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Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials: a Review of Workplace Exposure Assessment Methods

Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials: a Review of Workplace Exposure Assessment... Purpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to consolidate exposure assessment methods for occupational research on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) published within the past 5 years (2015–2020).Recent FindingsThe three ENMs that generated the highest volume of new research include titanium dioxide, graphene, and aluminum oxide. A multi-metric approach, using both online and offline instruments and analyses, has been found to be a useful method to characterize ENM workplace exposures and was commonly used in the recently published literature. Particle number concentration was the most common online exposure metric used, followed by the metrics of mass and surface area. There are currently no consensus methods for offline analyses of most ENMs. Researchers generally used gravimetric or elemental analyses for carbonaceous nanomaterials, titanium dioxide, and other nanometals, but there was little overlap between other ENM materials reviewed. Using biological markers of exposure, such as urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, as an indication of chronic exposure may also be useful for some ENMs and should be further researched.SummaryGenerally, similar online instrumentation and offline electron microscopy methods were used for all ENMs. However, this consistency was not observed for offline mass analysis methods within specific ENMs. Consolidation of the most recent methods and results of exposure assessments within this broad material category can guide researchers toward future areas of study. Establishing consensus methods of exposure assessment for each individual ENM is crucial to characterizing workplace exposures, pooling data to fully understand their associated risks, and developing useful occupational exposure limits. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Environmental Health Reports Springer Journals

Occupational Exposures to Engineered Nanomaterials: a Review of Workplace Exposure Assessment Methods

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References (54)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2021
eISSN
2196-5412
DOI
10.1007/s40572-021-00316-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to consolidate exposure assessment methods for occupational research on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) published within the past 5 years (2015–2020).Recent FindingsThe three ENMs that generated the highest volume of new research include titanium dioxide, graphene, and aluminum oxide. A multi-metric approach, using both online and offline instruments and analyses, has been found to be a useful method to characterize ENM workplace exposures and was commonly used in the recently published literature. Particle number concentration was the most common online exposure metric used, followed by the metrics of mass and surface area. There are currently no consensus methods for offline analyses of most ENMs. Researchers generally used gravimetric or elemental analyses for carbonaceous nanomaterials, titanium dioxide, and other nanometals, but there was little overlap between other ENM materials reviewed. Using biological markers of exposure, such as urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, as an indication of chronic exposure may also be useful for some ENMs and should be further researched.SummaryGenerally, similar online instrumentation and offline electron microscopy methods were used for all ENMs. However, this consistency was not observed for offline mass analysis methods within specific ENMs. Consolidation of the most recent methods and results of exposure assessments within this broad material category can guide researchers toward future areas of study. Establishing consensus methods of exposure assessment for each individual ENM is crucial to characterizing workplace exposures, pooling data to fully understand their associated risks, and developing useful occupational exposure limits.

Journal

Current Environmental Health ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 1, 2021

Keywords: Exposure assessment; Nanomaterials; Nanoparticles; Occupational exposure

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