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The prevention of sick building syndrome necessitates the design and construction of buildings that can maintain low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). This study aims to determine whether VOC concentrations in a new commercial bank can be reduced through the selection of building materials and monitoring of construction processes. The building was designed and constructed with close attention to the selection of architectural materials and supervision of construction. Twice during construction, indoor air samples were collected and their chemical compositions determined. The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan (MHLW) guideline concentrations for VOCs were not exceeded for any of the specified chemicals, including toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene, tetradecane, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. After construction, the total VOC concentration was 104 μg/m . This value is substantially lower than the target value of 400 μg/m recommended by the MHLW. Construction of a bank building with low concentrations of indoor chemical substances can be achieved through the proper selection of architectural materials and construction site supervision. Keywords: indoor air quality; VOC; sick building syndrome; design development; interior design 1. Introduction In Japan, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Sick building syndrome (SBS) includes a range of Transport, and Tourism (MLIT) set the acceptable health problems such as headaches, pain in the nose concentration for formaldehyde at <0.08 ppm in the and throat and eye irritation caused by exposure to revised Building Standard Law of 2003 (MLIT, 2016). chemicals in the indoor air of newly built or renovated The MHLW also set nonbinding guideline values for houses, offices, or other buildings (Saijyo et al., 2004; 13 VOCs and an interim target value for total VOCs Wang et al., 2007; Takeda et al., 2009; Mori & Todaka, (TVOCs) a t 400 μg/m by 2001 (MHLW, 2016). 2011). The Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of However, these regulations and guidelines are not Japan (MHLW) defined SBS as symptoms that appear sufficient to prevent SBS, as many other chemicals in a specific room, but disappear or improve when known to cause SBS symptoms have come into leaving the room. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) use since then (Saito et al., 2011). The problem has from building materials and products are suspected become more complicated, and the incidence of SBS to be the major cause of SBS (Hodgson, 2002). Thus, has increased (Takigawa et al., 2010). VOC concentrations are considered to be one of the Most research on SBS, involves the study of most important factors influencing indoor air quality. residential buildings (Saijyo et al., 2004; Wang et al., However, the occurrence of SBS symptoms largely 2007; Takeda et al., 2009), as people stay in these depend on a person's sensitivity. structures for long periods of time. Nonresidential buildings studied include schools (Sofuoglu et al., 2010) and offices (Bluyssen et al., 1996). Studies of *Contact Author: Masamichi Hanazato, Associate Professor, indoor concentrations of chemicals in commercial retail Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, buildings have also been reported (Eklund et al., 2008). Engineering Research Building 1-504-1, 1-33, However, studies assessing indoor concentrations of Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba, 263-8522 Japan Tel: +81-43-290-3877 VOCs in commercial buildings in Japan are limited to E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org a small number (Sakai et al., 2009). ( Received March 15, 2017 ; accepted July 23, 2018 ) DOI http://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.17.573 Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/September 2018/579 573 Commercial buildings are used by a large number Table 1. lists the architectural materials and furniture of people, necessitating consideration of users who are used. Most were selected based on the results of our highly sensitive to chemicals by creating spaces with emission tests (Hanazato et al., 2011a, b). A polyvinyl low indoor chemical concentrations. Previous reports chloride (PVC) sheet and OA network steel raised describe the design of indoor environments with the floor with PVC tile carpet were used for the flooring. aim of reducing VOCs starting at the beginning stages PVC wallpaper with starch adhesives and emulsion of planning the building (Hanazato et al., 2011a; paint were used to cover the walls. In addition to our Hanazato et al., 2011b; Tajima et al., 2014 & Nakaoka emission tests, we renovated the rooms of our school et al., 2014). However, commercial buildings were not building using these PVC materials and measured included in these studies. VOC levels. Concentration levels of indoor VOCs in The present study aims to establish a procedure those rooms were low enough and we found that these for designing bank buildings that have reduced PVC sheets with starch adhesives and emulsion paint concentrations of VOCs, achieved through the did not produce secondary chemicals (Nakaoka et al. selection of materials, and supervision of construction, 2009, Hanazato et al. 2011b). The ceiling was made with monitoring of VOC concentrations. from Rockwool sound absorption paneling. We maintained communication with the contractor 2. Methods through regular on-site meetings. The following 2.1 Characteristics of the Building points were made clear during these discussions: A bank building under construction in Chiba the concept of reducing VOCs, strict observance of Prefecture was the subject of our study. The structure of the types and quantities of specified materials, and the building included a steel frame that was two stories strict communication if any changes were made to above ground, with a building area of 395.92 m and a the materials used at the site. We considered both the total floor space of 606.95 m . selection of construction materials and the construction This study was conducted according to the process methods as important to reducing VOCs, as VOCs shown in Fig.1., which included the selection of depended concentrations are affected by the quality architectural materials, supervision of construction, and quantity of the emission sources. and measurement of VOC concentrations. The final selection of architectural materials took into account both recommendations regarding materials and cost. Fig.1. Flow Diagram of Research and Construction Table 1. Architectural Materials and Furniture for the New Commercial Bank Lobby Office space Seminar room Floor PVC sheet OA network steel raised floor with OA network steel raised floor with PVC tile carpet PVC tile carpet Wall PVC wallpaper with starch PVC wallpaper with starch PVC wallpaper with starch adhesives and emulsion paint adhesives and emulsion paint adhesives and emulsion paint Ceiling Rock wool sound absorption Rock wool sound absorption panel Rock wool sound absorption panel panel Furniture (Dec. Built-in counter - - 2013) Furniture (Feb. 2014) Built-in counter and chair Steel desk, chair and steel cabinet Steel desk and chair 574 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Masamichi Hanazato Table 2. VOCs and Aldehydes Analyzed 2.2 Sampling and Analysis 62 VOCs analyzed by GC/MS All VOC concentrations were measured twice: 1 2-Propanol 32 2-Butoxyethanol immediately after completion of the construction work 2 Pentane 33 Nonane (December 20, 2013) and immediately after setup of 3 Methyl acetate 34 Tricyclene the signboards, and furniture (February 23, 2014). We 4 Dichloromethane 35 α-Pinene conducted the measurements in 4 places: 3 indoors 5 1-Propanol 36 3-Ethyltoluene (the lobby, office space inside the reception counter, 6 Ethyl acetate 37 Camphene and seminar room) and 1 outdoors. Since the lobby 7 Hexane 38 4-Ethyltoluene and office space were not separated by a wall but by a 8 Chloroform 39 1, 3, 5-Trimethylbenzene reception counter, the influx of air came from 2 sides. 9 1, 2-Dichloroethane 40 2-Ethyltoluene Fig.2. shows the floor plan with the measurement sites. 10 2, 4-Dimethylpentane 41 β-Pinene 11 1, 1, 1-Trichloroethane 42 1, 2, 4-Trimethylbenzene 12 Butanol 43 D4 13 Benzene 44 Decane 14 Carbon tetrachloride 45 Isododecane 15 Cyclohexane 46 p-dichlorobenzene 16 1, 2-Dichloropropane 47 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol 17 Bromodichloromethane 48 3-Carene 18 Trichloroethylene 49 1, 2, 3-Trimethylbenzene 19 Isooctane 50 p-Cymene 20 Heptane 51 Limonene 4-Methyl-2-pentanone 4-Ethyl-1, 2- 21 52 (MIBK) dimethylbenzene 22 Methylcyclohexane 53 Undecane 1, 2, 4, 5- 23 Toluene 54 Fig.2. New Commercial Bank Floor Plan with Measurement Sites Tetramethylbenzene 24 Dibromochloromethane 55 D5 Before air sampling, the windows and doors were 25 Butyl acetate 56 Dodecane kept open for 30 min for ventilation. All of the windows 26 Octane 57 Tridecane and doors were then closed for 5 hours, followed by 27 Tetrachloroethylene 58 D6 air sampling. Measurements were performed using the 28 Ethylbenzene 59 Texanol standard methods of air sampling and measurement 29 m/p-xylene 60 Tetradecane issued by the MHLW (MHLW, 2016b), as follows. An 30 Styrene 61 Pentadecane active sampling method was conducted for 1 hour using 31 o-xylene 62 Hexadecane Tenax TA (Supelco, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, 15 aldehydes analyzed by HPLC USA) to capture VOCs and LpDNPH S10L (Supelco, 1 Formaldehyde 9 Benzaldehyde Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo, USA) to capture 2 Acetaldehyde 10 Pentanal aldehydes. Air was passed through the Tenax TA sampler 3 Acetone 11 Hexanal and DNPH sampler at flow rates of 100 mL/min and 4 2-Furanacrolein 12 Heptanal 1000 mL/min, respectively. The collected VOCs were 5 Propionaldehyde 13 Octanol extracted by thermal desorption and analyzed by gas 6 2-Butanone 14 Nonanal chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Solvent 7 Butanal 15 Decanal extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography 8 Cyclohexanone (HPLC) were used to analyze aldehydes. Precise analyses were conducted by the Tokyo Kenbikyo- Table 3. Ventilation Air Volume and Air Changes Per Hour at the New Commercial Bank in Foundation. The limit of quantification for each of Lobby and Lobby and Seminar the chemicals was 1.0 μg/m , except for ethanol and a b a 3 Office space Office space room acetic acid (4.0 μg/m ). We analyzed 62 VOCs and 15 Floor area (m ) 141.34 141.34 34.27 aldehydes (Table 2.). Volume (m ) 671.13 671.13 95.96 The TVOC was calculated as the toluene equivalent Ventilation air 600 2580 400 3 c of all substances between C6 and C16, as defined volume (m /h) by ISO. The total value of identified substances was ACH considered to be the sum of VOCs. During sampling, (Air changes per 0.89 3.84 4.17 hour) the indoor air conditions, including temperature, Exhaust Air Only humidity, and atmospheric pressure, were recorded. Exhaust Air and Return Air Facilitated ventilation systems in the rooms were Planning value operated during sampling. Table 3. shows the ventilation air volume and air changes per hour (ACH). JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Masamichi Hanazato 575 3. Results substantially to the TVOC. When a peak library Table 4. shows the measured concentrations of 62 search was carried out, diethylene glycol monomethyl VOCs and 15 aldehydes, the sum of VOCs, and the ether (DEGME) emerged as a potential candidate. TVOC. Fig.3. shows the work in progress, Fig.4. The concentration of DEGME was calculated to shows the first measurement, and Fig.5. shows the be equivalent to that of toluene. As a result, the second measurement. In both the first and second concentrations of DEGME in the first measurement measurements, the guideline values were not exceeded in the lobby, office space, and seminar room were 3 3 3 for toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, tetradecane, found to be 104 μg/m , 102 μ g / m , and 36 μg/m , p-dichlorobenzene and formaldehyde of acetaldehyde. respectively. In the second measurement, no DEGME In the first measurement, the TVOC in the lobby was detected. was 430 μg/m ; those in the office space and seminar The potential sources of DEGME were further 3 3 room were 476 μg/m and 287 μg/m , respectively. investigated. In this building, urethane resin adhesive Thus, the TVOC in the lobby and office space was used at the contact surface of the reinforced exceeded the target value of 400 μg/m recommended concrete underfloors and OA floor legs. The safety by the MHLW. In contrast, the TVOC in the second data sheet for this adhesive lists the components as measurement in the lobby was 82 μg/m ; those in the 25–30% urethane prepolymer, 6.6% diphenylmethane office space and seminar room were 104 μg/m and 68 di-isocyanate (MDI), 1–5% silica, 50–60% inorganic μg/m , respectively. Thus, unlike the measurements fillers, and 1–10% diluent. In Chemical Substances in December, these values were lower than the target Contained in Adhesives, published by the National value of 400 μg/m recommended by the MHLW. Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan, the Of the identified substances, the concentration following 2 relevant points were made (National of 2-butanone was somewhat high, with first Institute of Technology and Evaluation, 2016). The first measurement concentrations for the lobby, office is that "a diluent is a liquid additive for the purpose of 3 3 space, and seminar room of 68 μg/m , 70 μg/m , and reducing the concentration of solids and viscosity of 47 μg/m , respectively. In the second measurement, the adhesive. Chemical substances used for dilution the concentrations in the lobby, office space, and include reactive glycidyl ethers, glycidyl esters, and seminar room were found to have decreased to 8.0 nonreactive glycol esters and liquid petroleum-based 3 3 3 μg/m , 8.9 μg/m , and 5.5 μg/m , respectively. Ethyl resins." The second point is that "diethylene glycol is acetate and undecane were the other substances used as the raw material for polyurethane-resin based detected in all 3 locations. The concentrations of ethyl adhesive." From this, it was inferred that one of the acetate in the lobby, office space, and seminar room sources of DEGME was the urethane resin adhesive 3 3 3 were 21 μg/m , 39 μg/m , and 6.6 μg/m , respectively, used at the contact surface of the reinforced concrete 3 3 while those of undecane were 12 μg/m , 12 μg/m and underfloor and the floor legs of the OA floor. 20 μg/m , respectively. An additional consideration is the glycol ethers Regarding the supervision of construction, adherence reported to be present in cleaning products (Nazaroff to the chosen types and quantities of architectural and Weschler, 2004 & Onuki et al., 2006) and water- materials was strictly observed. For example, the based paints (Wieslander and Norbäck, 2010). optimization of the quantity of urethane resin adhesive However, since we adhered to the 2 guidelines of used in the contact surface of the reinforced concrete not using cleaning products and using a water-based underfloor and OA floor legs is shown in Fig.6. paint for smaller areas before the first measurement, After adhesion, the adhesive protruding between the the source of DEGME was apparently not cleaning underfloor and the OA floor legs was removed to products or water-based paint. reduce the VOCs, a process not normally carried out The indoor environments differed between because it is extra work. the first and second measurements owing to the addition of furniture such as cabinets and desks. The 4. Discussion environmental effects of the VOCs from the furniture None of the substances measured in this building were a point of concern. However, the results show exceeded the guideline values specified by the that the VOC concentrations were lower in the second MHLW. Current residential buildings are reported to measurement than the first. Remarkably, no substances tend toward higher concentrations of nonregulated had higher concentrations at the second measurement. substances that do not have guideline values provided Since the temperature and humidity were nearly by the MHLW. The present study also indicated a identical for the first and second measurements, the similar trend. effects of the furniture items can be said to be small. The sum of VOCs for the lobby in the first In addition, the VOCs might have been sufficiently measurement was 114 μg/m , differing significantly volatilized at the time of the second measurement. from the TVOC of 430 μg/m . Thus, VOCs other than the 62 substances under consideration contributed 576 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Masamichi Hanazato Table 4. Concentrations of Chemicals in the New Commercial Bank First measurement Second measurement (Dec. 2013) (Feb. 2014) Office Seminar Outdoor Office Seminar Outdoor Room Lobby Lobby space Room air space Room air Temperature (°C) 11.8 11.9 11.3 7.2 13.9 13.5 9.8 7.1 Guide- line Humidity (%) 58.6 57 61.4 81.5 26.7 26.9 32.8 34.6 value a 3 VOCs (µg/m ) 2-Propanol ND ND ND 1.7 ND ND ND ND Ethyl acetate 21 39 6.6 6.1 14 15 5.7 3.3 Hexane 2.1 1.9 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.5 1.8 Butanol 4.0 4.2 6.1 ND ND ND ND ND Benzene 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 4-Methyl-2-pentanone 2.8 2.8 2.7 ND ND ND ND ND (MIBK) Methylcyclohexane 4.4 9.6 ND ND ND ND ND ND Toluene 6.2 6.4 7.0 5.9 6.1 6.6 3.4 2.1 260 Butyl acetate 3.2 2.8 2.3 ND ND ND ND ND Ethylbenzene 4.0 3.8 3.2 1.4 2.7 3.4 1.4 ND 3800 m/p-xylene 1.6 1.5 1.4 ND 1.1 1.4 ND ND o-xylene 1.0 1.0 ND ND ND ND ND ND 3-Ethyltoluene 1.6 1.6 1.6 ND ND ND ND ND 1, 3, 5-Trimethylbenzene 1.1 1.1 ND ND ND ND ND ND D4 2.3 2.5 2.0 ND ND ND ND ND 1, 2, 4-Trimethylbenzene 5.3 5.4 5.0 ND 1.4 2.0 ND ND Decane 3.4 3.3 3.0 ND ND 1.7 ND ND 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol ND ND 7.2 ND ND 3.2 16 ND 1, 2, 3-Trimethylbenzene 1.8 1.9 1.6 ND ND ND ND ND Limonene ND ND ND ND ND 1.5 ND ND 4-Ethyl-1, 2-dimethylbenzene 4.0 4.2 3.9 ND ND ND ND ND Undecane 12 12 20 ND 2.7 3.2 2.3 ND D5 6.1 6.6 5.7 ND ND 1.3 ND ND Dodecane 5.0 5.0 4.9 ND ND 1.4 ND ND Tridecane 5.2 5.3 4.3 ND ND 1.3 ND ND D6 3.7 4.4 3.3 ND 1.3 1.6 1.1 ND Texanol 3.1 3.1 2.8 ND 2.8 ND ND ND Tetradecane 4.9 5.2 3.8 ND ND 1.4 ND ND 330 Pentadecane 2.9 3.1 2.1 ND ND ND ND ND xylene (sum of m/p-xylene, 2.6 2.5 1.4 ND 1.1 1.4 ND ND 870 o-xylene) Sum of VOC 114 139 105 19 36 50 33 8.6 TVOC 430 476 287 50 82 104 68 17 b 3 Aldehyde and ketone (ug/m ) Formaldehyde 2.2 2.2 2.1 1.5 2.9 3.2 2.7 - 100 Acetaldehyde 2.9 2.9 3.1 2.1 3.8 3.5 2.5 - 48 Acetone 11 8.3 6.6 8.5 7.2 6.5 4.2 - 2-Butanone 68 70 47 ND 8.0 8.9 5.5 - The following were not detected: Pentane, Methyl acetate, Dichloromethane, 1-Propanol, Chloroform, 1, 2-Dichloroethane, 2, 4-Dimethylpentane, 1, 1, 1-Trichloroethane, Carbon tetrachloride, Cyclohexane, 1, 2-Dichloropropane, Bromodichloromethane, Trichloroethylene, Isooctane, Heptane, Dibromochloromethane, Octane, Tetrachloroethylene, Styrene, 2-Butoxyethanol, Nonane, Tricyclene, α-Pinene, Camphene, 4-Ethyltoluene, 2-Ethyltoluene, β-Pinene, Isododecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 3-Carene, p-Cymene, 1, 2, 4, 5-Tetramethylbenzene and Hexadecane The following were not detected: 2-Furanacrolein, Propionaldehyde, Butanal, Benzaldehyde, Cyclohexanone, Pentanal, Hexanal, Heptanal, Octanol, Nonanal and Decanal Not detected Missing JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Masamichi Hanazato 577 Fig.3. A View of the Lobby Under Construction Fig.4. Taking the First Measurements on December 20, 2013 Fig.5. Taking the Second Measurement on February 23, 2014 (a) Protruding adhesive (b) Wipe off adhesive Fig.6. Optimization of the Amount of Adhesive Used for Bonding between the OA Floor Leg and Floor 5. Conclusion at the constructed site. For the substances for which Because bank buildings are used by a large guideline values have been specified by the MHLW, number of people, we chose a bank as the subject no values were exceeded in the new building. These of this study of commercial building design. The substances include toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, selection of materials, supervision of construction, styrene, tetradecane, p-dichlorobenzene, formaldehyde, and concentration measurements were carried out and acetaldehyde. In the measurement taken just after 578 JAABE vol.17 no.3 September 2018 Masamichi Hanazato 11) Nakaoka, H., Todaka, E., Fukuhara, A., Kondo, Y., Ishikiriyama, completion of the construction work, the TVOC was M., Hanazato, M., & Mori, C. (2009). Necessity of "Chemiless 400 μg/m , which is higher than the target value set Lecture Room" for healthy school environment, Abstract of 3rd by the MHLW. However, in the second measurement, WHO International Conference on Children's Health and The just before the opening of the bank, the value had Environment, 196, Busan, Korea. fallen to less than 400 μg/m . Thus, the building of a 12) National Institute of Technology and Evaluation. (2016). Chemical substances contained in adhesive 2012 (in Japanese). Retrieved 25 space with considerably low VOC concentrations can January, 2016, from http://www.nite.go.jp/data/000010749.pdf be realized. High levels of DEGME were detected, 13) Nazaroff, W. W., & Weschler, C. J. (2004). Cleaning products and which we determined to originate from the urethane air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants. resin adhesive used between the reinforced concrete Atmospheric Environment, 38(18), pp.2841-2865. underfloor and OA floor legs. 14) Takeda, M., Saijo, Y., Yuasa, M., Kanazawa, A., Araki, A., & Kishi, R. (2009). Relationship between sick building syndrome and Construction of a bank building with lower indoor environmental factors in newly built Japanese dwellings. concentrations of indoor chemical substances can be International archives of occupational and environmental health, 5, achieved through the proper selection of architectural pp.583–593. materials and site supervision. 15) Onuki, A., Saito, I., Seto, H., & Kamimura, H. (2006). VOC concentrations in indoor air after floor polishing. Tokyo-to Kenko Anzen Kenkyu Senta Kenkyu Nenpo, pp.259-263. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Sep 1, 2018
Keywords: indoor air quality; VOC; sick building syndrome; design development; interior design
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