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Background: The meat quality of Korean native pigs (KNP) and crossbred pigs (LYD; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) was examined to generate data useful for selecting native pigs for improved pork production. Methods: Fifty Korean native pigs (KNP) and 50 crossbred pigs (LYD) were tested. Loin samples (M. longissimus dorsi) of the two breeds were analyzed to determine meat quality and sensory properties. Result: KNP had a higher moisture content than LYD (p < 0.05); however, it had significantly lower crude fat and ash content than that of LYD (p < 0.001). KNP had significantly higher shear force than LYD (p < 0.01). KNP also showed significantly higher cooking loss than LYD (p < 0.05). KNP had a lower L value than LYD (p < 0.05); * * however, it had a markedly higher a and b value than LYD (p < 0.001). KNP showed significantly higher linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid content than LYD (p < 0.05). Although KNP had significantly better flavor and overall palatability than LYD, it was less tender than LYD (p < 0.01). Conclusion: KNP had a markedly higher a value than LYD. KNP had significantly higher shear force than LYD. The total unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in KNP than in LYD. Keywords: Korean native pigs, Crossbred breed pig, Meat quality Background impact on meat quality [7, 8, 11]. Korean native pork is a Pork is sold in seven cuts, the tender loin, loin, shoulder darker and more reddish in color than mat from crossbred butt, shoulder, leg, belly, and ribs, among which pork belly pigs; native pork also contains white fat and is tender with acceptability in highest compared to the other cuts [1, 2]. high but thin muscle fibers [6, 12]. However, there are no Recently, consumers have shown a preferences for high- differences in meat color and sensory properties between quality lean meat with low fat content rather than high-fat native and crossbred pigs . Cho et al. reportedthat cuts [3–5]. South Korea’s native pigs are known for their Korean native pigs have high levels of marbling and differ- quality meat that fulfills consumer demands [6, 7]. ent production yield and meat quality depending on sex Meat quality is affected by intramuscular fat content, and market weight. Additionally, sows have significantly * * cholesterol, muscular pH, water-holding capacity, drip loss, higher L (lightness) and b values (yellowness) than boars. texture, and cooking loss [8, 9]. Accumulation of intramus- The objective of the present study was to identify factors cular fat is especially influenced by the specific breed of the affecting the quality of Korean native pork by comparing pig, types of feeds, and rearing environment, and meat the composition, physicochemical properties, fatty acid quality heavily depends on intramuscular fat composition; composition, and sensory properties of native and cross- reddish pink meat with little exudation and adequate bred pigs to establish basic data required for developing a marbling are considered to indicate high quality and have continuous production system and for distribution man- an important impact on consumer meat choices . Pork agement of Korean native pigs. quality is affected by breed and feeding, slaughter, and pro- cessing. Pig breed has been reported to have a notable Materials and methods Animals and M. longissimus dorsi samples * Correspondence: email@example.com The animals examined in this study were 50 Korean Department of Animal Resources Science, Kongju National University, Yesan, native female pigs (KNP) as well as 50 crossbred pigs Chungnam 32439, Korea © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Kim and Kim Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:6 Page 2 of 5 (Landrace × Yorkshire ×Duroc; LYD). The two breeds 3.0 (SAS, Inc., Cary, NC, USA). The mean of the sensory were fed with same feeds, which comply with the National properties was calculated based on the responses of the Research Council standard, and were farmed using stand- panel on a 10-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (very ard customs (nonghyup feeding standard). Loin samples bad) to 10 (very good). Statistical significance of the were taken from the M. longissimus dorsi from the 5th to differences among the means was analyzed by the t-test 8th thoracic vertebrae at 24 h postmortem. and Duncan’s multiple range test. Meat quality and sensory properties Results and discussion Proximate composition was analyzed as described by the Proximate composition AOAC . Crude protein content was analyzed by the The proximate composition of M. longissimus dorsi Kjeldahl method, crude fat content by the Soxhlet ex- muscle in the KNP and LYD breeds is presented in traction method, moisture content by ambient pressure Table 1. The overall mean moisture content was 73.87%. drying at 105°C, and crude ash content by dry ashing at In terms of breed-specific moisture, the moisture con- 550°C. Shear force was measured with a Warner- tents of LYD and KNP were 73.67% and 74.06%, respect- Bratzler Shear Meter (Manhattan, KS, USA). Samples ively, indicating a significantly higher moisture content were acquired as follows: a raw sample was heated for in KNP (p < 0.05). The overall mean of crude fat content 30 min in an 80°C constant-temperature water tank and was 2.00%. Although the difference was not significant, cooled for 30 min. This sample was cut to a thickness crude fat content was lower in KNP (1.97%) than in LYD approximately 4 × 3 × 2.5 cm, heated and extracted par- (2.03%). The overall mean of crude protein content was allel to the grain in a 3 cm diameter core. To calculate 21.79% with a significant difference between the breeds cooking loss, a 2 cm thick sample weighting 150 ± 5 g (p < 0.001); crude protein content of KNP (21.45%) was was cut, cooked until its internal core temperature lower than that of LYD (22.13%). The overall mean of reached 75°C in an 80°C constant-temperature water tank, crude ash content was 0.69%, with a significantly lower and cooled for 30 min, after which mass reduction was crude ash content in KNP (0.66%) than in LYD (0.72%) measured as a percentage. Water holding capacity was (p < 0.001). The moisture, fat, and ash content results measured by centrifugation as described by Laakkonen et were similar to those found by Choi et al. , while al. : a 2-mL filter was first weighed and then weighed protein content was lower in the present study. The again after placing a 0.5 g ground sample in the upper fil- findings of this study were similar to those of a study of ter of the centrifuge tube. The final pH was measured crossbred pigs by Jin et al.  for moisture (72.19%), using a pH meter in the loin core near the ribs on the left protein (22.74%), and fat (3.81%). side of the carcass at 24 h after slaughter. Lightness (L ), * * redness (a ), and yellowness (b )were measured inCIE values using a colorimeter (CR-301, Minolta, Osaka, Physicochemical properties Japan), which was calibrated against a standard white tile The cooking loss, pH, and color of M. longissimus dorsi (Y = 92.40, x = 0.3136, y = 0.3196). Fatty acid content was muscle in the KNP and LYD breeds is presented in Table 2. measured as described by Folch et al. . Crude fat in The overall mean of cooking loss was 35.05%. KNP the sample was extracted and melted in 1 mL of chloro- showed a higher cooking loss (35.64%) than LYD (34.46%) form, 100 μL of which was placed in a 20-mL tube. We (p < 0.05). This agreed with the results of Jin et al. , added 1 mL of methylation agent and incubated the mix- were cooking loss of KNP crossbreed pork was 36.78%, ture for 40 min in a constant-temperature water tank at and similar to the results of Kim et al. , where cooking 60°C. The final mixture was analyzed by gas chromatog- loss of LYD and KNP were 38.66 and 40.56%, respectively. raphy. Sensory evaluation was performed by a panel of 10 Cho et al.  reported that cooking loss was generally trained male and female panelists. The panelists rated higher for pork that had a higher market weight, although the color, juiciness, tenderness, flavor, and palatability the differences were not significant. of the loin samples for three repeated trials. The panel- Table 1 Proximate components of M. longissimus dorsi muscles ists evaluated meat quality on a 10 point scale, with in LYD and KNP breeds one indicating very bad or tough meat and 10 indicat- Breeds Items LYD KNP Overall mean t-values ing very good or soft meat. The mean values were used Moisture (%) 73.67 ± 0.69 74.06 ± 0.18 73.87 ± 0.54 2.12 for analysis. NS Crude fat (%) 2.03 ± 0.67 1.97 ± 0.48 2.00 ± 0.57 0.29 *** Statistical analysis Crude protein (%) 22.13 ± 0.30 21.45 ± 0.60 21.79 ± 0.58 3.91 *** The means and standard deviations of the obtained data, Crude ash (%) 0.72 ± 0.01 0.66 ± 0.02 0.69 ± 0.03 10.58 including proximate composition and physicochemical All values are the mean ± standard deviation * *** NS properties, were calculated using the SAS program Ver. p < 0.05, p < 0.001, Non-significant Kim and Kim Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:6 Page 3 of 5 Table 2 Physicochemical characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi mean shear force was 4.26 kg. The shear force of KNP muscles in LYD and KNP breeds (4.53 kg) was higher than that of LYD (4.00 kg) (p < 0.01). Breeds Items LYD KNP Overall mean t-values Although this was moderately higher than that found by Cho  (3.42 kg/in. ), this value agreed with those found Cooking loss (%) 34.46 ± 1.68 35.64 ± 1.30 35.05 ± 1.60 2.16 NS by Jin et al. and Kimetal. , where KNP showed a pH 5.56 ± 0.10 5.57 ± 0.04 5.57 ± 0.07 0.44 higher shear force than LYD. The high shear force of * * CIE L (lightness) 53.52 ± 2.47 51.38 ± 2.27 52.45 ± 2.57 −2.47 Korean native pork mayhavealarge influence onthe tex- * *** a (redness) 6.43 ± 1.30 10.40 ± 2.27 8.41 ± 2.72 5.88 ture preferred by consumers. The water holding capacity of * *** b (yellowness) 3.27 ± 0.97 4.76 ± 1.31 4.01 ± 1.36 3.54 M. longissimus dorsi muscle in the KNP and LYD breeds is All values are the mean ± standard deviation presented in Fig. 2. The overall mean water holding * *** NS p < 0.05, p < 0.001, Non-significant capacity was 53.1%. The water-holding capacity of KNP was 52.95%, but this was not significantly different from The overall mean pH of the two breeds of pork was 5.57, that of LYD. This was slightly higher than that found by with similar pH values observed both KNP (5.57) and LYD Choi et al. , where the water holding capacity of KNP (5.56). This agreed with a study by Park et al. , where was 42.28%, as well as that reported by Cho , where the the pH of pork was similar for all sex and weight groups, mean water holding capacity of Korean native sows and was similar to the results reported by Kang . (weight of 65–75 kg) was 45.81%. The difference may The mean CIE L (lightness) value, which represents the be related to differences in sex and feed. brightness of pork, was 52.45 in the present study. The lightness of KNP (51.38) was significantly lower than that Fatty acid composition of LYD (53.52) (p < 0.05). The mean a value, which repre- Table 3 shows the fatty acid content of M. longissimus sents redness, was 8.41. There was a highly significant dorsi muscle in the KNP and LYD breeds KNP and LYD. difference in the redness of KNP and LYD (p < 0.001), with KNP had a significantly lower composition of saturated KNP showing significantly higher redness (10.40) than fatty acids, such as myristic acid (C ), palmitic acid 14:0 that of LYD (6.43). Similarly, the overall mean b value (C ), and stearic acid (C ), than LYD (p < 0.01). Oleic 16:0 18:0 (yellowness) was 4.01; however, KNP showed significantly acid (C ), which is an unsaturated fatty acid, showed 18:1n9 higher yellowness (4.76) than LYD (3.27) (p <0.001). the highest content, with a significantly higher content in These findings were similar to those of Jin et al. , where LYD (46.24%) than in KNP (43.87%) (p <0.05). Essential KNP hybrids showed a significantly lower L value (46.76) fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (C ), linolenic acid 18:2n6 than LYD breeds (three-way cross) (50.55), as well as to (C ), and arachidonic acid (C ) were significantly 18:3n3 20:4n6 * * * the study by Cho , where the L ,a ,and b values of higher in KNP than in LYD. The total saturated fatty acid native pigs were 48.68, 10.83, and 5.53, respectively. content in KNP was 39.11%, which was significantly lower Furthermore, our results agreed well with the analysis of than that in LYD (41.40%) (p < 0.01); in contrast, the total native pig properties by Cho et al. . unsaturated fatty acid content was significantly higher in The shear force of M. longissimus dorsi muscle in the KNP (60.89%) than in LYD (58.60%) (p < 0.01). These re- KNP and LYD breeds is presented in Fig. 1. The overall sults were similar to the fatty acid analysis of native pigs performed by Cho  and Lee et al. , with only the palmitoleic acid content higher in the present study. In Fig. 1 Shear-force of M. longissimus dorsi muscles in LYD and KNP Fig. 2 Water holding capacity of M. longissimus dorsi muscles in LYD NS breeds. **p < 0.01 and KNP breeds. Non-significant Kim and Kim Journal of Animal Science and Technology (2018) 60:6 Page 4 of 5 Table 3 Fatty acid composition of M. longissimus dorsi muscles Table 4 Sensory evaluation of M. longissimus dorsi muscles in in LYD and KNP breeds LYD and KNP breeds Breeds Items LYD KNP Overall mean t-values Breeds Items LYD KNP Overall mean t-values *** NS Myristic 1.64 ± 0.13 1.35 ± 0.34 1.50 ± 0.19 6.40 Visual color 8.25 ± 0.40 8.56 ± 0.56 8.41 ± 0.48 −1.55 ** ** Palmitic 25.30 ± 0.76 24.47 ± 0.69 24.88 ± 0.83 3.14 Flavor 7.88 ± 0.86 8.79 ± 0.62 8.34 ± 0.74 −3.00 NS ** Palmitoleic 3.10 ± 0.20 3.08 ± 0.28 3.09 ± 0.24 0.23 Tenderness 9.08 ± 0.29 8.42 ± 0.73 8.75 ± 0.51 − 2.92 ** *** Stearic 14.46 ± 1.57 13.29 ± 1.21 13.88 ± 1.50 2.27 Juiciness 8.98 ± 0.59 7.90 ± 0.64 8.44 ± 0.62 − 4.26 * NS Oleic 46.24 ± 2.09 43.87 ± 2.59 45.05 ± 2.60 2.75 Off-flavor 8.67 ± 0.50 8.79 ± 0.39 8.73 ± 0.45 − 0.52 *** *** Vaccenic 0.26 ± 0.01 0.14 ± 0.14 0.20 ± 0.64 30.16 Overall acceptability 8.13 ± 0.68 9.29 ± 0.33 8.71 ± 0.51 − 5.34 *** Means and standard deviations were denoted by Likert′s scale (10 = very Linoleic 7.23 ± 0.66 11.77 ± 1.11 9.50 ± 2.48 13.63 excellent, 1 = very poor) ** *** NS g-Linoleic 0.06 ± 0.11 0.05 ± 0.06 0.06 ± 0.09 2.46 p < 0.01, p < 0.001, Non-significant (p > 0.05) Linolenic 0.40 ± 0.32 0.42 ± 0.04 0.41 ± 0.04 2.24 8.73 points with no significant difference between KNP *** Eicosenoic 0.97 ± 0.07 1.13 ± 0.06 1.05 ± 0.11 6.99 and LYD. The overall palatability was moderately high, Arachidonic 0.35 ± 0.10 0.41 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.08 2.38 with a mean of 8.71 points. KNP was found to be signifi- a ** SFA 41.40 ± 2.39 39.11 ± 1.88 40.25 ± 2.41 2.91 cantly more palatable (9.29 points) than LYD (8.13 b ** points) (p < 0.001), indicating that consumers had a high USFA 58.60 ± 2.39 60.89 ± 1.88 59.75 ± 2.41 2.91 c * preference for KNP meat. These sensory evaluation re- MUFA 50.57 ± 2.28 48.22 ± 2.75 49.40 ± 2.76 2.54 sults agreed with those found by Choi et al.  and d *** PUFA 8.04 ± 0.72 12.66 ± 1.13 10.35 ± 2.53 13.39 suggest that KNP was less tender than Duroc or three- NS MUFA/SFA 1.23 ± 0.12 1.24 ± 0.13 1.23 ± 0.12 0.24 way crossbreeds; however, KNP was juicier than the *** PUFA/SFA 0.20 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.07 14.99 crossbred. Our results did not agree with their report All values are the mean ± standard deviation suggesting that KNP had less flavor than three-way a b c SFA Saturated fatty acid, USFA Unsaturated fatty acid, MUFA d crossbreeds, which may be related to differences in the Monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid * ** *** NS p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, Non-significant native breed and age at slaughter. Our results regarding tenderness agreed with those reported by Kang , addition, our results agreed with those of Kang , who where KNP meat was significantly less tender than that reported that KNP had significantly lower contents of of the crossbreds. Furthermore, the overall palatability myristic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid than LYD; how- evaluation was similar to that found by Kim et al. , ever, unsaturated fatty acid (e.g., arachidonic acid) was who found that KNP or Berkshire were more palatable higher than in LYD. Intramuscular fatty acid influences than other crossbreds. These results indicate that despite the flavor of the pork , and a high saturated fatty acid is the relatively good evaluations regarding the quality of known to help stabilize fat oxidation [25, 26] and meat KNP meat, more attention should be given to weight color . However, unsaturated fatty acid is known as gain and meat weight increase in breeding management. “good” fatty acid because it helps prevent diseases such as arteriosclerosis and hypertension [28, 29], and different Conclusion fatty acid contents are though to affect the unique flavor Our study analyzed physicochemical properties of M. of native pork [18, 30]. longissimus dorsi of Korean native pigs compared to crossbreed (LYD). KNP had a markedly higher a value Sensory evaluation than LYD. KNP had significantly higher shear force than The results of sensory evaluation of M. longissimus dorsi LYD. The total unsaturated fatty acid content was higher muscle in the KNP and LYD breeds is presented in in KNP than in LYD. Moreover, KNP which have gained Table 4. The mean visual color was 8.41 points out of 10 much consumer preference, owing to their relatively points. Although the difference was insignificant, KNP bright red color, appropriate texture, and flavor will be a showed a higher score for visual color (8.56 points) than good meat resource. LYD. The overall mean flavor was 8.34 points, with KNP showing a significantly higher evaluation for flavor (8.79 Abbreviations KNP: Korean native pigs; LYD: Crossbred pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) points) than LYD (7.88 points) (p < 0.05). The mean ten- derness was 8.75 points, and LYD meat was found to be Acknowledgments more tender (9.08 points) than KNP meat (8.42 points) Not applicable. (p < 0.01). 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