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Background: Cooking temperature and consequently doneness of beef muscles are most important for the palatability and consumer acceptability. Current study assessed the response of mechanical texture of Hanwoo muscles as a function of cooking temperature at different ageing days. Six muscles (Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracics (LT), Gluteus medius (GM), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were collected from each 10 Hanwoo steers. Warner-Bratzler WB-shear force (WBSF) and texture profile analysis (TPA) texture profiles were determined after 3 or 21 days of chiller, and randomly assigned to four groups; non-cooked, cooked at 55, 70 or 85 °C. Results: Toughness of WBSF and TPA hardness of Hanwoo muscles were presence in the order of LT = PM = GM = SM < BF = TB (p < 0.001) for non-cooked raw muscle, and PM < LT = GM = SM < TB=BF (p < 0.001) for cooked meat aged for 3 days. WBSF linearly increased in 3 days aged meats after cooked at a higher temperature (P < 0.05). On the other hand, toughening of the muscles were significantly (P < 0.05) differed at various temperature when muscles were aged for 21 days. WBSF of PM and LT muscles were significantly increased at a higher cooking temperature, while other muscles (i.e., GM, SM, BF, TB) showed the lowest values at 70 °C. In the case of TPA hardness, the effect of cooking temperature wasverylessinthe toughnessofthe muscle (P >0.05). Conclusion: Taken together, these findings clearly showed that the toughness of the muscle highly depends and varies upon the temperature and ageing of the muscle. Moreover, the effect of cooking temperature was very limited on aged muscles. The results mirror the importance of cooking temperature for objective measurements which ultimately estimate sensory tenderness and other quality traits. Background components greatly relayed on intrinsic and extrinsic Consumer satisfaction and acceptance of beef steaks is factors such as animal, muscle, pH and the cooking greatly dependent on degree of doneness, as affected by temperature to the structural strength of meat samples. culture and texture property . A large number of pre- More details are further confirmed by fact that muscles vious studies have been reported a significant linkage be- with higher collagen content was tenderized at 45–65 °C tween beef tenderness and degree of doneness [24, 26, 30] and toughened at 65–80 °C, while muscles with lower and also reported that the good quality of meat steaks had collagen was tenderized at 45–55 °C and toughened at less juiciness and higher toughness. The results were most above 55 °C . It seems a fact that connective tissue likely related to the hardening of myofibril component makes the largest contribution to texture in raw meat and shrinkage relation of collagen fibres , as well as the while myofibers make the largest contribution to texture denaturation and/or solubilisation of the meat protein in cooked meat . Similarly, based on the end-point components during heating . cooking temperature for beef longissimus muscle, Yang An early pioneer study  demonstrated that contri- et al.  noted connective tissue component appeared butions of each myofibrillar or/and connective tissue to be highly toughness up to 60 °C of cooking tempera- tures, while myofibrillar components became more im- * Correspondence: email@example.com portant at cooking temperatures. Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Chinzorig and Hwang Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:22 Page 2 of 7 According the national consumer audit , Korean design, these results were prime interesting because pal- beef consumers preferred grilling and roasting of thin atability of cooked beef is greatly influenced by heating sliced steaks. This implies that end-point temperature of process and more importantly that varies depending on cooking, consequently doneness, is greatly important for muscle type . Korea beef grading system includes the palatability and consumer acceptability of beef prod- ‘texture’ as a factor of carcass quality assessment . ucts. Average market turn-over of Hanwoo beef is ap- Although magnitude of the texture factor for the final proximately 14 days, while that has great variation from quality grading is currently very limited, given the updated 1 to 30 days. Meat quality parameters such as intramus- next general of grading scheme, the factor appears to cular fat and collagen content are extremely great be- become very much significant for the final grading. Our tween Hanwoo steers and within Hanwoo muscles . results, at first glance, indicated that cooking process sig- Given this reason, toughness is the most importance fac- nificantly (P < 0.05) increased WBSF and hardness and ele- tor determining acceptability of cooked beef for various vation of toughness by thermal denaturation was greatly type of cooking methods . Recently, Korean govern- affected by muscle type. This was not a surprising, but ra- ment has reviewed the beef grading system to consoli- ther expected. Previous studies for European beef breeds date texture of muscles. As far as we aware that there is suggested that toughening by cooking products were as a no accessible date to understand texture profiles of function of myofibril, connective and fat content . non-cooked Hanwo muscles and their changes at various Values of WBSF of the non-cooked raw muscle were cooking temperature. Given that, the present study is showed in the order of LT = PM = GM = SM < BF = TB designed to assess the response of mechanical texture of (p < 0.001), and hardness for the raw samples showed Hanwoo muscles as a function of cooking temperature similar trends with a simple correlation between these including non-cooked raw meat at different ageing days. two measurements were 0.97. For the cooked muscles at 70 °C after 3 days of chiller ageing, WBSF values were Results and discussion presence in the order of PM < LT = GM = SM < TB=BF Texture profile of non-cooked meats for various muscle type (p < 0.001) with a similar tendency of hardness values Prediction and/or estimation of texture traits for the (r = 0.87). The tenderness of Hanwoo muscle obtained in cooked meats from not-cooked raw muscle is greatly im- the present study are correlated with previous reports portant to design and optimizes processes, and ultim- studied in Hanwoo muscles  and Angus and Brahman ately to achieve certain textural characteristics. The breeds . In these observation and comparisons, there current analysis focused on the effect of cooking on are two important findings should be taken for count mechanical texture profile for various muscles. Objective is that the magnitude of the toughening by heating mechanical measurements of non-cooked raw meat and process was more great at the hardness assessment and cooked at 70 °C Hanwoo muscles after chiller aged for WBSF. The second findings is the in toughness by the 3 days are showed in Table 1. At the first experimental heating process was more significant (P <0.05) for tougher Table 1 Least square means of WBSF and TPA texture profiles for six Hanwoo steer muscles of raw meat and cooked at 70 °C after aged for 3 days ǂ Ψ Muscles WBSF(kgf) Hardness(kgf) Springiness Cohesiveness Chewiness Raw Cooked Raw Cooked Raw Cooked Raw Cooked Raw Cooked bY cX cbY cX aX dY b aX cY PM 2.87 3.99 2.47 4.22 1.04 0.49 0.01 0.01 0.16 0.00 bY bX cY bX c cb Y abX b c LT 2.74 4.30 2.09 5.86 0.69 0.74 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.02 bY bX cbY abX abcX cY b ab bc GM 3.25 4.56 2.91 6.13 0.93 0.70 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.08 bY bX bY abX ab b Y aX ab b SM 4.01 5.06 3.19 6.50 0.98 0.85 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.24 aY aX aY aX a a Y aX aY aX BF 6.07 7.59 4.42 7.71 1.06 1.18 0.01 0.02 0.14 0.48 aY aX aY abX bc bc b ab bc TB 7.64 8.46 6.42 8.96 0.76 0.89 0.01 0.01 0.09 0.12 SEM 0.92 0.29 0.32 0.51 0.09 0.07 0.001 0.002 0.02 0.06 F value (Muscle df 5/53; Treatment df 1/107) *** *** *** *** * *** ** * *** Muscle 6.85 8.46 9.56 5.36 2.84 11.6 0.61 3.92 2.7 10.5 ** *** * * Treat. 7.50 115.32 4.38 2.27 4.33 ǂ a-c PM, Psoas major; LT, Longissimus thoracis; GM, Gluteus medius; SM, Semimembranosus; BF, Biceps femoris; TB, Triceps brachi. , means within each column with different superscripts are significantly different X, Y means within each row with different superscripts are significantly different *** ** * p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05. df, degrees of freedom Hardness: the peak force that occurs during the first compression, Springiness = Length 2/Length 1; Cohesiveness = Area 2/Area 1; Chewiness = Hardnessx Springiness x Cohesiveness (Fig. 2) Chinzorig and Hwang Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:22 Page 3 of 7 muscles. The results implied that TPA hardness of raw muscle is more predictable measurement for cooked meat, especially for tougher muscles. Magnitude of toughening assessed by TPA hardness during cooking was 1.75, 3.77, 3.22, 3.31, 3.29, and 2.54 kg for PM, LT, GM, SM, BF and TB, respectively. In mean time, toughening of WBSF were 1.12, 1.56, 1.31, 1.05, 1.52, and 0.82 for PM, LT, GM, SM, BF and TB, respectively. Previous studies have reported that WBSF measure- ments differed between raw and cooked meats . The present study showed that WBSF of raw meat is mainly reflecting background or collagen toughness, whereas that for cooked meat largely reflected myofibrillar tough- ness. More recently Listrat et al.  stated that WBSF for raw meat is highly correlated with collagen content and the relationship for cooked meat highly depends the muscle type because of the relationship between the thermal solubility and cross-linking level of collagen. In contrarily, we are more interested in the responses of each muscle to the cooking process in terms of tough- ening during the data mining process. As previously mentioned WBSF of raw and cooked meats were pres- ence in the order of LT = PM = GM = SM < BF = TB and Fig. 1 Least square means of total collagen content (top) and intramuscular fat content (bottom) six Hanwoo muscles. Bars PM < LT = GM = SM < TB=BF, respectively. The interest- indicates standard deviation. Letters within a same figure with a ing fact in the result showed that LT is the most tender same letter did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) for non-cooked state, but cooked PM muscle became significantly (P < 0.05) more tender than LT. In other words, non-cooked samples of WBSF for LT, PM, GM 50 and 60 °C was related to collagen denaturation . and SM did not differ, while cooked samples of the same Furthermore, more detailed temperature kinetic of myo- measurement for LT, GM, SM was identical. fibril components are also reported for α-actinin (50 °C), Figure 1 shows the total collagen and intramuscular fats myosin (55 °C), actin (70–80 °C), titin (73 °C), tropomy- for the six muscles. The particular difference between LT osin and troponin (over 80 °C) and nebulin survived upto and PM is intramuscular fat content (P < 0.05) with similar 80 °C  (Palka and Henry, 1999). total collagen content. The current data for both muscles In the current study, response of mechanical texture to likely indicates that amount of intramuscular fat is more im- various cooking temperature at 55 (rare), 70 (medium) portant factor of meat texture for cooked meats followed by and 85 °C (high) for various Hanwoo muscle at different raw meat. Although total collagen BF is greatly (P < 0.05) ageing time (Table 2). However, the mechanical tender- lower than TB and SM in the current study and BF is well ness is highly different with sensory tenderness of the known as containing high amount of collagen (Weston muscle . The results indicated that WBSF was not a et al., 2002). The simple comparison of texture of cooked good predictor of tougher muscles and also revealed that and raw meat muscles, the non-cooked muscles showed WBSF linearly increased as meats aged for 3 days were that the texture of muscle can be altered by cooking process, cooked at a higher temperature. On the other hand, TPA and should be carefully taken before cooking process. The hardness showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for results of the present study can be supported by previous 70 °C samples of BF and TB. The result was not com- similar reports . The study indicated that thermal solu- pletely correlated with previous reports, but the tender- bility, cross-linking level of collagen and meat shear force ness of the muscle was likely related to TPA hardness varies based on the muscle type and cooking conditions. measurement for beef muscles. And the high collagen content as hardness was also greatly influenced by intra- Interaction between cooking temperature and muscle muscular fat content in beef longissimus muscles . type on texture profile for different muscles More surprisingly in the current data, the effect of It has been well documented that toughening of muscle cooking temperature was significantly differed in aged tissue during cooking has at least three successive steps; meat. WBSF of PM and LT muscles are significantly in- where initial toughness up to around 50 °C ascribed to creased at a higher cooking temperature, while other myofibrillar denaturation, and second toughening between muscles (i.e., GM, SM, BF, TB) showed the lowest values at Chinzorig and Hwang Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:22 Page 4 of 7 Table 2 Least square means of WBSF and TPA texture profile as a function of muscle and cooking temperature at different ageing days of Hanwoo steer muscles ǂ Ψ Muscles Cooking WBSF(kg) Hardness(kg) Springiness Cohesiveness Chewiness temp 3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d ab b a b b ab Psoas major 55 °C 3.11 2.93 3.46 3.71 0.82 0.48 0.01 0.01 -0.02 −0.04 b ab b b b aX Y 70 °C 3.99 2.64 4.22 4.08 0.49 0.41 0.01 0.01 0.005 −0.05 a a a ab a a b 85 °C 4.51 3.40 5.66 4.41 0.65 0.86 0.02 0.03 −0.10 −0.1 c b b b a a Longissimus thoracis 55 °C 2.70 2.59 5.55 4.57 0.67 0.73 0.01 0.01 −0.02 0.06 b b b b a a 70 °C 4.30 2.63 5.74 5.47 0.74 0.69 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.06 a a a a b b 85 °C 5.06 3.47 5.86 4.92 0.84 0.79 0.04 0.04 −0.19 −0.18 b b b b a a Gluteus medius 55 °C 3.68 3.73 6.32 5.06 0.73 0.89 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.11 ab b b b a a 70 °C 4.56 3.30 6.13 5.72 0.7 0.65 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.04 a a a a b b 85 °C 5.09 3.88 5.52 6.01 0.79 0.96 0.03 0.04 −0.35 −0.19 b b b b b Semimembranosus 55 °C 4.39 3.65 6.17 6.33 0.94 0.99 0.01 0.01 0.16 0.27 b b ab b b 70 °C 5.06 3.29 7.05 6.68 0.92 0.83 0.02 0.01 0.21 0.09 a a a a a 85 °C 5.84 3.92 8.49 6.5 0.98 0.96 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.08 b a a b b b Biceps femoris 55 °C 5.96 6.22 8.12 6.89 0.96 1.05 0.01 0.01 0.19 0.29 a b b b X Y b b X Y 70 °C 7.59 4.79 7.71 7.55 1.18 0.97 0.02 0.02 0.48 0.13 a a a a a a 85 °C 7.93 5.54 8.69 7.87 1.24 1.28 0.04 0.04 0.46 0.36 a a b b b Triceps brachi 55 °C 8.34 7.11 9.56 5.34 1.01 0.77 0.01 0.01 0.29 0.11 b b b b b 70 °C 8.46 4.00 8.96 6.7 0.89 0.97 0.01 0.02 0.12 0.09 a a a a a 85 °C 8 6.73 9.32 7.02 1.24 1.14 0.04 0.05 0.58 −0.11 SEM 0.18 0.18 0.27 0.19 0.04 0.05 0.001 0.002 0.05 0.04 F value *** *** *** *** *** *** * *** *** Muscle 23.63 17.97 18.54 21.45 9.07 7.53 2.81 0.99 8.64 4.23 ** *** ** *** *** *** * Temperature 4.97 10.75 1.27 5.44 2.45 7.21 52.7 77.9 0.72 3.45 *** *** * Muscle*Temperature 4.63 3.25 1.59 0.45 0.95 0.83 1.4 0.42 2.22 0.96 PM, Psoas major; LT, Longissimus thoracis; GM, Gluteus medius; SM, Semimembranosus; BF, Biceps femoris; TB, Triceps brachi; a-c means within each column with different superscripts are significantly different X, Y means within each row with different superscripts are significantly different *** ** * p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05 df, degrees of freedom Hardness: the peak force that occurs during the first compression, Springiness = Length 2/Length 1; Cohesiveness = Area 2/Area 1; Chewiness = Hardnessx Springiness x Cohesiveness (Fig. 2) 70 °C. In the case of TPA hardness, cooking temperature completely different intramuscular fat content (6.2% for had a limited effects on toughness. LT, GM, SM showed an PM and 14.0 for LT) with similar total collagen content identical values for various cooking temperature, while BF (0.24 and 0.28 g/100 g for PM and LT, respectively) andTBshowedsignificantly (P < 0.05) higher values during (Fig. 1). Toughness of PM muscle aged for 3 days numer- high temperature cooking. Taken together, the results indi- ically (but not significant) linearly increased at a higher cated that the effect of cooking temperature on toughness cooking temperature, while shear force for LT increased process gradually decreased as ageing time and increased for significantly (P < 0.05) as temperature increased from 2.70, most type of muscles. Proteolytic process and tenderization 4.30 to 5.06 kg for 55, 70 and 85 °C. The tendency of PM during chiller ageing is well documented . Given the fact, and LT muscles aged for 21 days was also similar with it was clearly understand that cooking temperature more sig- 3 day ones. This likely mirrors that intramuscular content nificantly affects the connective tissue components, because affects the effects of cooking temperature on toughness, the toughness of chiller aged meat are mostly attributed to although the mechanisms are not clearly explainable, be- background toughness and collagen component . cause TPA hardness of LT was not influenced by cooking Another noticeable observation in the current study temperature at both day 3 and 21. was that response of PM and LT muscle to the aging x Springiness is defined as ratio of the time duration of cooking temperature interactions was very clear (P < 0.05) force input during the second to that during the first for WBSF. This was interesting point, as two muscles has compression and cohesiveness is defined as the ratio of Chinzorig and Hwang Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:22 Page 5 of 7 positive force area during the second to that the fist Principle sampling and treatment design was 2 × 4 block compression cycle . Early studies indicated that hard- design where 2 ageing length (3 or 21 days) and 4 ness accounted approximately 40.6 and 45.7 in tenderness end-point cooking temperature (non-cooked, 55, 70 or and overall palatability . Furthermore, they also noted 85 °C). Each muscle divided into two potions, vacuum that TPA springiness chewiness were highly related to packaged, and randomly assigned for the two ageing intramuscular fat content and consequently tenderness groups at 4 °C. Objective texture profiles were assessed and juiciness. To elucidate our experimental design which on fresh sample and the remaining tissue samples for examined texture profiles as a function of heating stores at − 20 °C for chemical analysis. temperature type at different ageing days, springiness, co- hesiveness and chewiness were also determined, and the Objective texture measurements data was extensive explored during data mining process. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and the texture pro- Very limited information was obtained from the measure- file analysis (TPA) were determined by cutting and press- ments, although springiness of meat is probably associated ing probes with an Instron Universal Testing Machine to fibre swelling and diameter . Not all, but it should (Model 3342, USA) using shearing and compression de- be noted that there was a tendency that ageing decreased vices [2, 4, 9, 10] (Bouton et al., 1972; 1974, Gupta et al., springiness, while increased chewiness. 2007; Herrero et al., 2007). Sample blocks were cooked at 55, 70, or 85 °C in polyethylene bags for 60 min in an 80 L Conclusion pre-heated water bath (BS-21, Jeiotech Co., Korea). Anticipation of cooked texture from non-cooked raw Starting temperature of the cooking blocks were 4 °C and muscle has become more import from the consumer as- the core temperature of samples was monitored using a pects of meat choice and satisfaction. The current data copper–constant thermocouple attached to a thermos indicated that magnitude of thermal toughening greatly recorder (Model TR-71 U, T&D Corporaion, Japan). The varied between beef muscles where hardening of muscle cooked blocks were cooled in running cold tap water samples by heating was more obvious for tougher meat (approximately 18 °C) for 30 min. (i.e., BF, SM, GM, BF). Particularly. This implied that For the WBSF measurement, six strips with average toughness of raw meat is not always a good predictor of diameter of 0.5 in. and a length of at least 2 cm were re- cooked meat. Their results indicated that WBSF was not moved parallel to the muscle fibre direction of each raw a good predictor of tougher muscles. Our results overall and cooked sample. Samples were sheared perpendicular revealed that WBSF linearly increased as meats aged for to the fiber orientation using a V-shaped blade, at a 3 days were cooked at a higher temperature. On the other crosshead speed of 400 mm/min and a 40 kgf load cell. hand, interestingly, muscles aged for 21 days showed com- Following sampling for shear force, two wedges of pletely different response to the cooking temperatures 5mmto15mmthickness were cutparalleltothemuscle where the temperature was very limited for most muscle fibre direction to determine compression. Samples were types. Collectively, the current data indicated that estima- placed by fitting the sloped wedge faces between the base tion of meat texture from raw material to cooked meats plate and compression plunger (0.63 cm diameter), 10 mm varies depending on muscle type and its interaction with apart. The measurement was expressed as kilograms-force chiller ageing day. In addition, the results mirror the im- (Kgf) which is required to drive the plunger at 50 mm/min, portance of cooking temperature for objective measure- two cycles of 0.8 cm into the wedge giving a 20% compres- ments which ultimately estimate sensory tenderness and sion ratio. The variables were evaluated for hardness other quality traits. (maximum force required to the first compress the samples in kg), cohesiveness (area2/area1; the ratio of Methods positive force area during the second to that the fist Sampling and experimental design compression cycle), springiness (length2/length1; ratio Ten (10) Hanwoo steer were sampled from a commer- of the time duration of force input during the second cial feeding population and slaughtered at a commercial to that during the first compression) and chewiness abattoir at a same day. An average age, hot carcass (hardness x springiness x cohesiveness; multiply hardness, weight and backfat thickness were 28 months, 422 kg springiness and cohesiveness) (Fig. 2). and 7.4 mm, respectively. Animals were transferred to approximately 50 km the day before slaughter and lair- Total collagen contents and intramuscular fat (IMF) age over night with free access to water. The day after The total collagen content in samples was determined after slaughter, six muscles (Psoas major (PM), Longissimus 16 hhydrolysisof2 gofmeatwith7NH SO at 105 °C 2 4 thoracics (LT), Gluteus medius (GM), Semimembranosus using modified colorimetric method. Hydrolysate was di- (SM), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were luted with 500 mL of distilled water in Erlenmeyer flask. Di- taken from right side of carcass and used for analysis. luted filtrate (2 mL) was taken and mixed with chloramine Chinzorig and Hwang Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:22 Page 6 of 7 Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of texture profile analysis (TPA) and its derivative measurements adopted in the current study T solution in a test tube and left for 20 min at room main model, and thus samples aged 3 or 21 days were temperature. After adding 4-dimethyl-aminobenzaldehyde assessed independently. At the initial data mining models, solution, the mixture was heated at 60 °C for 15 min. The the ageing effects and their interactions with cooking absorbance of samples and hydroxyproline standards was temperature and muscles were tested and significantly determined at 558 nm using spectrophotometer. For heat effects were observed, but finally we decided to take stable (or insoluble) collagen content, homogenized meat cooking temperature and muscle as a main effect for sample was heated in a 77 °C water bath for 70 min in a 3 each samples of day 3 and 21 days. Least square means times dilution of Ringer’ssolution, followed by centrifu- were calculated by a general linear model as a function gation, residual fractions were hydrolyzed in 7 N H SO for of ageing day and cooking method using a general linear 2 4 16 h at 105 °C. After neutralization, the hydroxyproline con- model and significant difference were assessed the Duncan’s tent of hydrolyzate was determined according to the proced- multiple-range test at p ≤ 0.05 (SAS, SAS Institute ure outlined by Hill . The amount of hydroxyproline Ver. 9.3, Cary, NC, USA). content was determined from a standard curve and con- verted to the collagen content with a factor of 7.14. Acknowledgements It should be acknowledged that this work was supported by a grant from IMF was determined by the Soxhylet method in tripli- the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea (PJ 012027) and cate following Ji et al. (2010). 5 g of sample tissue and the next generation Biogreen 21(PJ013169). 1.5 g of sea sand were put in the cylinder type paper and mixed together. The fat samples were dried at 102 °C for Funding Funded by the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea. 5 h and fats were extracted by petroleum ether at 100 °C for 6 h and petroleum was evaporated using a heating Availability of data and materials mantle by heating the extract in a dry oven at 102 °C for Please contact author for data requests. 1 h. IMF was calculated by percentage of extracting fat weight and sample weight. Authors’ contributions IH designed this experiment and wrote up most part of this manuscript Statistical analysis including discussion and conclusion. OC analyzed the materials and ran statistical packages. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Two separate analysis was performed. The first analysis compared non-cooked raw sample and cooking at 70 °C Ethics approval and consent to participate for muscles aged for 3 days in that muscle, cooking and Not applicable. their interactions were main effects with animals were random effects. 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Journal of Animal Science and Technology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 18, 2018
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