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The addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) is a species under serious threat of extinction, as it is more abundant in captivity than in the wild. However, little is known about its basic biology. The aims of this study were to determine how locomotor, feeding, aggressive, marking, and sexual behavior of male addax allocated in all-male groups vary with season and with female contact (i.e., biostimulation). The study was conducted in captive conditions, in two groups of adult males: one with no-physical contact with females, aside from visual and olfactory interactions (CF group, n = 4), and another group completely isolated from females (IF group, n = 4). The frequency of behaviors was recorded during the daytime, 4 days per season (total time of observation = 256 h). Lying, standing, walking, aggressive, marking, grazing, and ruminating behaviors as well as water and supplement consumptions varied with season (all p < 0.05). The lying, walking, marking, grazing, and ruminating behaviors were more frequently observed for CF than IF males (all p < 0.05). Also, all behaviors, except for marking, varied with the interaction between the group and seasons (all p < 0.05). Sexual behavior was extremely scarce, so it was not possible to analyze how it varied with seasons and the group. The present study suggests that management program and housing conditions, especially in ex situ breeding plans, should consider the influence of the season and the sociosexual context on the behavior of addax males.
acta ethologica – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2023
Keywords: Biostimulation; Female effect; Ruminant; Endangered; Ex situ conservation
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