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Geotechnical damage in the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia

Geotechnical damage in the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia Background: On September 28th, 2018, at 18:02 local time (10:02 UTC), a strong earthquake of magnitude Mw =7. o o 5 struck Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The epicenter was located at 0.256 south latitude and 119.846 east longitude, around 77 km from Palu city, and 20 km below the ground surface. To understand the damage caused by the earthquake, and find a solution to mitigate the geo-disasters in Indonesia, a preliminary investigation on the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake was conducted from 16 to 20 November 2018. This quick report focuses on ground displacements induced by fault movement and large-scale ground flow. Results: During the survey, there is some geotechnical damage were found, such as ground displacement induced by fault movement, liquefaction, landslides, and large-scale ground flow in some certain areas. Large ground displacement was found in some particular areas, such as Kedondong, Pipa Air, Pangeran Diponegoro and Cemara streets in Palu city. The earthquake also triggered large-scale ground flow in some different sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. Conclusions: The locations of large ground displacements appeared at surface coincide well with the estimated fault line. Therefore the large ground displacements were seems to be induced by the fault movement. Large ground flow caused severe damage to not only human but also houses and buildings. The mechanism of the large ground flow should be clarified in near future. Keywords: The 2018Sulawesi earthquake, Large ground flow, Surface faulting Background 10,000 persons injured in three most affected regions On September 28th, 2018, at 18:02 local time (10:02 which are Palu city, Donggala and Sigi villages. UTC), a strong earthquake of magnitude Mw = 7.5 To understand the damage caused by the earthquake, struck Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Figure 1 and find a solution to mitigate the geo-disasters in shows the location of the epicenter. The epicenter was Indonesia, a preliminary investigation on the 2018 o o located at 0.256 south latitude and 119.846 east longi- Sulawesi earthquake was conducted from 16 to 20 No- tude, around 77 km from Palu city, and 20 km below the vember 2018. During the survey, some geotechnical ground surface. This event was preceded by several fore- damages were found, such as ground displacement in- shocks, the largest recorded as Mw = 6.1 and occurred at duced by fault movement, liquefaction, landslides, and 14:59 local time (06:59 UTC), 3 hours earlier of the main large-scale ground flow in some certain areas. This quick shock. Figure 1 also shows MMI estimated by USGS. report focuses on ground displacements induced by fault According to this figure, MMI=IX is estimated at Palu movement and large-scale ground flow. city and higher intensity is along the estimated fault line (see Fig. 3). The casualties were approximately 2256 per- Methodologies and findings sons, more than 1000 persons missing, and around Large ground displacements induced by fault movement Large ground displacements were found in some par- * Correspondence: miyajima@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp ticular areas, such as Kedondong, Pipa Air, Pangeran Kanazawa University, Kakuma-Machi, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture 920 Diponegoro and Cemara streets in Palu city. Figure 2 in- 1192, Japan Full list of author information is available at the end of the article dicates the locations of the large ground displacement © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 2 of 8 Fig. 3 Fault line at surface estimated by USGS (n.d.) slip of the fault itself by USGS. According to this figure, the locations of large ground displacements appeared at Fig. 1 Intensity distribution map with location of the epicenter surface coincide well with the estimated fault line. Therefore, the large ground displacements seem to be found in Palu city. These large ground displacements induced by the fault movement. agree with the fault movement of left lateral slip. Figure 3 Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7 show the ground displacement shows the fault line at surface estimated by USGS (n.d.). triggered by the fault movement in Pangeran Dipone- The epicenters of aftershocks were also indicated in this goro, Cemara, Kedondong and Pipa Air, streets, respect- figure. The legend in this figure indicates the estimated ively. Before the earthquake, these four roads were Fig. 2 Ground displacement induced by fault movement in Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 3 of 8 Fig. 6 Large ground displacement of 4.5m at Kedondong street in Fig. 4 Large ground displacement of 2.7m at Pangeran Diponegoro Palu city street in Palu city before the earthquake is about 3.1%. The ground slope straight. After the earthquake, fault movement triggered before the earthquake was not so large. The cause of this the occurrence of lateral ground displacement and bent phenomenon was reported as soil liquefaction in the the four roads mentioned above. The horizontal dis- local media. Authors agree that the soil liquefaction placements of the four roads are 2.7 m of Pangeran caused the large-scale ground flows but the mechanism Diponegoro street, 3.8 m of Cemara street, 4.5 m of should be clarified by using many geotechnical data in Kedondong street and 5.0 m of Pipa Air street, near future. respectively. Balaroa district in Palu city Large scale ground flow Figure 9 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth The earthquake triggered large-scale ground flow in and some photographs of damage in Balaroa district in some different sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts Palu city. The direction of the large ground flow is in Palu city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. The lo- shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground flow cations large ground flow of Balaroa and Petobo districts occurred from south-west ot north-east. Large ground in Palu city and Jono Oge village, and the direction of settlemnts and large tension cracks appeared at the the ground flow are illustrated in Fig. 8 by using Google upper side of the flow and collasped houses were piled Earth. Table 1 lists the areas and average slopes before up and many houses were buried in the flowed soil at the earthquake of each site of large ground flow esti- the lower side. Balaroa district is a densely populated mated by using a function of Google Earth. A satellite area. This district was reclaimed from a swamp in 1978 photograph of Sibalaya village after the earthquake could not be obtained, so the area of large ground flow cannot be estimated. Average ground slope of Sibalaya village Fig. 5 Large ground displacement of 3.8m at Cemara street in Fig. 7 Large ground displacement of 5.0m at Pipa Air street in Palu city Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 4 of 8 Fig. 8 Locations of large ground flow of Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu city and Jono Oge village and the direction of the ground flow to 1979, then the district was used for residential houses Jono Oge village from 1980. Therefore, the underground water level is Figure 11 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth high. Six hundred people were died of the more than and some photographs of damage in Jono Oge village. 2000 inhabitants, while more are still missing. The area The direction of the large scale ground flow is also affected in Balaroa district was around 380,000m . shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground flow Balaroa housing complex almost disappeared due to the occurred from east to west. Lateral ground flow oc- ground flow. It is reported that around 1700 houses curred as well with the affected area around 180,000m were buried due to lateral ground movement. in Jono Oge village. Most of this area was used for rice field before the event. In this area, at least 34 high school students who joined a bible camp were killed, but it is suspected that many others are dead. Petobo district in Palu city Figure 10 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth and some photographs of damage in Petobo district in Sibalaya Village Palu city. The direction of the large scale ground flow is Figure 12 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth also shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground before the earthquake and some photographs of damage flow occurred from east to west here. The affected area in Sibalaya village. The direction of the large scale was used for residential houses before the event. Similar ground flow is also shown by a yellow arrow in this fig- to Balaroa district, more than 700 houses were severely ure. Sibalaya village is located about 40 km south of Palu destroyed by the ground flow and hundreds of people city. A satellite photograph of Sibalaya village after the died here. The area affected in Petobo district was much earthquake could not be obtained yet. Most of this area larger than Balaroa, which is around 150,000m . was also used for rice field before the event. In this area, only three people were dead due to building collapse. Figure 13 shows the photograph of Sibalaya village taken by a drone after the event. The road and houses moved Table 1 Areas and average slope before the earthquake of each laterally up to about 350 m. Figure 14 shows the same site of large ground flow house before and after the event. What made this Site Area of ground flow (m ) Average slope (%) phenomenon extraordinary is that the moving road and Balaroa 380,000 3.8 some houses only experienced minor damage. The Petobo 1,500,000 2.1 mechanism of the large ground flow should be clarified J ono Oge 1,800,000 1.9 in near future. Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 5 of 8 a1 a3 a4 a1 a3 a2 a3 a2 Fig. 9 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Balaroa district in Palu city b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 b1 Fig. 10 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Petobo district in Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 6 of 8 Fig. 11 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Jono Oge village Conclusion seem to be induced by the fault movement. The earth- The field investigation on the damage induced by the quake also triggered large-scale ground flow in some dif- 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia was conducted ferent sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu from 16 to 20 November 2018 to understand the dam- city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. The ground age caused by the earthquake, and find a solution to slope before the earthquake was not so large. However mitigate the geo-disasters. Large ground displacement affected areas were so large and the distance of flow was was found in some particular areas, such as Kedondong, also large. Therefore, the large ground flow caused se- Pipa Air, Pangeran Diponegoro and Cemara streets in vere damage to not only houses and building but also Palu city. The locations of large ground displacements human. We should collect geological and geotechnical appeared at surface coincide well with the estimated information and the mechanism of the large ground flow fault line. Therefore, the large ground displacements should be clarified in near future. d2 d4 d3 d3 d5 d4 d2 d5 d1 d1 Fig. 12 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Sibalaya village Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 7 of 8 Fig. 13 Photo of Sibalaya village taken by a drone after Earthquake Fig. 14 Location of the moved house in Sibalaya village Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 8 of 8 Acknowledgments Authors would like to show our gratitude to the dean of Engineering Faculty of Tadulako University, Prof. Amar, and vice dean, Dr. Eng. Andi Rusdin and Andi Arham Ph.D., who provided insight, expertise, and sharing their pearls of wisdom with us during the field investigation in Palu city. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 18H01677 and 18H01523. Funding This work was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 18H01677 and 18H01523. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Authors’ contributions MM, HS, MY, YO, KK, ISO, M and I participated in the field investigation. MM, HS MY and YO drafted the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’sNote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Author details Kanazawa University, Kakuma-Machi, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture 920 1192, Japan. Tadulako University, Bumi Tadulako Tondo Campus, Palu City, Central Sulawesi 94118, Indonesia. National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Geshi, Sabae City, Fukui Prefecture 916-8507, Japan. Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori City, Tottori Prefecture 680-8552, Japan. Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Prefecture 804-8550, Japan. Received: 12 February 2019 Accepted: 17 April 2019 Reference USGS (n.d.), M7.5 – 70km N of Palu, Indonesia, https://earthquake.usgs.gov/ earthquakes/eventpage/us1000h3p4/executive. (last visit: 10 Dec. 2018). http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geoenvironmental Disasters Springer Journals

Geotechnical damage in the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 by The Author(s).
Subject
Environment; Environment, general; Earth Sciences, general; Geography, general; Geoecology/Natural Processes; Natural Hazards; Environmental Science and Engineering
eISSN
2197-8670
DOI
10.1186/s40677-019-0121-0
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Abstract

Background: On September 28th, 2018, at 18:02 local time (10:02 UTC), a strong earthquake of magnitude Mw =7. o o 5 struck Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The epicenter was located at 0.256 south latitude and 119.846 east longitude, around 77 km from Palu city, and 20 km below the ground surface. To understand the damage caused by the earthquake, and find a solution to mitigate the geo-disasters in Indonesia, a preliminary investigation on the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake was conducted from 16 to 20 November 2018. This quick report focuses on ground displacements induced by fault movement and large-scale ground flow. Results: During the survey, there is some geotechnical damage were found, such as ground displacement induced by fault movement, liquefaction, landslides, and large-scale ground flow in some certain areas. Large ground displacement was found in some particular areas, such as Kedondong, Pipa Air, Pangeran Diponegoro and Cemara streets in Palu city. The earthquake also triggered large-scale ground flow in some different sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. Conclusions: The locations of large ground displacements appeared at surface coincide well with the estimated fault line. Therefore the large ground displacements were seems to be induced by the fault movement. Large ground flow caused severe damage to not only human but also houses and buildings. The mechanism of the large ground flow should be clarified in near future. Keywords: The 2018Sulawesi earthquake, Large ground flow, Surface faulting Background 10,000 persons injured in three most affected regions On September 28th, 2018, at 18:02 local time (10:02 which are Palu city, Donggala and Sigi villages. UTC), a strong earthquake of magnitude Mw = 7.5 To understand the damage caused by the earthquake, struck Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Figure 1 and find a solution to mitigate the geo-disasters in shows the location of the epicenter. The epicenter was Indonesia, a preliminary investigation on the 2018 o o located at 0.256 south latitude and 119.846 east longi- Sulawesi earthquake was conducted from 16 to 20 No- tude, around 77 km from Palu city, and 20 km below the vember 2018. During the survey, some geotechnical ground surface. This event was preceded by several fore- damages were found, such as ground displacement in- shocks, the largest recorded as Mw = 6.1 and occurred at duced by fault movement, liquefaction, landslides, and 14:59 local time (06:59 UTC), 3 hours earlier of the main large-scale ground flow in some certain areas. This quick shock. Figure 1 also shows MMI estimated by USGS. report focuses on ground displacements induced by fault According to this figure, MMI=IX is estimated at Palu movement and large-scale ground flow. city and higher intensity is along the estimated fault line (see Fig. 3). The casualties were approximately 2256 per- Methodologies and findings sons, more than 1000 persons missing, and around Large ground displacements induced by fault movement Large ground displacements were found in some par- * Correspondence: miyajima@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp ticular areas, such as Kedondong, Pipa Air, Pangeran Kanazawa University, Kakuma-Machi, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture 920 Diponegoro and Cemara streets in Palu city. Figure 2 in- 1192, Japan Full list of author information is available at the end of the article dicates the locations of the large ground displacement © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 2 of 8 Fig. 3 Fault line at surface estimated by USGS (n.d.) slip of the fault itself by USGS. According to this figure, the locations of large ground displacements appeared at Fig. 1 Intensity distribution map with location of the epicenter surface coincide well with the estimated fault line. Therefore, the large ground displacements seem to be found in Palu city. These large ground displacements induced by the fault movement. agree with the fault movement of left lateral slip. Figure 3 Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7 show the ground displacement shows the fault line at surface estimated by USGS (n.d.). triggered by the fault movement in Pangeran Dipone- The epicenters of aftershocks were also indicated in this goro, Cemara, Kedondong and Pipa Air, streets, respect- figure. The legend in this figure indicates the estimated ively. Before the earthquake, these four roads were Fig. 2 Ground displacement induced by fault movement in Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 3 of 8 Fig. 6 Large ground displacement of 4.5m at Kedondong street in Fig. 4 Large ground displacement of 2.7m at Pangeran Diponegoro Palu city street in Palu city before the earthquake is about 3.1%. The ground slope straight. After the earthquake, fault movement triggered before the earthquake was not so large. The cause of this the occurrence of lateral ground displacement and bent phenomenon was reported as soil liquefaction in the the four roads mentioned above. The horizontal dis- local media. Authors agree that the soil liquefaction placements of the four roads are 2.7 m of Pangeran caused the large-scale ground flows but the mechanism Diponegoro street, 3.8 m of Cemara street, 4.5 m of should be clarified by using many geotechnical data in Kedondong street and 5.0 m of Pipa Air street, near future. respectively. Balaroa district in Palu city Large scale ground flow Figure 9 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth The earthquake triggered large-scale ground flow in and some photographs of damage in Balaroa district in some different sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts Palu city. The direction of the large ground flow is in Palu city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. The lo- shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground flow cations large ground flow of Balaroa and Petobo districts occurred from south-west ot north-east. Large ground in Palu city and Jono Oge village, and the direction of settlemnts and large tension cracks appeared at the the ground flow are illustrated in Fig. 8 by using Google upper side of the flow and collasped houses were piled Earth. Table 1 lists the areas and average slopes before up and many houses were buried in the flowed soil at the earthquake of each site of large ground flow esti- the lower side. Balaroa district is a densely populated mated by using a function of Google Earth. A satellite area. This district was reclaimed from a swamp in 1978 photograph of Sibalaya village after the earthquake could not be obtained, so the area of large ground flow cannot be estimated. Average ground slope of Sibalaya village Fig. 5 Large ground displacement of 3.8m at Cemara street in Fig. 7 Large ground displacement of 5.0m at Pipa Air street in Palu city Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 4 of 8 Fig. 8 Locations of large ground flow of Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu city and Jono Oge village and the direction of the ground flow to 1979, then the district was used for residential houses Jono Oge village from 1980. Therefore, the underground water level is Figure 11 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth high. Six hundred people were died of the more than and some photographs of damage in Jono Oge village. 2000 inhabitants, while more are still missing. The area The direction of the large scale ground flow is also affected in Balaroa district was around 380,000m . shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground flow Balaroa housing complex almost disappeared due to the occurred from east to west. Lateral ground flow oc- ground flow. It is reported that around 1700 houses curred as well with the affected area around 180,000m were buried due to lateral ground movement. in Jono Oge village. Most of this area was used for rice field before the event. In this area, at least 34 high school students who joined a bible camp were killed, but it is suspected that many others are dead. Petobo district in Palu city Figure 10 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth and some photographs of damage in Petobo district in Sibalaya Village Palu city. The direction of the large scale ground flow is Figure 12 shows a satellite photograph by Google Earth also shown by a yellow arrow in this figure. The ground before the earthquake and some photographs of damage flow occurred from east to west here. The affected area in Sibalaya village. The direction of the large scale was used for residential houses before the event. Similar ground flow is also shown by a yellow arrow in this fig- to Balaroa district, more than 700 houses were severely ure. Sibalaya village is located about 40 km south of Palu destroyed by the ground flow and hundreds of people city. A satellite photograph of Sibalaya village after the died here. The area affected in Petobo district was much earthquake could not be obtained yet. Most of this area larger than Balaroa, which is around 150,000m . was also used for rice field before the event. In this area, only three people were dead due to building collapse. Figure 13 shows the photograph of Sibalaya village taken by a drone after the event. The road and houses moved Table 1 Areas and average slope before the earthquake of each laterally up to about 350 m. Figure 14 shows the same site of large ground flow house before and after the event. What made this Site Area of ground flow (m ) Average slope (%) phenomenon extraordinary is that the moving road and Balaroa 380,000 3.8 some houses only experienced minor damage. The Petobo 1,500,000 2.1 mechanism of the large ground flow should be clarified J ono Oge 1,800,000 1.9 in near future. Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 5 of 8 a1 a3 a4 a1 a3 a2 a3 a2 Fig. 9 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Balaroa district in Palu city b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 b1 Fig. 10 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Petobo district in Palu city Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 6 of 8 Fig. 11 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Jono Oge village Conclusion seem to be induced by the fault movement. The earth- The field investigation on the damage induced by the quake also triggered large-scale ground flow in some dif- 2018 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia was conducted ferent sites, such as Balaroa and Petobo districts in Palu from 16 to 20 November 2018 to understand the dam- city and Jono Oge and Sibalaya Villages. The ground age caused by the earthquake, and find a solution to slope before the earthquake was not so large. However mitigate the geo-disasters. Large ground displacement affected areas were so large and the distance of flow was was found in some particular areas, such as Kedondong, also large. Therefore, the large ground flow caused se- Pipa Air, Pangeran Diponegoro and Cemara streets in vere damage to not only houses and building but also Palu city. The locations of large ground displacements human. We should collect geological and geotechnical appeared at surface coincide well with the estimated information and the mechanism of the large ground flow fault line. Therefore, the large ground displacements should be clarified in near future. d2 d4 d3 d3 d5 d4 d2 d5 d1 d1 Fig. 12 Satellite photo by Google Earth and some photos of damage in Sibalaya village Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 7 of 8 Fig. 13 Photo of Sibalaya village taken by a drone after Earthquake Fig. 14 Location of the moved house in Sibalaya village Miyajima et al. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2019) 6:1 Page 8 of 8 Acknowledgments Authors would like to show our gratitude to the dean of Engineering Faculty of Tadulako University, Prof. Amar, and vice dean, Dr. Eng. Andi Rusdin and Andi Arham Ph.D., who provided insight, expertise, and sharing their pearls of wisdom with us during the field investigation in Palu city. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 18H01677 and 18H01523. Funding This work was financially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 18H01677 and 18H01523. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Authors’ contributions MM, HS, MY, YO, KK, ISO, M and I participated in the field investigation. MM, HS MY and YO drafted the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher’sNote Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Author details Kanazawa University, Kakuma-Machi, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture 920 1192, Japan. Tadulako University, Bumi Tadulako Tondo Campus, Palu City, Central Sulawesi 94118, Indonesia. National Institute of Technology, Fukui College, Geshi, Sabae City, Fukui Prefecture 916-8507, Japan. Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori City, Tottori Prefecture 680-8552, Japan. Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Prefecture 804-8550, Japan. Received: 12 February 2019 Accepted: 17 April 2019 Reference USGS (n.d.), M7.5 – 70km N of Palu, Indonesia, https://earthquake.usgs.gov/ earthquakes/eventpage/us1000h3p4/executive. (last visit: 10 Dec. 2018).

Journal

Geoenvironmental DisastersSpringer Journals

Published: May 27, 2019

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