, are home to over two-thirds of and natural hazards; (iii) cultural services for recreation, the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity and they are facing sig- mental and physical health, tourism, and aesthetic, cul- nificant threats from human activities as well as climate tural and spiritual experiences, as well as (iv) supporting change (Gardner et al. 2009). With this, forests and forest services for preserving biodiversity (Hassan et al. 2005). landscapes may lose their characteristic structural and For rural populations, forests are often the basis for their ecological features, and societies worldwide face dimin- social identity, livelihoods, and the local economy. Forest ishing levels of ecosystem services provided by forest landscapes are social-ecological systems shaped by mul- landscapes. u Th s, along with the preservation of intact tiple influences and they play an outstanding role, con - forest landscapes, forest adaptation and restoration are tributing to all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) needed to prevent the continued global loss of ecosystem (Mansourian 2018, Fig. 1). services and biodiversity, so that forest landscapes can However, forest landscapes are under pressure with the meet the ecological, economic, and societal challenges loss of forest areas by conversion to other land uses and due to global change. degradation of existing forests, and reduced biodiver- In this topical collection Forest Adaptation and Res- sity. An estimated 10 million hectares of forest area have toration under Global Change, we present nine papers covering a wide spectrum of topics, with three articles illustrating the scope, contexts, concepts, and chal- This article is an Editorial for a Topical Collection on Forest Adaptation and lenges of forest adaptation and restoration in general, on Restoration under Global Change. a transcontinental or global scale (Spathelf et al. 2018, *Correspondence: Stanturf et al. 2019, Jandl et al. 2019). Another six papers Andreas Bolte firstname.lastname@example.org discuss aspects of adaptation and restoration in different Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, Eberswalde, Germany regions of the world (Europe: Chakraborty et al. 2019, Mansourian.org and University of Geneva, Crassier, Switzerland Paul et al. 2019, Jandl et al. 2018; Asia: Hai et al. 2020, InNovaSilva, Vejle, Denmark University of Energy and Natural Resources, Sunyani, Ghana and Australia: Harper et al. 2019). Most of these papers International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Vienna, Austria result from collaborations in the global networks on For- Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia est adaptation and restoration under global change, and © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Bolte et al. Annals of Forest Science (2023) 80:7 Page 2 of 4 Fig. 1 Forested landscapes as multidisciplinary spaces contributing to all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (modified from Mansourian 2018) the following one on Transforming forest landscapes for The paper of Jandl et al. (2019) considers the strategy future climate and human well-being. Both networks of non-management and of the reliance solely on natu- were constituted as a Task Force (TF) within the Interna- ral forest dynamics as an optimal approach for adapting tional Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), forests to climate change. Based on a thorough consid- an entity formed by 15,000 scientists of 650 participating eration of evidence from different forest types in the tem - organisations in 120 countries worldwide (IUFRO 2022). perate zone of central Europe and northern America, the authors illustrate the limitations of non-management for 1 Forest adaptation and restoration—concepts, most of the forest types considered. These limitations challenges, and solutions stem from long-term historic practices and management Spathelf et al. (2018) demonstrate that the concep- of forests with low intrinsic short-term adaptive capacities. tual merging of Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) at They conclude that relying solely on natural mechanisms the landscape scale with Adaptive Forest Management and continuation of traditional management are risky, and (AFM) on the stand scale provide an integrative approach they recommend Adaptive Forest Management (AFM). for conserving, adapting, and restoring forest ecosystems. Stanturf et al. (2019) discuss implementation pathways The separation of forest adaptation from the approaches of Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) according to the of (functional) forest restoration in parts of temperate ambitious global FLR goals of the Bonn Challenge Ini- and boreal Europe and North America (cf. Höhl et al. tiative and the New York Declaration on Forests. Based 2020) is mainly based on cultural and educational barri- on 17 case studies from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, ers rather than on biophysical variation. The integrative they demonstrate the overwhelming importance of build- Adaptive Measure (AM) approach presented in Spathelf ing the capacity of local practitioners and stakeholders. et al. (2018) can overcome these barriers and help to Forest landscapes and their local populations are com- streamline and focus existing concepts of forest adapta- plex socio-ecological systems that require context-spe- tion and restoration. The approach also makes more use cific, not one-size-fits-all solutions. Stanturf et al. (2017, of the ability of ecosystems in the future to self-organize 2019) offer project cycle management as an effective, and adapt to changing environmental conditions instead adaptive, and iterative framework for planning, imple- of attempting to restore to a previous historical state. menting, and monitoring forest landscape restoration. B olte et al. Annals of Forest Science (2023) 80:7 Page 3 of 4 product and providing funds for forest management in 2 Forest adaptation and management solutions the watersheds. for Central Europe Hai et al. provide an overview of the recent man- The options and limitations of species and provenance grove restoration activities in Vietnam of more than introductions for forest adaptation in Austria is shown 200,000 ha. Though impressive in area, the authors by Chakraborty et al. (2019) using the North American identify several project failures due to poor site and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as an example. They species selection and lack of incentives to engage local analysed 19 provenance trials across Austria and mod- residents in the long-term management of the restored elled the effect of early and late frost on the survival rates areas. By focussing on mangroves’ functioning and of seedlings that depended on site conditions and prov- adopting monitoring and reporting procedures that enance origin. No frost limitation was found for Douglas include local stakeholders, a more robust approach for fir provenances from the transition zone from Pacific to future mangrove restoration is achievable. continental climates in north-western North America; thus, provenance selection for forest adaptation may fol- 4 Lessons to learn for future work on forest low productivity, but early and late frost limitations for adaptation and restoration Douglas fir in general should be considered according to Forest restoration and related forest adaptation are key local site conditions. contributions to mitigating climate change and help- Jandl et al. (2018) present results of a modelling study ing ecosystems and societies to adapt to future condi- focussed on standing timber volume and carbon stock tions. Thus, the United Nations (UN) have declared this dynamics of protected high elevation cembrian pine decade 2021–2030 as the UN Decade on Ecosystem (Pinus cembra) forests at the timber line in Austria. They Restoration (United Nation [UN] 2020). Tremendous studied possible profitable timber production in the face efforts have been made worldwide to restore ecosys - of climate warming and increasing productivity. Accord- tems, including forest landscapes in particular driven ing to different climate and management scenarios as and supported by the Bonn Challenge and the New well as government subsidy effects, the optimal solution York Declaration on Forests with pledges to date total- was to leave the cembrian pine forests unmanaged. ling 210 Mio. ha for restoration (https:// www. bonnc In a combined empirical and modelling study Paul halle nge. org/ progr ess), and even greater efforts beyond et al. (2019) look at the economic effect of altered sur - these initiatives (Stanturf and Mansourian 2020). vival probabilities in group-mixed and block-wise pure However, there are still many challenges to be considered Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus and questions to be answered in order to implement sylvatica) stands in Germany. They found that opti - forest adaptation and restoration as well as to sustain the mal tree species mixes under simulated climate change processes. The following aspects are relevant: effects could buffer but not completely mitigate undesir - able economic consequences. The higher survival rates and economic overperformance of mixed stands, how- (1) Collaboration among researchers, decision makers, ever, support existing subsidy schemes and concepts in and practitioners Germany for forest transformation from pure to mixed (2) Capacity building in regions and localities to be stands with Norway spruce and European beech. restored (3) Integration of all relevant ecosystem services, and 3 Reappraising forest management and mangrove the demands of local populations restoration in Asia and Australia (4) Fair participation with and within (local) stake- The review paper of Harper et al. (2019) highlights the holder groups interaction of (restored) forest cover and water supply in (5) Targeted communication to raise awareness the Perth region (western Australia) under ongoing cli- (6) Long-term financing of restoration and following mate change. Effects of deforestation and forest restora - management tion on water quantity and quality, in particular salinity, (7) Governance that ensures fair, equitable, and repre- are presented and discussed. Effects of growing popula - sentative decision-making processes tion and decreasing precipitation in the region urge an (8) Long-term monitoring and reporting of restoration integrative forest and water management approach to processes and subsequent adaptive management protect the ecological integrity and biodiversity of the forests in the region and to meet the growing water sup- Forest restoration and adaptation are long-term ply demand of the population in the Perth region. As a activities, requiring decades or even centuries. Today’s solution, the authors suggest considering water as a forest authorities and people fostering restoration activities Bolte et al. Annals of Forest Science (2023) 80:7 Page 4 of 4 IUFRO (IUFRO) The organization (Available online: https:// www. iufro. org/ disco will be replaced by those coming from the next gen- ver/ organ izati on/ Accessed on 17 Oct 2022) erations. Therefore, restoration as a social rather than a Jandl N, Jandl R, Schindlbacher A (2018) Future management options for cem- strictly technical challenge must include long-term edu- bran pine forests close to the alpine timberline. Ann for Sci 75:81. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 018- 0760-4 cation programs and socio-cultural shifts over several Jandl R, Spathelf P, Bolte A, Prescott C (2019) Forest adaptation to climate generations. change—is non-management an option? Ann for Sci 76:48. https:// doi. The editors and authors hope that the audience of org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 019- 0827-x Mansourian S (2018) In the eye of beholder: reconciling interpretations of Annals of Forest Science will appreciate the content of forest landscape restoration. Land Degrad Dev 29(9):2888–2898. https:// this topical collection. doi. org/ 10. 1002/ ldr. 3014 Paul C, Brandl S, Friedrich S, Falk W, Härtl F, Knoke T (2019) Climate change and Acknowledgements mixed forests: how do altered survival probabilities impact economically The editorial is an activity within the work of IUFRO Task Force 31 Forest Adap- desirable species proportions of Norway spruce and European beech? tation and Restoration under Global Change and Task Force 45 Transforming Ann for Sci 76:14. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 018- 0793-8 Forest Landscapes for Future Climates and Human Well-Being. We acknowledge Spathelf P, Stanturf J, Kleine M, Jandl R, Chiatante D, Bolte A (2018) Adaptive the TF members for the inspiring discussions. measures: integrating adaptive forest management and forest landscape restoration. Ann for Sci 75:55. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 018- 0736-4 Authors’ contributions Stanturf JA, Mansourian S (2020) Forest landscape restoration: state of play. Conceptualization: Andreas Bolte and John Stanturf. Writing: all authors. The Royal Society Open Science 7:201218. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1098/ rsos. authors read and approved the final manuscript. Stanturf JA, Kleine M, Mansourian S, Parrotta J, Madsen P, Kant P, Burns J, Bolte A (2019) Implementing forest landscape restoration under the Bonn Declarations Challenge: a systematic approach. Ann for Sci 76:50. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 019- 0833-z Ethics approval and consent to participate Stanturf JA, Kleine M, Mansourian S (eds) (2017) Implementing Forest Land- The authors declare that they follow the rules of good scientific practice. scape Restoration, A Practitioner‘s Guide. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Special Programme for Development of Capaci- Consent for publication ties (IUFRO-SPDC). IUFRO, Vienna, Austria, p 128 All authors gave their informed consent to this publication and its content. United Nations [UN] (2020) Preventing, halting and reversing the degradation of ecosystems worldwide (Available online at: https:// www. decad eonre Competing interests stora tion. org/. Accessed on 17 Oct 2022) The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- lished maps and institutional affiliations. References Chakraborty D, Matulla C, Andre K, Weissenbacher L, Schüler WL (2019) Survival of Douglas-fir provenances in Austria: site-specific late and early frost events are more important than provenance origin. Ann for Sci 76:100. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 019- 0883-2 FAO and UNEP (2020) The State of the World’s Forests 2020. Forests, biodiver- sity and people, Rome, Italy, p 214. https:// doi. org/ 10. 4060/ ca864 2enFAO ([Food and Agriculture Organisation]) Gardner TA, Barlow J, Chazdon R, Ewers RM, Harvey CA, Peres CA, Sodhi NS (2009) Prospects for tropical forest biodiversity in a human-modified world. Ecol Lett 12(6):561–582. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1111/j. 1461- 0248. 2009. 01294.x Hai N, Dell B, Phuong V, Harper RJ (2020) Towards a more robust approach for the restoration of mangroves in Vietnam. Ann for Sci 77:18. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 020- 0921-0 Harper R, Smettem KRJ, Ruprecht JK, Dell B, Liu N (2019) Forest-water interac- tions in the changing environment of south-western Australia. Ann for Sci 76:95. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s13595- 019- 0880-5 Re Read ady y to to submit y submit your our re researc search h ? Choose BMC and benefit fr ? Choose BMC and benefit from om: : Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Island Press, Washington, DC, Millennium Eco- fast, convenient online submission system Assessment, p 948 thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your ﬁeld Höhl M, Ahimbisibwe V, Stanturf JA, Elsasser P, Kleine N, Bolte A (2020) Forest rapid publication on acceptance Landscape Restoration – what generate failure and success. Forests 11(9):938. https:// doi. org/ 10. 3390/ f1109 0938 support for research data, including large and complex data types IPBES Land degradation assessment collaboration (2018) The IPBES assess- • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations ment report on land degradation and restoration. Intergovernmental maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), Bonn, Germany (Available online: https:// ipbes. net/ policy- suppo rt/ asses At BMC, research is always in progress. sments/ asses sment- report- land- degra dation- resto ration. Accessed on 17 Oct 2022) Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions
Annals of Forest Science – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 3, 2023
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