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Role of Metals on SARS-CoV-2 Infection: a Review of Recent Epidemiological Studies

Role of Metals on SARS-CoV-2 Infection: a Review of Recent Epidemiological Studies Purpose of ReviewMetals and metalloids are known for their nutritional as well as toxic effects in humans. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, understanding the role of metals on COVID-19 infection is becoming important due to their role in infectious diseases. During the past 2 years, a significant number of studies have examined the impact of metals and metalloids on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed manuscripts on the association of metals and metalloids with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity published since the onset of the pandemic.Recent FindingsWe searched for epidemiological studies available through the PubMed database published from January 2020 to December 2022. Of 92 studies identified, 20 met our inclusion criteria. These articles investigated the association of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), and/or lead (Pb) levels on SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or COVID-19 severity. Of the ten metals and metalloids of interest that reported either positive, negative, or no associations, Zn yielded the highest number of articles (n = 13), followed by epidemiological studies on Se (n = 7) and Fe (n = 5). Elevated serum Zn and Se were associated with reduced COVID-19 severity and mortality. Similarly, higher levels of serum Fe were associated with lower levels of cellular damage and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and with faster recovery from COVID-19. On the other hand, higher serum and urinary Cu and serum Mg levels were associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. Along with the positive or negative effects, some studies reported no impact of metals on SARS-CoV-2 infection.SummaryThis systematic review suggests that metals, particularly Zn, Fe, and Se, may help reduce the severity of COVID-19, while Cu and Mg may aggravate it. Our review suggests that future pandemic mitigation strategies may evaluate the role of Zn, Se, and Fe as potential therapeutic interventions. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Environmental Health Reports Springer Journals

Role of Metals on SARS-CoV-2 Infection: a Review of Recent Epidemiological Studies

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References (55)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
eISSN
2196-5412
DOI
10.1007/s40572-023-00409-4
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose of ReviewMetals and metalloids are known for their nutritional as well as toxic effects in humans. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, understanding the role of metals on COVID-19 infection is becoming important due to their role in infectious diseases. During the past 2 years, a significant number of studies have examined the impact of metals and metalloids on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed manuscripts on the association of metals and metalloids with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity published since the onset of the pandemic.Recent FindingsWe searched for epidemiological studies available through the PubMed database published from January 2020 to December 2022. Of 92 studies identified, 20 met our inclusion criteria. These articles investigated the association of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), and/or lead (Pb) levels on SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or COVID-19 severity. Of the ten metals and metalloids of interest that reported either positive, negative, or no associations, Zn yielded the highest number of articles (n = 13), followed by epidemiological studies on Se (n = 7) and Fe (n = 5). Elevated serum Zn and Se were associated with reduced COVID-19 severity and mortality. Similarly, higher levels of serum Fe were associated with lower levels of cellular damage and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and with faster recovery from COVID-19. On the other hand, higher serum and urinary Cu and serum Mg levels were associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. Along with the positive or negative effects, some studies reported no impact of metals on SARS-CoV-2 infection.SummaryThis systematic review suggests that metals, particularly Zn, Fe, and Se, may help reduce the severity of COVID-19, while Cu and Mg may aggravate it. Our review suggests that future pandemic mitigation strategies may evaluate the role of Zn, Se, and Fe as potential therapeutic interventions.

Journal

Current Environmental Health ReportsSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 1, 2023

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Metals; Metalloids; Disease severity; Mortality

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