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Species of Phytophthora are prominent in lists of emerging threats to forest ecosystems. We explore the conditions leading to and the consequences of the emergence of some Phytophthora species from their presumptive coevolved roles in undisturbed forest ecosystems to destructive agents as invasive forest pathogens. Phytophthora species are widespread, relatively abundant, very diverse, and poorly understood in many relatively undisturbed forest ecosystems. Three examples are examined in detail to illustrate the range of pathways to emergence and the varied consequences to forest environments. Phytophthora lateralis causes Port-Orford cedar root disease in western North America and now Europe. Phytophthora ramorum is causing unprecedented mortality in oak and tanoak forests in California, as the cause of sudden oak death, and is killing planted larch in the UK, and Phytophthora cinnamomi kills trees in parts of the world where it has been introduced. Active programs are underway in each case to manage, if not eliminate, their damage. In no case, however, has eradication been achieved. Prevention, by blocking initial introduction, has the highest probability of success.
Current Forestry Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 3, 2015
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