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Prioritizing erosion-prone area through morphometric analysis: an RS and GIS perspective

Prioritizing erosion-prone area through morphometric analysis: an RS and GIS perspective Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 DOI 10.1007/s13201-013-0129-7 O R I G IN AL ARTI CL E Prioritizing erosion-prone area through morphometric analysis: an RS and GIS perspective • • Sarita Gajbhiye S. K. Mishra Ashish Pandey Received: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published online: 25 September 2013 The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The geomorphological characteristics of a So, planning and management of these natural resources is watershed are more commonly used for developing the the need of the hour. Proper scientific planning and man- regional hydrological models for solving various hydro- agement of these resources requires immense data. There- logical problems of the ungauged watersheds in inadequate fore, geomorphological characteristics of a watershed are data situations. Therefore, in this study to find out the most commonly used for developing the regional hydrological vulnerable sub-watershed to soil erosion, morphometric models for solving various hydrological problems of the analysis and prioritization were carried out on 14 sub- ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations. Appli- watersheds of Manot River catchment, which is a tributary cations of geographical information system (GIS) techniques of the Narmada River. The morphometric parameters con- are much efficient, time-saving and suitable for spatial sidered for analysis are stream order, stream length, stream planning. GIS can handle complex issues and large databases frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, cir- for manipulation and retrieval. The use of computer has made culatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and com- GIS automated and today the technique is not only capable of pactness ratio. After analysis of morphometric parameters, handling large datasets, but can also solve many complex compound parameter values are calculated and prioritiza- issues besides facilitating retrieval and querying of data. tion rating of 14 sub-watersheds is carried out. The sub- Population pressure has been increasing over the years watershed 13 that has the lowest compound parameter value resulting in the scarcity of availability of land and water of 3.63 is likely to be subjected to maximum soil erosion; resources. Industrial expansion is also a need of the time, hence, it requires immediate attention to providing soil which requires infrastructural facilities; which intern forms conservation measures. Morphological parameters-based a feed back resulting in further pressure on finite land and prioritization is in good agreement with the geological field water resources. About 53 % of the total area of India which investigation carried out during the field work. is 172 m ha suffers from serious soil erosion and other forms of degradation. In a country like India that supports Keywords Morphometric analysis  Soil erosion  16 % of the world’s population on 2 % of the global land Prioritization  GIS  Soil conservation area, the problem is serious (Sebestain et al. 1995). So, planning and management of land and water resources on a sustained basis without deterioration and with constant Introduction increase in productivity is the mainstay for mankind. For their efficient and sustainable management, one has to look Availability of natural resources, i.e., land and water is for a sustainable unit, so that these resources can be handled decreasing day by day, due to growing population pressure. and managed effectively. The watersheds or hydrological units are considered efficient and appropriate for the nec- essary survey and investigation of the assessment of these S. Gajbhiye (&)  S. K. Mishra  A. Pandey resources and subsequent planning and implementation of Department of Water Resource Development and Management, various development programs such as soil and water IIT, Roorkee, India conservation, command area development, erosion control e-mail: gajbhiyesarita@gmail.com 123 52 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 in catchment rivers, dry land/rain-fed farming and recla- Study area mation of ravine lands. The hydrologic units are equally important for the development of water resources through The Narmada catchment up to Manot is located in Mandla major, medium and minor storage projects as well as farm- District of Madhya Pradesh and is bounded between 0 0 level water harvesting structures. So, the watershed northern latitudes 2226 –2318 and eastern longitudes 0 0 approach is more rational, because land and water resources 8024 –8147 as in Fig 1. This figure also shows the digi- have optimum interaction and synergetic effect when tized stream network. The length of River Narmada from its developed on the watershed basis. origin up to Manot is about 269 km with a drainage area of 4,884 km . The catchment is covered by forest and its An accurate understanding of the hydrological behavior of watershed is important for effective management. topography is hilly. Its elevation ranges from 450 m near the Intensive study of individual watershed is therefore nec- Manot site to 1,110 m above mean sea level in the upper essary for developing a management plan, which requires part of the catchment. It has continental type of climate immense data. In India most of the watersheds are unga- classified as sub-tropical and sub-humid with average uged. So, the morphometric analysis of watershed can play annual rainfall of 1,596 mm. It is very hot in summer and an important role in inadequate data collection. The mor- cold in winter. In the major part of the catchment, soils are phometric characteristics of a watershed represents its red, yellow and medium black with shallow to very shallow attributes and can be helpful in synthesizing its hydrolog- depth. In some small pockets of plain land, soils are mod- ical behavior (Pandey et al. 2004). It is very difficult to erately deep dark grayish clay. Approximately, 52 % of the develop a large area in one stretch, due to some geo- catchment area is under cultivation, about 35 % under forest environmental or economic conditions. So, there is a need and 13 % under wasteland (State Statistical Report 2010). to prioritize the area while applying the developmental program. Studies conducted by Sanware et al. (1988), Prasad et al. (1992) and Sharda et al. (1993) revealed that Materials and methods remote sensing and GIS techniques were of great use in characterization and prioritization of watershed areas. The watershed boundary of the study area was automated Chaudhary and Sharma (1998) carried out their study in delineated using SRTM data and is readily available on the Giri River catchment of North Himalayas for erosion website (http://www.gdem.aster.ersdac.or.jp). The delin- hazard assessment and treatment prioritization. Using eated watershed boundary was further subdivided into sub- morphometric parameters and F factor approach, critical watersheds (Fig 2). Morphometric analysis was carried out sub-watersheds of Dikrong River basin of Eastern Hima- for their 14n sub-watersheds. The parameters computed in the present study using GIS technique include area, layas suffering from maximum soil erosion were identified (Dabral and Pandey 2007). Morphometric parameters were perimeter, stream order, stream length, stream number and used to prioritize the five sub-watersheds of the Sarpha elevation, which were obtained from the digitized coverage River drainage basin of Shahdol of the District of Madhya of the drainage network map. However, bifurcation ratio, Pradesh using GIS technique by Sharma et al. (2008). drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form The present study is focused on prioritization of 14 sub- factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio and compactness watersheds of the Manot watershed of Mandla District, ratio were calculated by standard formulae as given in the Madhya Pradesh, India, based on GIS concept through subsequent text in ‘‘Morphometric analysis’’. The meth- morphometric analysis. Morphometric analysis and prior- odology used in this study is shown in Fig. 3. itization of watersheds are very important for water resource modeling and flood management (Youssef et al. Morphometric analysis 2011; Miller and Craig 2010; Bali et al. 2012). It includes identification and evaluation of watershed which contrib- Quantitative analysis is very advantageous as the basin utes to excessive erosion losses using faster and indirect variables derived are in the form of ratios or dimensionless methods and established relationships. This will prove to numbers, thus providing an effective comparison regard- be helpful in cases which are, as the present case is, less of scale. remotely placed and for those for which no other direct observational setup is available. Prioritizing erosion-prone Stream order areas in the catchment is essential when financial resources for executing a conservation plan are limited. The areas The first step in morphometric analysis of a drainage basin is the designation of stream order; stream ordering as most likely to contribute to a large volume of sediment, and which are susceptible to a high degree of erosion, get suggested by Strahler (1964) was used for this study. higher priority in treatment. Streams that originate at a source are defined as first-order 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 53 Fig. 1 Location map and stream network of Manot River catchment stream. When two streams of first order join, an order two Main stream length stream is created. When two streams of different orders join, the channel segment immediately downstream has a It is the length of the main stream having a maximum length. higher order of the two joining streams. The order of a basin is the order of the highest stream. Watershed perimeter (P ) Stream number (N ) r It is the length of the watershed boundary. It is the number of stream segments of various orders and is inversely proportional to the stream order. Maximum length of the watershed (L ) Total stream length (L ) It is the distance between the watershed outlet and the It is the length of all the streams having order u. It indicates farthest point on the watershed. the contributing area of the basin of that order. 123 54 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 Fig. 2 Sub-watershed of the Manot River catchment Bifurcation ratio (R ) R ¼ ð2Þ It is the ratio of the number of streams of a given order u to Elongation ratio (R ) the number of streams of higher order u ? 1. e R ¼ ð1Þ It is defined as the ratio between the diameter of a circle uþ1 with the same area as that of the basin to the maximum In general, lower values of R are characteristic of a length of the basin and is computed as watershed which has suffered less structural disturbances and where the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural sffiffiffiffiffi disturbances (Nag and Chakraborty 2003). Abnormally high 2 A R ¼ ð3Þ value of R might be expected in regions of steeply dipping b L rock strata. The value of R is also indicative of the shape of The elongation ratio ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 over a wide the basin. An elongated basin is likely to have high R , variety of climatic and geological environments. Values whereas a circular basin is likely to have a low R . nearing 1.0 are typical of regions of low relief, whereas values in the range of 0.6–0.8 are generally associated Form factor (R ) with strong relief and steep ground slopes. Elongated basins with high bifurcations yield a low, but extended It is the ratio of basin area A to the square of maximum peak flow. length of the basin L . 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 55 Drainage frequency (D ) SRTM Drainage frequency is the number of streams per unit area Geometric correction of the basin. It mainly depends upon the lithology of the basin and reflects the texture of the drainage network. Geometric Rectification Texture ratio (T) Extraction of the study area It is the ratio of the maximum watershed relief to the perimeter of the watershed. Drainage map Sub watershed T ¼ : ð5Þ Morphometric Analysis Maximum watershed relief (H) Basic parameter Linear parameter Shape parameter It is the maximum vertical distance between the lowest and highest points of a watershed. It is also known as total relief. Compound factor Compactness coefficient (C ) Ranking and prioritization It given by Horton (1945)as 0:5 Fig. 3 Flowchart of the methodology used in this study T ¼ 0:2821 ð6Þ For morphometric analysis, area, perimeter, maximum Circulatory ratio (R ) length of watershed, drainage network, stream length of each order and number of streams of each order and It is the ratio of the watershed area to the area of circle watershed relief values are required. These inputs were having an equal perimeter as the perimeter of the watershed derived using GIS software. The necessary parameters for (P ). Circular basins with low bifurcation ratio produce a morphometric analysis were calculated by using the sharp peak. It is computed as equations as discussed above, and with the above infor- mation the watershed is characterized. 12:57 A R ¼ : ð4Þ Prioritization of sub-watersheds Drainage density (D ) The resource considerations for implementation of water- Drainage density is one of the important indicators of the shed management program or various other reasons per- taining to administrative or even political consideration linear scale of land form in stream-eroded topography and is defined as the ratio of the total length of the may limit the implementation to few sub-watersheds. Even otherwise, it is always better to start management measures streams of all orders of basin to the area of the basin. from the highest priority sub-watersheds, which makes it The drainage density, expressed in km/km , indicates closeness of spacing of channels, thus providing a mandatory to prioritize the sub-watersheds available. Watershed prioritization is thus ranking of different sub- quantitative measure of the average length of stream channel for the whole basin. Further, it also gives an watersheds according to the order in which they have to be taken for treatment and soil conservation measures. Hence, idea of the physical properties of the underlying rocks. Low drainage density occurs in regions of highly resis- it was necessary to evolve a suitable mechanism for pri- oritizing the sub-watersheds. tant and permeable subsoil materials with dense vegeta- tion and low relief, whereas high drainage density is Bali and Karale (1977) prioritized the sub-watersheds on the basis of sediment yield index (SYI) that requires soil prevalent in regions of weak, impermeable subsurface map and other information. Morphometric parameters and materials which are sparsely vegetated and have high relief (Strahler 1964). SYI-based prioritization was carried out by Biswas et al. 123 56 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 (1999). In this study, both the prioritization schemes had higher unit area sediment yield. Hence, ranking of each given identical priority. The study indicates that morpho- sub-watershed was carried out depending on the values of metric analysis could be used effectively for prioritization different geomorphological parameters. The highest value even without a soil map. To facilitate phase-wise imple- of R , D , T and D was given a rating of 1, the next highest b d f mentation of watershed management program, all the sub- value was given a rating of 2 and so on, as these geo- watersheds were prioritized into four categories based on morphological parameters generally show positive corre- the percentage of the cultivated area and drainage density lation with soil erosion. The lowest value was rated last in of each sub-watershed by Durbude et al. (2001) and Pandey the series of numbers (Biswas et al. 2002; Nooka Ratnam, et al. (2004). Further, these categories were ranked on the 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007). For R , R , C and R , f e c c basis of average slope by Pandey et al. (2007). However, theleast value was given a rating of 1, the next lowest value this prioritization scheme also requires several types of was given a rating of 2 and so on, as these parameters show data. Javed et al. (2009) prioritized the sub-watersheds on negative correlation with soil erosion (Biswas et al. 2002; the basis of morphometric parameters and land use/land Nooka Ratnam 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007). So, the cover. Both the prioritization schemes were given identical prioritization rating of all the sub-watersheds of Manot priority. However, in another study, Javed et al. (2011) watershed was carried out by calculating the compound found that most of the sub-watersheds were not of parameter values. The sub-watershed with the lowest matching priority on the basis of the same prioritization compound parameter value was given the highest priority. scheme. This conflicting situation occurs due to variation in the cropping pattern and type of agriculture being practiced in the area. Result and discussion Drainage analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for sub-watershed prioritization, since it The study carried out has been divided into three sections. gives an idea about the basin characteristics in terms of The first section deals with delineation of stream numbers, slope, topography, soil condition, runoff characteristics, stream order and stream lengths in the study area using surface water potential, etc. Drainage network reflects the SRTM data along with delineation of watershed area, land-forming processes and thus gives the combined effect perimeter and length in GIS environment shown in of soil, lithological formation, land cover, etc., and hence Table 1. The second section deals with the various linear plays a major role in identifying the priority sub-water- and shape morphometric parameters which characterize the sheds for developmental work. sub-watersheds and lead to understanding the hydrological Watersheds are prioritized on the basis of morphometric behavior of sub-watersheds and thereby soil erosion in the parameters, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), SYI, respective sub-watersheds. The third section deals with the land use, land cover, etc. Several studies in the recent past prioritization of watersheds on the basis of these linear and have been done on prioritization of sub-watersheds and are shape morphometric parameters. discussed above. Morphometric analysis is one of the sig- nificant models for prioritization of sub-watersheds even Linear parameters without soil map and land use/land cover map. This model depends on the behavior of the total drainage system. The Drainage parameters such as drainage density, stream fre- drainage pattern refers to spatial relationship among quency, bifurcation ratio and texture ratio are grouped streams or rivers, which may be influenced in their erosion under linear parameters and are discussed in the following. by inequalities of slope, soil, rock resistance, structure and geologic history of the region. For prioritization of sub- Drainage density (D ) and drainage frequency (D ) d f watersheds in water resources management, the morpho- metric analysis uses some very crucial linear and shape In the present study, drainage density (D ) and drainage morphometric parameters. frequency (D ) are computed for all the sub-watersheds and Linear parameters such as drainage density, stream are given in Table 2. After analysis of the drainage map, it frequency, bifurcation ratio and texture ratio have direct was found that the Manot River catchment is of the eighth- relationship with erodibility, whereas shape parameters order type and the drainage pattern is dendritic. Drainage such as elongation ratio, circulatory ratio, form factor and frequency values of all the sub-watersheds have close compactness ratio have an inverse relationship with erod- correlation with drainage density indicating the increase in ibility (Nooka Ratnam 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007; stream population with respect to increase in drainage Kiran and Srivastava 2012). Greater values of linear density. High value of D in the sub-watershed 2 produces parameters enhance the runoff potential and thereby the more runoff compared to others. In general, it was erodibility, whereas lower values of shape parameters give observed over a wide range of geologic and climatic types 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 57 Table 1 Sub-watershed-wise morphometric parameters Sub-watershed Area Perimeter Elevation Length of basin Total relief No. of streams Total stream (km ) (km) (km) (m) length (km) Max (m) Min (m) 1 260.89 92.41 980 680 18.53 300 2,006 802.37 2 522.51 129.61 900 520 26.21 380 3,577 1,595.05 3 478.65 132.19 1,040 600 26.51 440 3,614 1,487.95 4 263.12 100.31 1,000 620 20.22 380 2,006 856.69 5 371.85 148.51 900 480 29.37 420 2,701 1,139.62 6 268.94 114.56 1,040 660 22.93 380 2,030 883.75 7 161.73 82.80 760 460 15.44 300 1,166 503.14 8 96.10 61.89 760 440 12.34 320 646 294.09 9 381.26 123.18 1,020 680 22.85 340 2,823 1,238.00 10 291.04 91.44 1,134 760 19.40 374 2,215 958.21 11 432.56 147.37 1,020 660 40.80 360 3,273 1,392.75 12 170.57 84.76 1,080 740 18.40 340 1,295 5,48.66 13 707.85 166.74 1,120 700 37.24 420 5,405 2,215.78 14 477.77 200.38 1,134 740 25.84 394 3,618 1,527.80 Table 2 Stream morphometric parameters Sub-watershed Bifurcation Drainage Stream Circulatory Form Elongation Texture Compactness ratio (R ) density (D ) frequency (F ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) ratio (R ) ratio (T) coefficient (C ) b d s c f e c 1 3.715 3.075 7.689 0.386 0.760 0.984 21.707 0.010 2 4.314 3.053 6.846 0.393 0.761 0.984 27.599 0.006 3 4.345 3.109 7.550 0.347 0.681 0.931 27.340 0.007 4 3.827 3.256 7.624 0.331 0.644 0.905 19.998 0.011 5 4.216 3.065 7.264 0.213 0.431 0.741 18.188 0.009 6 3.859 3.286 7.548 0.259 0.512 0.807 17.720 0.011 7 4.405 3.111 7.210 0.298 0.678 0.930 14.082 0.016 8 4.032 3.060 6.722 0.317 0.631 0.897 10.438 0.023 9 4.080 3.247 7.404 0.318 0.730 0.964 22.918 0.008 10 3.967 3.292 7.611 0.440 0.773 0.993 24.225 0.009 11 3.956 3.220 7.567 0.252 0.260 0.575 22.209 0.008 12 3.696 3.217 7.592 0.300 0.504 0.801 15.278 0.015 13 6.574 3.130 7.636 0.322 0.510 0.806 32.416 0.005 14 4.372 3.198 7.573 0.151 0.716 0.955 18.055 0.008 Bifurcation ratio (R ) that low D was more likely to occur in regions of highly d b permeable subsoil material under dense vegetation cover The bifurcation ratio (R ) reflecting the geological and and where relief was low. In contrast, high D is favored in d b regions of weak or impermeable subsurface material, tectonic characteristics of the watershed area were calcu- lated for all 14 sub-watersheds and are given in Table 2. sparse vegetation and mountainous relief (Nag and Cha- kraborty 2003). In the present study, low value of D for These values are more or less normal in the sub-watersheds sub-watershed 2 indicates that it has highly resistant, 1, 4, 6, 10, 11 and 12, as they range between 1 and 4 impermeable subsoil material with dense vegetation cover (Horton 1945). Higher values of R for sub-watersheds and low relief. The sub-watershed with high value of D indicates high runoff, low recharge and mature topography indicates a well-developed network, which is conducive for and are expected in the region of steeply dipping rock strata quick disposal of runoff resulting in intense floods and also where narrow valley is confined between the ridges. The values of R also indicate that the basin has suffered less characterized by a region of weak subsurface materials, high relief and sparse vegetation. structural disturbances. The variation in R values among 123 58 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 Table 3 Prioritization sub-watersheds using morphological parameters Sub-watershed Bifurcation Drainage Stream Circulatory Form Elongation Texture Compactness Compound Final No. ratio (R ) density (D ) frequency (F ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) ratio (R ) ratio (T) coefficient (C ) parameter priority b d s c f e c 1 13 10 1 12 13 12 7 6 9.25 12 2 5 11 14 13 12 13 2 2 9.00 11 3 4 9 8 11 9 9 3 3 7.00 6 4 12 14 3 10 7 7 8 7 8.50 10 5 6 12 11 2 2 2 9 5 6.13 3 6 11 2 9 4 5 5 11 7 6.75 5 7 2 8 12 5 8 8 13 9 8.13 8 8 8 13 13 7 6 6 14 10 9.63 13 9 7 3 10 8 11 11 6 4 7.50 7 10 10 1 4 14 14 14 4 5 8.25 9 11 9 4 7 3 1 1 5 4 4.25 2 12 14 5 5 6 3 3 12 8 7.00 6 13 1 7 2 9 4 4 1 1 3.63 1 14 3 6 6 1 10 10 10 4 6.25 4 the drainage basins are attributed to the differences in duration. Flood flows of such elongated basins are easier to various stages of geomorphic development and topographic manage than those of circular basin. variations. Circulatory ratio (R ) Texture ratio (T) Circulatory ratio (R ) is influenced by the length and fre- quency of streams, geological structures, land use/land It is the total number of stream segments of all orders per cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. In the present perimeter of that area (Horton 1945). In the present study, case, circulatory ratios for sub-watersheds are 0.15–0.44, texture ratio varied from 10.43 to 27.59. The lower values indicating that the area is characterized by high relief and of texture ratio indicate that the basin is plain with lower the drainage system is structurally controlled. degree of slopes. Elongation ratio (R ) Shape parameters The value of elongation ratio (R ) for sub-watersheds In general, the shape of the basin affects the stream flow varies between 0.57 and 0.99, indicating sub-watersheds to hydrography and peak flows. Important parameters such as be elongated with high relief and steep slopes. form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and com- pactness coefficient grouped under shape parameters were Compactness coefficient (C ) computed for all 14 sub-watersheds (Table 2) and are discussed below: The compactness coefficient value for the whole study area is shown in Table 2. The highest value was found for sub- Form factor (R ) watershed 8 (0.023), while the lowest value was for sub- watershed 13 (0.005). The value of form factor would always be \0.7854 (for perfectly circular basin). The smaller the value of form Prioritization of sub-watersheds factor, the more elongated will be the basin. Basins with high form factor have high peak flows of shorter duration, To facilitate the phase-wise implementation, all the sub- whereas those with low form factor have lower peak flows watersheds are prioritized on the basis of morphometric of longer duration. In the present case, sub-watersheds have analysis. The compound parameter values of the 14 sub- lower R value (0.26–0.76) indicating them to be elongated watersheds of the Manot River catchment are calcu- in shape and suggesting flatter peak flow for longer lated and prioritization rating is shown in Table 3. The 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 59 sub-watershed 13 with a compound parameter value of validation to the morphometric parameter-based prioriti- 3.63 received the highest priority (one) with the next in zation. The Manot watershed finds appreciable correlation priority being sub-watershed 11, having a compound with the basalts which contains intertrappeans which are parameter value of 4.25. The highest priority indicates the easily erodible and contribute to sediment yield and also greater degree of erosion in the particular sub-watershed the horizons of spheroidial weathering. The frequency of and it becomes a potential candidate for applying soil vesicles are not uniform properties, and deeply penetrating conservation measures. The final prioritized map of the joint areas cause deep weathering zones due to circulation study area is shown in Fig. 4. Thus, soil conservation of water, even before the onset of watershed formation. measures can first be applied to sub-watershed 13 and then This initial heterogeneity has played an important role and to others depending on their priority. caused variation in the transport mechanism and watershed The implication of structures, degree and depth of formation. The sub watersheds which are coming on pri- weathering, and position of lithological horizons are pro- ority from 1st to 7th is in fact a combined response of the found and are represented in the present prioritization. two different lithology in the Manot watershed. The hard Geological field conditions provide very significant and compact basalts produce very little sediment yield but Fig. 4 Prioritized rank map of the Manot River catchment 123 60 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 order, bifurcation ratio, stream length and aerial aspects such as drainage density (D ), stream frequency (F ), form d s factor (R ), circulatory ratio (R ) and elongation ratio (R ). f c e The conventional methods of morphometric analysis are time-consuming and error prone, while use of GIS tech- nique allows for more reliable and accurate estimation of similar parameters of watersheds. The morphometric ana- lysis of different sub-watersheds shows their relative characteristics with respect to hydrologic response of the watershed. The results of morphometric analysis show that sub-watershed 13 and 11 are prone to relatively higher erosion and soil loss. Geological field verification also agrees with the present morphological-based prioritization. Fig. 5 Intertrappeans horizon containing water being recharged by Hence, suitable soil erosion control measures are required the movement of water down the basaltic slope in these sub-watersheds to preserve the land from further erosion. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, dis- tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References Bali YP, Karale RL (1977) A sediment yield index for choosing priority basins. IAHS–AISH Publ 222:180 Bali R, Agarwal K, Nawaz AS, Rastogi S, Krishna K (2012) Drainage morphometry of Himalayan Glacio-fluvial basin, India: hydro- logic and neotectonic implications. 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In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook Sensing and GIS for watershed characterization—a case study of of applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 4–39 Banikdin watershed (Eastern India). Asian J Geoinformatics Thakkar AK, Dhiman SD (2007) Morphometric analysis and 3(7):3–15 prioritization of mini watersheds in Mohr watershed, Gujarat Prasad KSS, Gopi S, Rao SR (1992) Demarcation of priority macro using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. J Indian Soc Remote watershed in Mahboobnagar district A.P. using remote sensing Sens 35(4):313–321 technique. In: Murlikrishnav IV (ed) Remote sensing application Youssef AM, Pradhan B, Hassan AM (2011) Flash flood risk and GIS recent trends. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., estimation along the St. Katherine road, southern Sinai, Egypt New Delhi, pp 180–186 using GIS based morphometry and satellite imagery. Environ Sanware PG, Singh CP, Karele RI (1988) Remote sensing application Earth Sci 62(3):611–623 for prioritization of subwatershed using sediment yield and http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Applied Water Science Springer Journals

Prioritizing erosion-prone area through morphometric analysis: an RS and GIS perspective

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Earth Sciences; Hydrogeology; Water Industry/Water Technologies; Industrial and Production Engineering; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution; Nanotechnology; Private International Law, International & Foreign Law, Comparative Law
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Abstract

Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 DOI 10.1007/s13201-013-0129-7 O R I G IN AL ARTI CL E Prioritizing erosion-prone area through morphometric analysis: an RS and GIS perspective • • Sarita Gajbhiye S. K. Mishra Ashish Pandey Received: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published online: 25 September 2013 The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract The geomorphological characteristics of a So, planning and management of these natural resources is watershed are more commonly used for developing the the need of the hour. Proper scientific planning and man- regional hydrological models for solving various hydro- agement of these resources requires immense data. There- logical problems of the ungauged watersheds in inadequate fore, geomorphological characteristics of a watershed are data situations. Therefore, in this study to find out the most commonly used for developing the regional hydrological vulnerable sub-watershed to soil erosion, morphometric models for solving various hydrological problems of the analysis and prioritization were carried out on 14 sub- ungauged watersheds or inadequate data situations. Appli- watersheds of Manot River catchment, which is a tributary cations of geographical information system (GIS) techniques of the Narmada River. The morphometric parameters con- are much efficient, time-saving and suitable for spatial sidered for analysis are stream order, stream length, stream planning. GIS can handle complex issues and large databases frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, cir- for manipulation and retrieval. The use of computer has made culatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and com- GIS automated and today the technique is not only capable of pactness ratio. After analysis of morphometric parameters, handling large datasets, but can also solve many complex compound parameter values are calculated and prioritiza- issues besides facilitating retrieval and querying of data. tion rating of 14 sub-watersheds is carried out. The sub- Population pressure has been increasing over the years watershed 13 that has the lowest compound parameter value resulting in the scarcity of availability of land and water of 3.63 is likely to be subjected to maximum soil erosion; resources. Industrial expansion is also a need of the time, hence, it requires immediate attention to providing soil which requires infrastructural facilities; which intern forms conservation measures. Morphological parameters-based a feed back resulting in further pressure on finite land and prioritization is in good agreement with the geological field water resources. About 53 % of the total area of India which investigation carried out during the field work. is 172 m ha suffers from serious soil erosion and other forms of degradation. In a country like India that supports Keywords Morphometric analysis  Soil erosion  16 % of the world’s population on 2 % of the global land Prioritization  GIS  Soil conservation area, the problem is serious (Sebestain et al. 1995). So, planning and management of land and water resources on a sustained basis without deterioration and with constant Introduction increase in productivity is the mainstay for mankind. For their efficient and sustainable management, one has to look Availability of natural resources, i.e., land and water is for a sustainable unit, so that these resources can be handled decreasing day by day, due to growing population pressure. and managed effectively. The watersheds or hydrological units are considered efficient and appropriate for the nec- essary survey and investigation of the assessment of these S. Gajbhiye (&)  S. K. Mishra  A. Pandey resources and subsequent planning and implementation of Department of Water Resource Development and Management, various development programs such as soil and water IIT, Roorkee, India conservation, command area development, erosion control e-mail: gajbhiyesarita@gmail.com 123 52 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 in catchment rivers, dry land/rain-fed farming and recla- Study area mation of ravine lands. The hydrologic units are equally important for the development of water resources through The Narmada catchment up to Manot is located in Mandla major, medium and minor storage projects as well as farm- District of Madhya Pradesh and is bounded between 0 0 level water harvesting structures. So, the watershed northern latitudes 2226 –2318 and eastern longitudes 0 0 approach is more rational, because land and water resources 8024 –8147 as in Fig 1. This figure also shows the digi- have optimum interaction and synergetic effect when tized stream network. The length of River Narmada from its developed on the watershed basis. origin up to Manot is about 269 km with a drainage area of 4,884 km . The catchment is covered by forest and its An accurate understanding of the hydrological behavior of watershed is important for effective management. topography is hilly. Its elevation ranges from 450 m near the Intensive study of individual watershed is therefore nec- Manot site to 1,110 m above mean sea level in the upper essary for developing a management plan, which requires part of the catchment. It has continental type of climate immense data. In India most of the watersheds are unga- classified as sub-tropical and sub-humid with average uged. So, the morphometric analysis of watershed can play annual rainfall of 1,596 mm. It is very hot in summer and an important role in inadequate data collection. The mor- cold in winter. In the major part of the catchment, soils are phometric characteristics of a watershed represents its red, yellow and medium black with shallow to very shallow attributes and can be helpful in synthesizing its hydrolog- depth. In some small pockets of plain land, soils are mod- ical behavior (Pandey et al. 2004). It is very difficult to erately deep dark grayish clay. Approximately, 52 % of the develop a large area in one stretch, due to some geo- catchment area is under cultivation, about 35 % under forest environmental or economic conditions. So, there is a need and 13 % under wasteland (State Statistical Report 2010). to prioritize the area while applying the developmental program. Studies conducted by Sanware et al. (1988), Prasad et al. (1992) and Sharda et al. (1993) revealed that Materials and methods remote sensing and GIS techniques were of great use in characterization and prioritization of watershed areas. The watershed boundary of the study area was automated Chaudhary and Sharma (1998) carried out their study in delineated using SRTM data and is readily available on the Giri River catchment of North Himalayas for erosion website (http://www.gdem.aster.ersdac.or.jp). The delin- hazard assessment and treatment prioritization. Using eated watershed boundary was further subdivided into sub- morphometric parameters and F factor approach, critical watersheds (Fig 2). Morphometric analysis was carried out sub-watersheds of Dikrong River basin of Eastern Hima- for their 14n sub-watersheds. The parameters computed in the present study using GIS technique include area, layas suffering from maximum soil erosion were identified (Dabral and Pandey 2007). Morphometric parameters were perimeter, stream order, stream length, stream number and used to prioritize the five sub-watersheds of the Sarpha elevation, which were obtained from the digitized coverage River drainage basin of Shahdol of the District of Madhya of the drainage network map. However, bifurcation ratio, Pradesh using GIS technique by Sharma et al. (2008). drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form The present study is focused on prioritization of 14 sub- factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio and compactness watersheds of the Manot watershed of Mandla District, ratio were calculated by standard formulae as given in the Madhya Pradesh, India, based on GIS concept through subsequent text in ‘‘Morphometric analysis’’. The meth- morphometric analysis. Morphometric analysis and prior- odology used in this study is shown in Fig. 3. itization of watersheds are very important for water resource modeling and flood management (Youssef et al. Morphometric analysis 2011; Miller and Craig 2010; Bali et al. 2012). It includes identification and evaluation of watershed which contrib- Quantitative analysis is very advantageous as the basin utes to excessive erosion losses using faster and indirect variables derived are in the form of ratios or dimensionless methods and established relationships. This will prove to numbers, thus providing an effective comparison regard- be helpful in cases which are, as the present case is, less of scale. remotely placed and for those for which no other direct observational setup is available. Prioritizing erosion-prone Stream order areas in the catchment is essential when financial resources for executing a conservation plan are limited. The areas The first step in morphometric analysis of a drainage basin is the designation of stream order; stream ordering as most likely to contribute to a large volume of sediment, and which are susceptible to a high degree of erosion, get suggested by Strahler (1964) was used for this study. higher priority in treatment. Streams that originate at a source are defined as first-order 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 53 Fig. 1 Location map and stream network of Manot River catchment stream. When two streams of first order join, an order two Main stream length stream is created. When two streams of different orders join, the channel segment immediately downstream has a It is the length of the main stream having a maximum length. higher order of the two joining streams. The order of a basin is the order of the highest stream. Watershed perimeter (P ) Stream number (N ) r It is the length of the watershed boundary. It is the number of stream segments of various orders and is inversely proportional to the stream order. Maximum length of the watershed (L ) Total stream length (L ) It is the distance between the watershed outlet and the It is the length of all the streams having order u. It indicates farthest point on the watershed. the contributing area of the basin of that order. 123 54 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 Fig. 2 Sub-watershed of the Manot River catchment Bifurcation ratio (R ) R ¼ ð2Þ It is the ratio of the number of streams of a given order u to Elongation ratio (R ) the number of streams of higher order u ? 1. e R ¼ ð1Þ It is defined as the ratio between the diameter of a circle uþ1 with the same area as that of the basin to the maximum In general, lower values of R are characteristic of a length of the basin and is computed as watershed which has suffered less structural disturbances and where the drainage pattern has not been distorted by structural sffiffiffiffiffi disturbances (Nag and Chakraborty 2003). Abnormally high 2 A R ¼ ð3Þ value of R might be expected in regions of steeply dipping b L rock strata. The value of R is also indicative of the shape of The elongation ratio ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 over a wide the basin. An elongated basin is likely to have high R , variety of climatic and geological environments. Values whereas a circular basin is likely to have a low R . nearing 1.0 are typical of regions of low relief, whereas values in the range of 0.6–0.8 are generally associated Form factor (R ) with strong relief and steep ground slopes. Elongated basins with high bifurcations yield a low, but extended It is the ratio of basin area A to the square of maximum peak flow. length of the basin L . 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 55 Drainage frequency (D ) SRTM Drainage frequency is the number of streams per unit area Geometric correction of the basin. It mainly depends upon the lithology of the basin and reflects the texture of the drainage network. Geometric Rectification Texture ratio (T) Extraction of the study area It is the ratio of the maximum watershed relief to the perimeter of the watershed. Drainage map Sub watershed T ¼ : ð5Þ Morphometric Analysis Maximum watershed relief (H) Basic parameter Linear parameter Shape parameter It is the maximum vertical distance between the lowest and highest points of a watershed. It is also known as total relief. Compound factor Compactness coefficient (C ) Ranking and prioritization It given by Horton (1945)as 0:5 Fig. 3 Flowchart of the methodology used in this study T ¼ 0:2821 ð6Þ For morphometric analysis, area, perimeter, maximum Circulatory ratio (R ) length of watershed, drainage network, stream length of each order and number of streams of each order and It is the ratio of the watershed area to the area of circle watershed relief values are required. These inputs were having an equal perimeter as the perimeter of the watershed derived using GIS software. The necessary parameters for (P ). Circular basins with low bifurcation ratio produce a morphometric analysis were calculated by using the sharp peak. It is computed as equations as discussed above, and with the above infor- mation the watershed is characterized. 12:57 A R ¼ : ð4Þ Prioritization of sub-watersheds Drainage density (D ) The resource considerations for implementation of water- Drainage density is one of the important indicators of the shed management program or various other reasons per- taining to administrative or even political consideration linear scale of land form in stream-eroded topography and is defined as the ratio of the total length of the may limit the implementation to few sub-watersheds. Even otherwise, it is always better to start management measures streams of all orders of basin to the area of the basin. from the highest priority sub-watersheds, which makes it The drainage density, expressed in km/km , indicates closeness of spacing of channels, thus providing a mandatory to prioritize the sub-watersheds available. Watershed prioritization is thus ranking of different sub- quantitative measure of the average length of stream channel for the whole basin. Further, it also gives an watersheds according to the order in which they have to be taken for treatment and soil conservation measures. Hence, idea of the physical properties of the underlying rocks. Low drainage density occurs in regions of highly resis- it was necessary to evolve a suitable mechanism for pri- oritizing the sub-watersheds. tant and permeable subsoil materials with dense vegeta- tion and low relief, whereas high drainage density is Bali and Karale (1977) prioritized the sub-watersheds on the basis of sediment yield index (SYI) that requires soil prevalent in regions of weak, impermeable subsurface map and other information. Morphometric parameters and materials which are sparsely vegetated and have high relief (Strahler 1964). SYI-based prioritization was carried out by Biswas et al. 123 56 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 (1999). In this study, both the prioritization schemes had higher unit area sediment yield. Hence, ranking of each given identical priority. The study indicates that morpho- sub-watershed was carried out depending on the values of metric analysis could be used effectively for prioritization different geomorphological parameters. The highest value even without a soil map. To facilitate phase-wise imple- of R , D , T and D was given a rating of 1, the next highest b d f mentation of watershed management program, all the sub- value was given a rating of 2 and so on, as these geo- watersheds were prioritized into four categories based on morphological parameters generally show positive corre- the percentage of the cultivated area and drainage density lation with soil erosion. The lowest value was rated last in of each sub-watershed by Durbude et al. (2001) and Pandey the series of numbers (Biswas et al. 2002; Nooka Ratnam, et al. (2004). Further, these categories were ranked on the 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007). For R , R , C and R , f e c c basis of average slope by Pandey et al. (2007). However, theleast value was given a rating of 1, the next lowest value this prioritization scheme also requires several types of was given a rating of 2 and so on, as these parameters show data. Javed et al. (2009) prioritized the sub-watersheds on negative correlation with soil erosion (Biswas et al. 2002; the basis of morphometric parameters and land use/land Nooka Ratnam 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007). So, the cover. Both the prioritization schemes were given identical prioritization rating of all the sub-watersheds of Manot priority. However, in another study, Javed et al. (2011) watershed was carried out by calculating the compound found that most of the sub-watersheds were not of parameter values. The sub-watershed with the lowest matching priority on the basis of the same prioritization compound parameter value was given the highest priority. scheme. This conflicting situation occurs due to variation in the cropping pattern and type of agriculture being practiced in the area. Result and discussion Drainage analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for sub-watershed prioritization, since it The study carried out has been divided into three sections. gives an idea about the basin characteristics in terms of The first section deals with delineation of stream numbers, slope, topography, soil condition, runoff characteristics, stream order and stream lengths in the study area using surface water potential, etc. Drainage network reflects the SRTM data along with delineation of watershed area, land-forming processes and thus gives the combined effect perimeter and length in GIS environment shown in of soil, lithological formation, land cover, etc., and hence Table 1. The second section deals with the various linear plays a major role in identifying the priority sub-water- and shape morphometric parameters which characterize the sheds for developmental work. sub-watersheds and lead to understanding the hydrological Watersheds are prioritized on the basis of morphometric behavior of sub-watersheds and thereby soil erosion in the parameters, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), SYI, respective sub-watersheds. The third section deals with the land use, land cover, etc. Several studies in the recent past prioritization of watersheds on the basis of these linear and have been done on prioritization of sub-watersheds and are shape morphometric parameters. discussed above. Morphometric analysis is one of the sig- nificant models for prioritization of sub-watersheds even Linear parameters without soil map and land use/land cover map. This model depends on the behavior of the total drainage system. The Drainage parameters such as drainage density, stream fre- drainage pattern refers to spatial relationship among quency, bifurcation ratio and texture ratio are grouped streams or rivers, which may be influenced in their erosion under linear parameters and are discussed in the following. by inequalities of slope, soil, rock resistance, structure and geologic history of the region. For prioritization of sub- Drainage density (D ) and drainage frequency (D ) d f watersheds in water resources management, the morpho- metric analysis uses some very crucial linear and shape In the present study, drainage density (D ) and drainage morphometric parameters. frequency (D ) are computed for all the sub-watersheds and Linear parameters such as drainage density, stream are given in Table 2. After analysis of the drainage map, it frequency, bifurcation ratio and texture ratio have direct was found that the Manot River catchment is of the eighth- relationship with erodibility, whereas shape parameters order type and the drainage pattern is dendritic. Drainage such as elongation ratio, circulatory ratio, form factor and frequency values of all the sub-watersheds have close compactness ratio have an inverse relationship with erod- correlation with drainage density indicating the increase in ibility (Nooka Ratnam 2005; Thakkar and Dhiman 2007; stream population with respect to increase in drainage Kiran and Srivastava 2012). Greater values of linear density. High value of D in the sub-watershed 2 produces parameters enhance the runoff potential and thereby the more runoff compared to others. In general, it was erodibility, whereas lower values of shape parameters give observed over a wide range of geologic and climatic types 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 57 Table 1 Sub-watershed-wise morphometric parameters Sub-watershed Area Perimeter Elevation Length of basin Total relief No. of streams Total stream (km ) (km) (km) (m) length (km) Max (m) Min (m) 1 260.89 92.41 980 680 18.53 300 2,006 802.37 2 522.51 129.61 900 520 26.21 380 3,577 1,595.05 3 478.65 132.19 1,040 600 26.51 440 3,614 1,487.95 4 263.12 100.31 1,000 620 20.22 380 2,006 856.69 5 371.85 148.51 900 480 29.37 420 2,701 1,139.62 6 268.94 114.56 1,040 660 22.93 380 2,030 883.75 7 161.73 82.80 760 460 15.44 300 1,166 503.14 8 96.10 61.89 760 440 12.34 320 646 294.09 9 381.26 123.18 1,020 680 22.85 340 2,823 1,238.00 10 291.04 91.44 1,134 760 19.40 374 2,215 958.21 11 432.56 147.37 1,020 660 40.80 360 3,273 1,392.75 12 170.57 84.76 1,080 740 18.40 340 1,295 5,48.66 13 707.85 166.74 1,120 700 37.24 420 5,405 2,215.78 14 477.77 200.38 1,134 740 25.84 394 3,618 1,527.80 Table 2 Stream morphometric parameters Sub-watershed Bifurcation Drainage Stream Circulatory Form Elongation Texture Compactness ratio (R ) density (D ) frequency (F ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) ratio (R ) ratio (T) coefficient (C ) b d s c f e c 1 3.715 3.075 7.689 0.386 0.760 0.984 21.707 0.010 2 4.314 3.053 6.846 0.393 0.761 0.984 27.599 0.006 3 4.345 3.109 7.550 0.347 0.681 0.931 27.340 0.007 4 3.827 3.256 7.624 0.331 0.644 0.905 19.998 0.011 5 4.216 3.065 7.264 0.213 0.431 0.741 18.188 0.009 6 3.859 3.286 7.548 0.259 0.512 0.807 17.720 0.011 7 4.405 3.111 7.210 0.298 0.678 0.930 14.082 0.016 8 4.032 3.060 6.722 0.317 0.631 0.897 10.438 0.023 9 4.080 3.247 7.404 0.318 0.730 0.964 22.918 0.008 10 3.967 3.292 7.611 0.440 0.773 0.993 24.225 0.009 11 3.956 3.220 7.567 0.252 0.260 0.575 22.209 0.008 12 3.696 3.217 7.592 0.300 0.504 0.801 15.278 0.015 13 6.574 3.130 7.636 0.322 0.510 0.806 32.416 0.005 14 4.372 3.198 7.573 0.151 0.716 0.955 18.055 0.008 Bifurcation ratio (R ) that low D was more likely to occur in regions of highly d b permeable subsoil material under dense vegetation cover The bifurcation ratio (R ) reflecting the geological and and where relief was low. In contrast, high D is favored in d b regions of weak or impermeable subsurface material, tectonic characteristics of the watershed area were calcu- lated for all 14 sub-watersheds and are given in Table 2. sparse vegetation and mountainous relief (Nag and Cha- kraborty 2003). In the present study, low value of D for These values are more or less normal in the sub-watersheds sub-watershed 2 indicates that it has highly resistant, 1, 4, 6, 10, 11 and 12, as they range between 1 and 4 impermeable subsoil material with dense vegetation cover (Horton 1945). Higher values of R for sub-watersheds and low relief. The sub-watershed with high value of D indicates high runoff, low recharge and mature topography indicates a well-developed network, which is conducive for and are expected in the region of steeply dipping rock strata quick disposal of runoff resulting in intense floods and also where narrow valley is confined between the ridges. The values of R also indicate that the basin has suffered less characterized by a region of weak subsurface materials, high relief and sparse vegetation. structural disturbances. The variation in R values among 123 58 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 Table 3 Prioritization sub-watersheds using morphological parameters Sub-watershed Bifurcation Drainage Stream Circulatory Form Elongation Texture Compactness Compound Final No. ratio (R ) density (D ) frequency (F ) ratio (R ) factor (R ) ratio (R ) ratio (T) coefficient (C ) parameter priority b d s c f e c 1 13 10 1 12 13 12 7 6 9.25 12 2 5 11 14 13 12 13 2 2 9.00 11 3 4 9 8 11 9 9 3 3 7.00 6 4 12 14 3 10 7 7 8 7 8.50 10 5 6 12 11 2 2 2 9 5 6.13 3 6 11 2 9 4 5 5 11 7 6.75 5 7 2 8 12 5 8 8 13 9 8.13 8 8 8 13 13 7 6 6 14 10 9.63 13 9 7 3 10 8 11 11 6 4 7.50 7 10 10 1 4 14 14 14 4 5 8.25 9 11 9 4 7 3 1 1 5 4 4.25 2 12 14 5 5 6 3 3 12 8 7.00 6 13 1 7 2 9 4 4 1 1 3.63 1 14 3 6 6 1 10 10 10 4 6.25 4 the drainage basins are attributed to the differences in duration. Flood flows of such elongated basins are easier to various stages of geomorphic development and topographic manage than those of circular basin. variations. Circulatory ratio (R ) Texture ratio (T) Circulatory ratio (R ) is influenced by the length and fre- quency of streams, geological structures, land use/land It is the total number of stream segments of all orders per cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. In the present perimeter of that area (Horton 1945). In the present study, case, circulatory ratios for sub-watersheds are 0.15–0.44, texture ratio varied from 10.43 to 27.59. The lower values indicating that the area is characterized by high relief and of texture ratio indicate that the basin is plain with lower the drainage system is structurally controlled. degree of slopes. Elongation ratio (R ) Shape parameters The value of elongation ratio (R ) for sub-watersheds In general, the shape of the basin affects the stream flow varies between 0.57 and 0.99, indicating sub-watersheds to hydrography and peak flows. Important parameters such as be elongated with high relief and steep slopes. form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio and com- pactness coefficient grouped under shape parameters were Compactness coefficient (C ) computed for all 14 sub-watersheds (Table 2) and are discussed below: The compactness coefficient value for the whole study area is shown in Table 2. The highest value was found for sub- Form factor (R ) watershed 8 (0.023), while the lowest value was for sub- watershed 13 (0.005). The value of form factor would always be \0.7854 (for perfectly circular basin). The smaller the value of form Prioritization of sub-watersheds factor, the more elongated will be the basin. Basins with high form factor have high peak flows of shorter duration, To facilitate the phase-wise implementation, all the sub- whereas those with low form factor have lower peak flows watersheds are prioritized on the basis of morphometric of longer duration. In the present case, sub-watersheds have analysis. The compound parameter values of the 14 sub- lower R value (0.26–0.76) indicating them to be elongated watersheds of the Manot River catchment are calcu- in shape and suggesting flatter peak flow for longer lated and prioritization rating is shown in Table 3. The 123 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 59 sub-watershed 13 with a compound parameter value of validation to the morphometric parameter-based prioriti- 3.63 received the highest priority (one) with the next in zation. The Manot watershed finds appreciable correlation priority being sub-watershed 11, having a compound with the basalts which contains intertrappeans which are parameter value of 4.25. The highest priority indicates the easily erodible and contribute to sediment yield and also greater degree of erosion in the particular sub-watershed the horizons of spheroidial weathering. The frequency of and it becomes a potential candidate for applying soil vesicles are not uniform properties, and deeply penetrating conservation measures. The final prioritized map of the joint areas cause deep weathering zones due to circulation study area is shown in Fig. 4. Thus, soil conservation of water, even before the onset of watershed formation. measures can first be applied to sub-watershed 13 and then This initial heterogeneity has played an important role and to others depending on their priority. caused variation in the transport mechanism and watershed The implication of structures, degree and depth of formation. The sub watersheds which are coming on pri- weathering, and position of lithological horizons are pro- ority from 1st to 7th is in fact a combined response of the found and are represented in the present prioritization. two different lithology in the Manot watershed. The hard Geological field conditions provide very significant and compact basalts produce very little sediment yield but Fig. 4 Prioritized rank map of the Manot River catchment 123 60 Appl Water Sci (2014) 4:51–61 order, bifurcation ratio, stream length and aerial aspects such as drainage density (D ), stream frequency (F ), form d s factor (R ), circulatory ratio (R ) and elongation ratio (R ). f c e The conventional methods of morphometric analysis are time-consuming and error prone, while use of GIS tech- nique allows for more reliable and accurate estimation of similar parameters of watersheds. The morphometric ana- lysis of different sub-watersheds shows their relative characteristics with respect to hydrologic response of the watershed. The results of morphometric analysis show that sub-watershed 13 and 11 are prone to relatively higher erosion and soil loss. Geological field verification also agrees with the present morphological-based prioritization. Fig. 5 Intertrappeans horizon containing water being recharged by Hence, suitable soil erosion control measures are required the movement of water down the basaltic slope in these sub-watersheds to preserve the land from further erosion. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, dis- tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References Bali YP, Karale RL (1977) A sediment yield index for choosing priority basins. IAHS–AISH Publ 222:180 Bali R, Agarwal K, Nawaz AS, Rastogi S, Krishna K (2012) Drainage morphometry of Himalayan Glacio-fluvial basin, India: hydro- logic and neotectonic implications. Environ Earth Sci 66(4):1163–1174. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1324-1 Biswas S, Sudhakar S, Desai VR (1999) Prioritization of sub Fig. 6 Manot highlands facing the Narmada watershed based on morphometric analysis of drainage basin: a remote sensing and GIS approach. J. Indian Soc Remote Sens 22(3):155–167 Biswas S, Sudhakar S, Desai VR (2002) Remote sensing and high runoff conditions, and the intertrappeans sedimentary geographical information system based approach for watershed rocks which are soft and easily eroded contribute to the conservation. J Surv Eng 128(3):108–124 sediments. Higher runoff conditions have also diluted the Chaudhary RS, Sharma PD (1998) Erosion hazard assessment and treatment prioritization of Giri river catchment, North Himala- sediment per unit volume. Therefore sub-watersheds which yas. 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Published: Sep 25, 2013

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