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Minerals and Allied Natural Resources and their Sustainable DevelopmentMetallic Mineral Deposits

Minerals and Allied Natural Resources and their Sustainable Development: Metallic Mineral Deposits [ Iron, and hence iron ores, have played a very important role in the history of human civilization, because of which the latter has been named “Iron Age”.Iron Age The principal types of iron ores are variously enriched hematite-dominated banded iron formation (Superior type) and variously modified magnetite-dominant banded iron formation (Algoma typeTypealgoma). The Superior type deposits mainly formed during late Archean-early Proterozoic period. Algoma type is somewhat older. India’s iron ore depositsOredeposit, with an estimated reserveReserve of 28 Gt, are concentrated in South India, Central India, and Eastern India. Mn ores, principally oxides to hydroxides, formed during separate events from early Proterozoic to recent (Mn-nodules) in South Africa, Brazil, Ghana, Gabon, India, and countries of previous USSR. Genetically the deposits are hydrothermal, sedimentary (-diageneticHydrothermaldiagenetic), and of supergene Supergeneenrichment. Chromium, obtained from chromite, is essentially magmatitic (orthomagmaticOrthomagmatic) in origin and chromite deposits are commonly associated with mafic–ultramafic rocks. Out of India’s reserves of 139 Mt of chromite ores, >90% is located in eastern India and the rest in south India. Bulk of gold in nature forms in the “native state”, which does not mean 100% purity in reality. Alloying with Ag (and Hg) is common. Most ores form from hydrothermal fluids of primary and secondary origin and as placers (and nuggets). Gold is reported from different parts of India, but the largest yield came from the Kolar Kolargold field in Karnataka amounting to 800 t Au. Copper mineralization was recorded from the Singhbhum copper beltSinghbhumcopper belt, occurring in association with altered volcanic rocks, now interpreted by some to represent an IOCGIOCG situation. Khetri copper deposits are associated with metasediments. MalanjkhandMalanjkhand Cu(–Mo) deposit is associated with calcalkaline granitic rocks. SEDEXSEDEX-type Pb–Zn deposits of Rampura-Agucha, Rajpura-Dariba, and Zawar belt were deposited in Paleoproterozoic sediments of Rajasthan. All these deposits are regionally metamorphosed in grades varying from granulite to upper greenschist facies. Total reserves of Pb–Zn ores were estimated to be 685.59 Mt in 2010. Mineralization of Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, F, and REEREE occur in the pegmatites of Bastar-Malkangiri beltBastar-Malkangiri belt, Bihar mica beltBihar mica belt and Rajasthan-Gujarat areas. Monazite in the beach sands Beach sandsof South India is a good source of REE. The same sands are also endowed with large Ti resource in the form of ilmenite and rutile. India is one of the five major Al-ore containing countries of the world. Bauxite is of residual origin produced from Al-rich rocks. In India, the principal belts of bauxite are located along the East coast, Central India, and the West coast. Warm and wet climate with good drainage favor bauxitization.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

Minerals and Allied Natural Resources and their Sustainable DevelopmentMetallic Mineral Deposits

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Publisher
Springer Singapore
Copyright
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017
ISBN
978-981-10-4563-9
Pages
141 –237
DOI
10.1007/978-981-10-4564-6_3
Publisher site
See Chapter on Publisher Site

Abstract

[ Iron, and hence iron ores, have played a very important role in the history of human civilization, because of which the latter has been named “Iron Age”.Iron Age The principal types of iron ores are variously enriched hematite-dominated banded iron formation (Superior type) and variously modified magnetite-dominant banded iron formation (Algoma typeTypealgoma). The Superior type deposits mainly formed during late Archean-early Proterozoic period. Algoma type is somewhat older. India’s iron ore depositsOredeposit, with an estimated reserveReserve of 28 Gt, are concentrated in South India, Central India, and Eastern India. Mn ores, principally oxides to hydroxides, formed during separate events from early Proterozoic to recent (Mn-nodules) in South Africa, Brazil, Ghana, Gabon, India, and countries of previous USSR. Genetically the deposits are hydrothermal, sedimentary (-diageneticHydrothermaldiagenetic), and of supergene Supergeneenrichment. Chromium, obtained from chromite, is essentially magmatitic (orthomagmaticOrthomagmatic) in origin and chromite deposits are commonly associated with mafic–ultramafic rocks. Out of India’s reserves of 139 Mt of chromite ores, >90% is located in eastern India and the rest in south India. Bulk of gold in nature forms in the “native state”, which does not mean 100% purity in reality. Alloying with Ag (and Hg) is common. Most ores form from hydrothermal fluids of primary and secondary origin and as placers (and nuggets). Gold is reported from different parts of India, but the largest yield came from the Kolar Kolargold field in Karnataka amounting to 800 t Au. Copper mineralization was recorded from the Singhbhum copper beltSinghbhumcopper belt, occurring in association with altered volcanic rocks, now interpreted by some to represent an IOCGIOCG situation. Khetri copper deposits are associated with metasediments. MalanjkhandMalanjkhand Cu(–Mo) deposit is associated with calcalkaline granitic rocks. SEDEXSEDEX-type Pb–Zn deposits of Rampura-Agucha, Rajpura-Dariba, and Zawar belt were deposited in Paleoproterozoic sediments of Rajasthan. All these deposits are regionally metamorphosed in grades varying from granulite to upper greenschist facies. Total reserves of Pb–Zn ores were estimated to be 685.59 Mt in 2010. Mineralization of Sn, W, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, F, and REEREE occur in the pegmatites of Bastar-Malkangiri beltBastar-Malkangiri belt, Bihar mica beltBihar mica belt and Rajasthan-Gujarat areas. Monazite in the beach sands Beach sandsof South India is a good source of REE. The same sands are also endowed with large Ti resource in the form of ilmenite and rutile. India is one of the five major Al-ore containing countries of the world. Bauxite is of residual origin produced from Al-rich rocks. In India, the principal belts of bauxite are located along the East coast, Central India, and the West coast. Warm and wet climate with good drainage favor bauxitization.]

Published: Jun 21, 2017

Keywords: Superior type iron ores; Algoma type iron ores; Kiruna type iron oxide deposits; Indian iron ores; Gonditic Mn ores; Mn nodules; Indian chromite ores; Greenstone-hosted gold in India; Singhbhum Cu–U deposits; Malanjkhand copper; Sediment-hosted Pb–Zn sulfide ores of Rajasthan; East coast bauxites

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