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The road to maturation: somatic cell interaction and self-organization of the mammalian oocyte

The road to maturation: somatic cell interaction and self-organization of the mammalian oocyte The growth and the onset of meiotic maturation of the mammalian oocyte are controlled by bidirectional interactions between the oocyte and the surrounding somatic cells. Junctional complexes and transzonal projections (TZPs) form the structural basis for the passage of signalling molecules and metabolic substrates that support oocyte growth. The meiotic spindle forms through self-organization of microtubules and motor proteins in response to a RAN GTPase-mediated chromatin signal in the absence of centriole-containing centrosomes. Meiotic chromatin provides a signal for the establishment of oocyte cortical polarity, which required for asymmetric meiotic cell divisions and leads to polar body extrusion. Asymmetric positioning of the meiosis I spindle is established through actin-based forces that are regulated by actin nucleating factors, including a formin-family protein and the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex. Actin-driven cytoplasmic streaming contributes to the establishment and maintenance of oocyte polarity, and the parameters of post-fertilization streaming may be prognostic of the developmental potential of the embryo. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology Springer Journals

The road to maturation: somatic cell interaction and self-organization of the mammalian oocyte

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References (116)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.
Subject
Life Sciences; Life Sciences, general; Cell Biology; Cancer Research; Developmental Biology; Stem Cells; Biochemistry, general
ISSN
1471-0072
eISSN
1471-0080
DOI
10.1038/nrm3531
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The growth and the onset of meiotic maturation of the mammalian oocyte are controlled by bidirectional interactions between the oocyte and the surrounding somatic cells. Junctional complexes and transzonal projections (TZPs) form the structural basis for the passage of signalling molecules and metabolic substrates that support oocyte growth. The meiotic spindle forms through self-organization of microtubules and motor proteins in response to a RAN GTPase-mediated chromatin signal in the absence of centriole-containing centrosomes. Meiotic chromatin provides a signal for the establishment of oocyte cortical polarity, which required for asymmetric meiotic cell divisions and leads to polar body extrusion. Asymmetric positioning of the meiosis I spindle is established through actin-based forces that are regulated by actin nucleating factors, including a formin-family protein and the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex. Actin-driven cytoplasmic streaming contributes to the establishment and maintenance of oocyte polarity, and the parameters of post-fertilization streaming may be prognostic of the developmental potential of the embryo.

Journal

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Feb 22, 2013

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