JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 2019, VOL. 18, NO. 1, 28–42 https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2019.1601566 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN a b a Lijun Sun , Yang Wang and Jiawei Leng a b School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Architectural Design and Research Institute, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 17 November 2018 The design of the contemporary courtyard is diﬀerent from that of the traditional garden, but Accepted 19 March 2019 the practices based on the abstract relationships of the traditional garden represent a form of cultural continuity. The number of museum courtyard designs continues to rise in eastern KEYWORDS China, which has outstanding traditional gardens and a rich historical culture. This paper aims Courtyard space; eastern to put forward the design strategies of museum courtyards of diﬀerent sizes in eastern China. China; traditional context; First, the basic data of 60 cases are collected from a wide range of sources and analysed design strategies statistically. Secondly, the design concepts and spatial organisation are examined in combi- nation with ﬁeld research, and thirdly, interviews with several architects are considered. Finally, this paper concludes that the traditional folk houses, villages and especially gardens in eastern China exert a profound inﬂuence on the design of the contemporary museum courtyard. The design of the museum courtyard reﬂects the response to the traditional context in three dimensions: spatial layout, spatial scale, and spatial sequence. This paper describes the speciﬁc design strategies of the museum courtyard as they echo the traditional 2 2 context across settings of three diﬀerent sizes: less than 5,000 m , between 5,000–10,000 m , and greater than 10,000 m . 1 Introduction nature and philosophy of life. Many contemporary museum designs use courtyards to express cultural 1.1 Research background continuity. For example, the Suzhou Museum The contemporary world in the network society has designed by the famous architect I. M. Pei reﬂects reﬂected the opposite trend of globalisation and iden- the relationship between the exterior design and the tity (Castells 2010). The standard urban construction interior features through the practice of courtyard has split the traditional context, leading to the loss of design, expressing respect for Suzhou’s culture heri- urban memory and cultural identity. Increasingly tage (Konecni 2015). more designs for courtyards emphasise cultural and However, while there are many excellent contem- spiritual needs, which is consistent with the develop- porary designs in eastern China, a theoretical sum- ment of museums. In addition to its established func- mary is lacking in the ﬁeld. Therefore, this paper tions of collection, display, and leisure, a museum, as aims to study the museum courtyard space of a carrier of regional culture, needs to meet psycholo- China’s eastern region, analysing its design concepts gical and spiritual needs and stimulate local cultural and spatial characteristics, summarising the relation- identity (Homadovski 2009; IMLS 2000). In eastern ship between the museum courtyard design and the China, combining courtyard space with museums is traditional context, thereby enriching theories of an eﬀective way to continue and showcase traditional designing courtyard spaces and providing practical culture. ideas for designing museums. The traditional Chinese garden has a unique style and represents an artistic accomplishment in court- 1.2 Research scope yard and garden design at the world level (Tong 1963). Among Chinese courtyards, those of the east- The object of this paper is the museum courtyard ern region (historically known as the Jiangnan area) space of the Jiangnan area which includes the city are outstanding examples and embody the essence of of Shanghai, Jiangsu province, Zhejiang province, and the Chinese garden. Deeply inﬂuenced by ancient Anhui province (Figure 1). The museums in this area poetry and paintings, the traditional Chinese garden include art galleries, exhibition halls, memorial halls, culminates in a visual and physical experience (Wang and cultural centres built after 1990, when economic, 2018). More importantly, the Chinese garden is the political, and cultural development was well under- material space that reﬂects a particular conception of way in a modernising China. CONTACT Jiawei Leng firstname.lastname@example.org School of Architecture, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096 China © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 29 Figure 1. Location information map of Jiangnan area. The eastern part of China is a ﬂat region with abundant water and picturesque scenery, reﬂecting rich economic development and a profound cultural heritage. This urban texture consists of the courtyard unit in the midst of rivers and alleys. The traditional courtyard’s implicit aesthetics, with its ﬂowing and layered spaces and rich philosophical conceptions, is the source of courtyard design for contemporary museums. This paper collects 60 cases that have been com- pleted in the past 30 years, including 25 that have been recognised for their award-winning national and international designs. The paper analyses the design ideas of these cases and ﬁnds that most of the design practices take the traditional gardens, folk houses or villages as the concept sources of design, and others such as traditional Chinese paintings and ruins are also sources of inspiration (Figure 2). As can be seen from Figure 3(a), the number of courtyard museums Figure 2. The design concept sources of the cases. in eastern China grew rapidly around 2006 and con- tinued to grow from then onwards. Figure 3(b) shows the proportion of courtyard museums in the total courtyards are an important feature and usually number of new museums constructed in the past reﬂect the traditional culture and space and can dis- eight years in eastern China. It is evident that from tinguish eastern China from other regions. Therefore, 2010 to 2014, the proportion of courtyard museums the construction of museums should not only focus was on the rise. In 2010, the total number of on their number, but should also pay attention to museums was decreasing, but the number of court- both regional and cultural characteristics. This is the yard museums was on the increase. There are two only way that museums can continue to play the role explanations for this: on the one hand, some of maintaining cultural essence. museums were managed improperly; on the other hand, some of the museums were merged. 2 Research methods By comparison, it can be concluded that the pro- portion of museums with courtyards that reﬂect the The research methods of this study are based upon regional context has gradually reduced from 2014. It aliterature review, ﬁeld research, and interviews with is worth noting that an increase in the number of architects. First, the basic data and information are museums is an indication of the level of cultural con- collected through books, periodicals, news media, and struction in a region. However, museums with online sources, and such data involve construction 30 L. SUN ET AL. Figure 3. (a) The relationship between quantity of Courtyard museums and time. (b) Comprehensive analysis of quantity of Courtyard museums. times, locations, areas, functions, and architects. SPSS The ﬁrst architect was a chief designer for several (Statistical Package for the Social Science) is also used museums in China and has rich practical and theore- to process and analyse the data. Secondly, an emphasis tical experience in the design of cultural architecture. is placed on the design concepts and spatial organisa- He suggested that the concept of Critical Regionalism tion that reﬂect a traditional context. Next, 21 ﬁeld should be referred to in the design of museum court- studies are conducted to record the usage and yards. He also pointed out that during the architectural impressions of museum space, and to compare and design process, it is necessary to critically think about summarise the key points of courtyard design. Lastly, the tradition of regional architectural culture. Hence, several architects are also interviewed to help produce architects should actively integrate traditional court- relevant conclusions. yard design with modern factors and regional culture in the design of courtyard museums. The second architect was also a university profes- 3 Space analysis sor with rich theoretical experience and unique views on the theory of regional architectural design. He In order to gain a more comprehensive understanding believes that the most important point when embed- of the research topic, three architects were inter- ding traditional culture into the design of museum viewed during the research. The topic of the interview courtyards is to make the space situational. The was how courtyard spaces of museums could be design of visitors’ perception, including vision and designed to reﬂect the local traditional context. touch, can arouse and resonate with people’s JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 31 emotions. In the design process, the visitor’s experi- enclosure and a weak connection to its external sur- ence should take priority as it is through it that the roundings. Additionally, the courtyard space is at the traditional context can be felt. core and becomes a central point of design, echoing The third architect was a landscape architect who the surrounding urban texture. For example, the mainly studies regional landscape architecture design. courtyard of the Suzhou Museum is reminiscent of She believes that the realisation of the inheritance of the Humble Administrator’s Garden, a traditional the traditional context requires the inclusion of cul- Chinese garden in the North. The Fei Xiaotong Jiang tural factors into the courtyard design. She empha- Village Memorial Hall also has a central courtyard sised that there is a need to develop an in-depth surrounded by buildings in a manner that expresses understanding of the history of courtyard spaces. respect for the surrounding villages. This is particularly important for traditional living Secondly, the decentralised layout has evolved spaces, such as streets and patios. This kind of from the traditional garden layout of Jiangnan. The approach will help transform the sub-transformation courtyard is surrounded by museum buildings, struc- into meaningful cultural heritage, rather than just tures, and plants, with the buildings being scattered a simple imitation of traditional architectural patterns. in the courtyard and connected by corridors. This Inspired by the three interviews, this research is decentralised layout is usually used in more aﬄuent based on the study of traditional spaces, regional cri- base areas. Spaces feel open and ﬂowing, creating an tical theory and spatial experience. Meanwhile, all three experience much like that of visiting a traditional architects agree that a museum courtyard is an impor- Jiangnan garden. For example, the extension of the tant regional feature that helps distinguish one region China Silk Museum forms a dialogue with Hangzhou’s from another. Therefore, combined with the collected old buildings, evoking the city’s historical memory cases, the research will analyse the courtyard spaces of with classical gardens, curved walkways, windows, museums based on the following three dimensions: pavilions, plants, and other design elements. It spatial layout, spatial scale, and spatial sequence. shows the concept of harmonious coexistence with nature of traditional Chinese culture. Thirdly, the serial layout is derived from the layout 3.1 Spatial layout of Jiangnan’s traditional folk houses, organising The layout of a museum is closely related to many spaces through a series of courtyards with a strong factors, such as visitor streamlines and displayed con- spatial sequence. In this serial layout, the courtyard tent, and layout exerts a considerable inﬂuence on and exhibition space are alternately arranged accord- visitors’ feelings (Peponis and Hedin 1982; Wineman ing to the museum’s streamline of visitors, and this and Peponis 2010). In light of these factors, there are order is expressed through the repetitive intervals of many possible modes for combining the courtyard the courtyards. For instance, the multiple courtyards space with the museum, thus forming a variety of of the Jixi Museum not only preserve existing trees spatial layouts. In the cases studied in this paper, the but also reproduce vernacular Huizhou architecture. spatial layout of the museum courtyards can be Fourthly, the combined layout combines the ﬁrst divided into four categories according to their diﬀer- three layouts, with a courtyard system not only visible ent compositions: centralised layout, decentralised in the overall layout but also in its diﬀerent sections. layout, serial layout, and combined layout (Table 1). Here, the spatial layer prevails and the spatial contrast First, in a centralised layout, the courtyard is sur- is more vivid, which for visitors creates an impressive rounded by a single building or by a group of build- experience of space. For example, the combination of ings, producing an “L” shape, a “U” shape, or a hollow serial and centralised layouts in the Ningbo square shape. The form of the museum’s building and Fellowship Museum provides a rich spatial narration its combination of exhibition spaces are important and evokes the collective memory of the Ningbo factors aﬀecting courtyard space. In this centralised Fellowship and the united and diverse regional layout, the courtyard space reﬂects a certain sense of culture. Table 1. The four spatial layouts of museum Courtyards. Layouts Centralized Layout Decentralized Layout Serial Layout Combined Layout Diagrams(Plan) Characteristics Surrounded by buildings; Open and ﬂowing; much like Strong spatial sequence; like Combination of the other three sense of enclosure traditional gardens traditional folk houses abundant spatial layers 32 L. SUN ET AL. Figure 4. Distribution of museum Courtyards in diﬀerent areas. Figure 5. (a) Average area of Courtyard museums with an area less than 5,000 m . (b) Average area of Courtyard museums with 2 2. an area between 5,000–10,000 m . (c) Average area of Courtyard museums with an area greater than 10,000 m Based on SPSS analysis, this study concludes that When the area is between 5,000 and 10,000 m ,the museum courtyard layout has a signiﬁcant relation- courtyard tends to reduce the building’ssense of ship with gross ﬂoor area. The paper classiﬁes 60 volume. In addition to the centralised layout, the cases according to three kinds of gross ﬂoor areas. It serial layout is mainly used to increase the sense of can be seen from Figure 4 that museums are relatively architectural rhythm. When the area is greater than evenly distributed in such areas, all of which are more 10,000 m , the museum tends to have more diverse than 15 cases. Figure 5 shows that the average area of functions, more complex forms of organising space, museum courtyards classiﬁed by area are 2,946 m , and more sophisticated streamlines. The combined 2 2 7,444 m and 24,879 m , respectively. There are layout is mainly adopted to handle multiple func- obvious diﬀerences between them. Therefore, the tions and streamlines, all the while creating a rich proposed strategies for courtyard museums according spatial layer (Figure 6). to three diﬀerent sizes is reasonable and representative. 3.2 Spatial scale When the area is less than 5,000 m ,two diﬀerent layouts are usually adopted, centralised or com- Spatial scale is one of the important factors in the bined, according to diﬀerent conditions of land use. design of an exterior space (Ashihara 1975). In this JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 33 Figure 6. (a) Proportional chart of Courtyard layouts with an area less than 5,000 m . (b) Proportional chart of Courtyard layouts 2 2. with an area between 5,000–10,000 m . (c) Proportional chart of Courtyard layouts with an area greater than 10,000 m paper, the scale ratio of diﬀerent spatial conﬁgura- courtyard and pay more attention to its detailed tions is derived from the museum courtyards and designs. Combined with the appropriate design of compared with the traditional Jiangnan courtyards, courtyard sightlines and streamlines, such a space thus allowing for a classiﬁcation of museum courtyard can be conducive to achieving the eﬀect, also found space. The ratio of width to height for a courtyard (D/ in the traditional gardens, of “bu yi jing yi”, with its H) is used to reﬂect the scale of its space. varying sceneries and changing viewpoints. Table 2 shows cases of three speciﬁc traditional spaces that have been ﬁeld researched, namely the 3.3 Spatial sequence Wangshi Garden, the Liu Garden and the Pang House in Nanjingtang historic district. Both the Wangshi The ﬁeld research of this study indicates that despite Garden and the Liu Garden are well-known Chinese walking through similar spatial layouts, visitors may traditional gardens. The Pang House is a well-preserved feel completely diﬀerent due to diﬀerent designs of Qing Dynasty dwelling with a representative spatial spatial sequence. Therefore, a rhythmic and distinctive pattern. Based on the analysis of the traditional space, spatial sequence becomes indispensable in the design this paper advances three types of spatial scale based of museum courtyard space. In the traditional on the statistical analysis of museum courtyards and Jiangnan courtyards, three methods are often used the analogy of traditional courtyard space: D/H < 1 produce a spatial sequence: quzhe (twists and turns), (patios or alleys), 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 (courtyards), and shumi (sparsity and intensity), and duijing (determin- 2.5 ≤ D/H (gardens), according to diﬀerent scales. ing the sightlines between people and the scenery When D/H < 1, the surrounding buildings tend to through the design of the spatial axis) (Tong 1963) be squeezed into the courtyard, giving visitors a more (Table 2). During the literature review and ﬁeld cramped and compressed feeling of space. Like tradi- research, this study ﬁnds that in the courtyards of tional patios or alleys, there is a certain sense of the contemporary museums, the spatial sequence is closure, and the courtyard has the orientation of usually shaped by three methods: spatial expansion opening up to the sky. and constriction, spatial repetition, and sightline shap- When 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5, the sensation of space is similar ing (Table 3), all of which run parallel to the principles to the traditional Jiangnan courtyard. Here, space is of traditional gardens. somewhat limited but not closed. The ratio of about Spatial expansion and constriction is the contrast 1.3 is an appropriate proportion and provides visitors, between the opening and closing of a courtyard’s who have a good view of the entire courtyard and the enclosure, increasing spatial variation and undulation, building, with a feeling of comfort (Ashihara 1984). and avoiding monotony. For example, in the Memorial When 2.5 ≤ D/H, space is more open and dis- Hall of the Victims in the Nanjing Massacre, designed persed, similar to that of Jiangnan gardens. Visitors by academician He Jingtang, visitors can approach the are less aware of the overall perception of the 34 L. SUN ET AL. Table 2. Cases of traditional Courtyards and residential space. (a) The Wangshi Garden (The Master-of -Nets Garden) Introduction The Wangshi Garden is located in the urban area of Suzhou. It was built in 1174 A.D. It is a typical private garden which combines homestead and courtyards. It covers an area of about 6700 m and is characterised by its compactness. Analysis Diagrams The design of courtyard is centred on water, and the D/H is about Site Plan Streamline 3.8. The streamline starts from the southeast and passes through the house before entering the courtyard. The layout is divided into three parts: the western inner courtyard, Plan District Sightline the middle central courtyard and the eastern residential area. Skilful combination of scenery and sightline is used to make the courtyard space more ﬂowing and layered. Meanwhile, quzhe and shumi are also used in the courtyard. The Quzhe and Shumi winding red area shows a high density of buildings, while the purple area shows a natural and loose scene, forming a sharp contrast. (b) The Liu Garden (The Lingering Garden) Introduction The Liu Garden is located in Suzhou City. It is a large classical Chinese private garden with an area of 23,300 m . It is the representative of the Qing Dynasty courtyards and is known as one of the four famous gardens in China. Diagrams Site Plan Streamline Analysis The central courtyard of the Liu Garden consists of water and mountains, and the D/H of the courtyard is greater than 2.5. The streamline is mainly organised by the corridors. The corridors in the eastern area are full of twists and turns. The west and north side of the climbing corridors are undulating and continuous. (Continued) JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 35 Table 2. (Continued). Diagrams Plan District Sightline Analysis The layout is divided into three parts, the western mountain courtyard, the middle central courtyard, and the eastern buildings area. Streamline pauses at the main buildings and pavilions to increase the sightline shaping. Some techniques such as duijing have been used. Shumi Diagrams Analysis The two sides of the central courtyard form a shumi contrast. The red area is a building-based interface that has a compact feeling. The purple area is a natural interface formed by rockeries, trees and is a loose interface. Spatial Expansion and Constriction Diagrams Analysis The entrance of the Liu Garden is a winding corridor with a small patio, which gives people a feeling of oppression, thus prompting people to move forward continuously. When reaching the open central courtyard, visitors can experience a rhythmic ﬂuctuation. (c) Nanjingtang Historic District and Pang House Introduction The Nanjingtang in Changshu is a historic district with well-preserved architectural features and spatial patterns. Among them, Pang House is a well-preserved Qing Dynasty dwelling with a representative spatial pattern. Diagrams Site Plan of Nanjingtang Historic District View of Alleys Analysis In the Nanjingtang district, the D/H of traditional alleys is less than 1. In this well-preserved district, people can still feel the pleasant scale and winding feeling of traditional alleys and lanes. Diagrams Section Plan of Courtyard in Pang House Site Plan of Pang House Analysis The D/H of the second courtyard is 1.9. It is an eﬀective way to organise space in traditional architecture and create introverted space. In traditional dwellings, courtyards have many functions, such as ventilation, catchment, and lighting. 36 L. SUN ET AL. Table 3. The three methods of shaping the spatial sequence of museum Courtyards. Methods Diagrams Characteristics Spatial expansion and Contrast between opening and closing; increase spatial constriction variation Spatial repetition Emphasise rhythmic sensations of space Sightline shaping Organise sightline based on the route; dynamic form and static form altar at the end of the streamline and feel the sup- deal with diﬀerent problems such as surroundings, pressed atmosphere of this space. Afterwards, visitors traﬃc streamlines and functions. can enter the ﬁnal courtyard with a wide ﬁeld of vision Design strategies for museum courtyard space are and experience peace. The spatial expansion and con- proposed based on three classiﬁcations of areas: less 2 2 striction of the courtyard space reinforces a sense of than 5,000 m , between 5,000 and 10,000 m , and spatial sequence and forms a sense of place for the greater than 10,000 m . Table 4 shows three repre- museum’s exhibited content. sentative cases of the three diﬀerent areas, while Spatial repetition means that the courtyard space Table 5 shows all the 60 museum courtyard cases appears repeatedly during the visitor’stour, empha- and the 21 cases highlighted in bold are the ﬁeld sising the progressive relationships and rhythmic research cases. sensations of space. More speciﬁcally, repetition has two functions, one using diﬀerent courtyards to cre- ate a sense of repetition, and the other using the 4.1 Area less than 5,000 m same courtyard to repeat its sense of space in the If the gross ﬂoor area of a museum is less than museum’s streamline. For example, in the Jixi 5,000 m , centralised layouts and combined layouts Museum, a same courtyard can be repeatedly are frequently adopted to respond to the multi- observed or visited from diﬀerent angles in the courtyard urban texture of Jiangnan area. However, streamline, with the eﬀect of changing spatial per- if museums are located among villages, decentralised spectives, allowing visitors on their stroll to experi- layouts are adopted to match the surrounding open ence scenery inspired by the ancient town of environment. This is because villages in eastern China Jiangnan. are mostly located in plain areas, where buildings are Sightline shaping is a visual dimension of the sparsely distributed and diﬀerent from the densely courtyard design. Its organisation of scenery and populated cities. Village spaces form a loose texture, framing of vision is based on the route of the visitors’ which can be echoed by the decentralised layout of tour. There are two forms of sightline shaping, one is the museum courtyard. The scale of courtyard space dynamic and presents diﬀerent courtyard scenes dur- in a centralised layout is usually 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5, so it ing a visit. Here, the visitor’s sightline continually appears comfortable and suitable according to human changes during the tour, with space undulating like scale, emphasising the integrity of space, while in the plot of a novel (Ashihara 1975). The other form is a decentralised layout, the scale of courtyard is static; that is, after visitors reach a certain point, the 2.5 ≤ D/H, giving visitors an open feeling of villages. courtyard’s landscape is revealed. In spatial sequence, sightline shaping is commonly utilised combined with streamlines to strengthen the sense of spatial sequence. Due to the limited quantity 4 The strategies on Courtyards of museums and area of exhibition space, ﬁxed and unﬁxed In this study, diﬀerent spatial layouts and traits are streamlines are combined. Both the designed ﬁxed found to be associated with diﬀerent gross ﬂoor areas. path and the unﬁxed free approach of self-guidance This is because museums with diﬀerent areas have to can forge the overall impression of exhibition JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 37 Table 4. Analysis of three representative cases. Analysis Diagrams Fei Xiaotong Jiang Village Memorial Hall Spatial Layout: Decentralised; building connected by corridors Spatial Scale: To echo the village surroundings; contrastive scale Spatial Sequence: enrich the experience by sightline shaping Area: 2,234 m Area: 2,234m Liangzhu Culture Museum Spatial Layout: Serial Spatial Scale: Similar to traditional courtyards and patios Spatial Sequence: emphasise the rhythmic sensations by spatial repetition Area: 9,500 m Area: 9,500m Taizhou Exhibition Centre for“Scientiﬁc Outlook on Development” Spatial Layout: Combined; a courtyard system Spatial Scale: Transitional；connecting urban scale Spatial Sequence: Emphasised in a comprehensive approach Area: 17,970 m Area: 17,970m (Wineman and Peponis 2010). Dynamic sightline surroundings of a museum. Spatial sequence mainly shaping and static sightline shaping are used ﬂexibly. utilises spatial repetition and sightline shaping. Moreover, changes of streamlines in the cross-section According to the relaxation and pause of space per- of museums are used to show diﬀerent levels of ception, courtyard space is integrated in the exhibi- courtyard space, enriching the experiences and eﬀects tion space to relieve fatigue for visitors. Sightline for visitors. shaping is structured diﬀerently from the direct dis- play in smaller area museums, therefore sightline can be interrupted or hidden, thus guiding change for 4.2 Area between 5,000 and 10,000 m a richer spatial sequence. If the gross ﬂoor area of a museum is between 5,000 and 10,000 m , the increased volume makes spatial 4.3 Area greater than 10,000 m layouts more ﬂexible. In addition to centralised layout, serial layout is also adopted. The unit repeatability of When the gross ﬂoor area of the museum is more than the exhibition space is utilised to separate the court- 10,000 m , combined layout is mostly utilised. As the yard in order to enhance rhythmic structure of the volume of the building is massive, it is a skilful way to museum. The arrangement of courtyard space often use courtyard space in the museum layout to merge it determines the axis relation of the museum. The scale with urban texture. In the plan, diﬀerent courtyard spaces of the courtyard in serial and centralised layout is are adopted to deconstruct the museum architecture. In usually 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5. However, urban scale and the the section plan, part of the building can be hidden inﬂuence on urban space is also considered in addi- underground through the courtyard. For example, the tion to considering the human scale, so a speciﬁc West Lake Museum hides most of the building volume courtyard scale is related to the structure of below ground through the courtyard, which is integrated 38 L. SUN ET AL. Table 5. Detailed information on 60 research cases. Museum Name Time Area (m ) Location Layout D/H of Courtyards 1 Haining 1990 5,000 Haining; Combined D/H < 1 Museum City 2 Southern Song Dynasty Guan Kiln Museum 1990 3,758 Hangzhou; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H City 3 National Tea Museum of China 1990 8,000 Hangzhou; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H Village 4 Changshu 1991 <5,000 Changshu; Decentralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Tablet City Museum 5 Lin Sanzhi Art Museum 1992 750 Maanshan; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Nature 6 Shaoxing Museum 1993 10,000 Shaoxing; Combined D/H < 1 City 7 Songhu Anti-Japanese War Memorial Hall 1999 3,249 Shanghai; Centralised D/H < 1 (Back); 2.5 ≤ D/H (Front) City 8 Anji Bamboo Museum 2000 3,200 Anji; Centralised; 2.5 ≤ D/H Village (Relatively Loose) 9 Hangzhou Museum 2001 6,660 Hangzhou; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 10 Tiantai 2003 5,900 Tiantai; Centralised D/H < 1 Museum Village 11 West Lake Museum 2005 8,000 Hangzhou Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 In the city near the West Lake. Visitors can feel the spatial transformation in the process of looking back at diﬀerent elevations. The D/H of the sunken courtyard gives visitors a sense of an archaeological process. 12 Art Museum of Han Culture 2005 4,050 Xuzhou; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 13 Ningbo Art Museum 2005 23,000 Ningbo; Combined Multiple City 14 Shanghai Qingpu District New City Construction 2006 10,155 Shanghai Combined Multiple Exhibition Centre In the new district of Shanghai city. Continuous changes in the scale of the courtyards give visitors a constantly changing sense of space. For example, the D/H of courtyards may change from 2.5 to 2 to 1.5, making the transition from public space to private space. 15 Jinyun Museum 2006 3,780 Jinyun; Combined D/H < 1 City 16 Suzhou 2006 19,000 Suzhou Combined Multiple Museum Next to the famous Humble Administration Garden. It echoes traditional garden with courtyards and axis. It uses sightline shaping such as duijing and jiejing to make visitors feel the artistic conception of traditional gardens. 17 Xuzhou Han Stone Portrait Art Museum (new) 2006 8,000 Xuzhou; Centralised D/H < 1 City 18 Ningbo Xikou Stone Museum 2006 <5,000 Ningbo; Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Village 19 Dehe Root Carving Art Museum 2006 4,000 Ningbo; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 20 Li Keran Art Museum 2007 2,583 Xuzhou; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 21 Suzhou Science and Cultural Arts Centre 2007 150,000 Suzhou Combined Multiple Located to the north of Jinji Lake. Spatial sequence consists of multi-storey nesting of buildings and courtyards. The courtyard on top of the middle building is designed based on the traditional Suzhou garden. (Continued) JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 39 Table 5. (Continued). Museum Name Time Area (m ) Location Layout D/H of Courtyards 22 Nanjing 2007 1,600 Nanjing Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Yuhua Stone Museum In the natural area. Centralised layout with inner courtyard. The D/H of courtyard implies local folk houses. 23 The Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing 2007 20,000 Nanjing Serial Multiple Massacre by Japanese Invaders In the city. The courtyards are placed in the streamline to organise the spatial sequence. It uses diﬀerent D/H to express courtyards with diﬀerent themes, and uses spatial expansion and constriction to strengthen spatial sequence. The whole museum provides a rich spatial narration and brings spiritual shock to visitors. 24 Suzhou Garden Museum (new) 2007 3,390 Suzhou； Decentralised Multiple City 25 Liangzhu Culture Museum 2008 9,500 Hangzhou Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Village See Table 4. 26 Ningbo 2008 30,000 Ningbo; Combined Multiple Museum Located in the new district of the city. Courtyards are placed on diﬀerent ﬂoors. Visitors can experience the feeling of the traditional Chinese gardens and recall the laneways, patios of old Ningbo through diﬀerent D/H of courtyards. 27 Ningbo Huamao Art Museum 2008 4,915 Ningbo; Combined 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 28 Ningbo Fellowship Museum 2009 24,107 Ningbo Combined Multiple In the city. It organises space by various proportion of courtyards, strengthens spatial sequence by means of spatial expansion and constriction, and arouses the memory of residential buildings and courtyards. 29 Jiangning Weaving Museum 2009 <10,000 Nanjing Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H In the city. It enhances the spatial sequence by means of traditional courtyard methods such as shumi and quzhe. 30 Wushan 2010 6,082 Hangzhou Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Museum City 31 Xuzhou Art Museum 2010 23,114 Xuzhou; Combined Multiple City 32 Fei Xiaotong Jiang Village Memorial Hall 2010 2,234 Wujiang; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H (Central) Village See Table 4. 33 Expo 2010 Ningbo Tengtou Pavilion 2010 1,200 Shanghai; Combined 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 34 Zhu Jiajiao Museum of Humanities 2010 1,818 Shanghai Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 and Art Located next to the ancient town. The courtyard layout draws from the texture of residential building of the town. Through the control of sightline, visitors can feel the ancient trees, ancient town and the surrounding environment. 35 Shanghai Spiral Gallery 2011 250 Shanghai; Centralised D/H < 1 City 36 Huishan Clay Museum 2011 10,321 Wuxi; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 37 Taizhou Exhibition Centre for“Scientiﬁc Outlook on 2011 17,970 Taizhou Combined Multiple Development” City See Table 4. 38 Baohua Chinese Painting Research Institute 2012 7,180 Hangzhou Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H City 39 Shanghai Natural History Museum 2012 45,086 Shanghai Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 In the city. The building is arranged around the central courtyard. The courtyard uses stone, water, plants and other traditional garden elements to express the characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. 40 Jixi 2013 10,003 Jixi Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 Museum Near the village. It uses courtyards with diﬀerent D/H. to reinterpret folk houses in Anhui. The courtyard space is comfortable and pleasant, and it uses spatial repetition and sightline control to emphasise the change of spatial sequence. (Continued) 40 L. SUN ET AL. Table 5. (Continued). Museum Name Time Area (m ) Location Layout D/H of Courtyards 41 Shanghai Songze Ruins Museum 2013 3,680 Shanghai; Combined D/H < 1 City 42 Jiading 2013 9,608 Shanghai Centralised 2.5 ≤ D/H Museum In a new city, adjacent to a traditional garden. Traditional gardening elements such as winding corridors and bridges are used to organise space and enrich spatial layers. 43 Nantong New Museum 2014 13,500 Nantong; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H City 44 Liang Xi Memorial Hall 2014 3,900 Huzhou; Serial Multiple Nature 45 Ningbo Keli Museum 2014 4,500 Ningbo; Combined D/H < 1 City 46 Fan Zeng Art Gallery 2014 7,028 Nantong Combined Multiple In the campus of the city. With the courtyard as the design point, it contains three independent courtyard types. The three-dimensional courtyards of diﬀerent scales are combined together, giving the impression of Chinese paintings. 47 Xia Houwen Art Museum 2014 3,264 Longquan; Combined D/H < 1 City 48 Imperial Examination Museum Of China 2014 200,000 Nanjing; Centralised 2.5 ≤ D/H Under-ground City 49 Mu Xin Art Museum 2015 6,700 Jiaxing Serial Multiple Near the village, close to the water. The small courtyards are used to disperse the building volume and echo the texture of the village. Spatial sequence is emphasised by means of spatial repetition, spatial expansion and constriction. 50 Art Gallery of Anhui Academy of Art 2016 8,833 Hefei; Serial 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 51 Suzhou Museum of Imperial Kiln Brick 2016 15,087 Suzhou; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H City 52 Chinese Silk Museum (new-built) 2016 22,999 Hangzhou Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H In the city. In the courtyard of the museum, smooth curved corridors and streamlined subsidence space are used to divide and organise the space. Sightline control is used to enhance spatial perception. 53 Suzhou Museum of Intangible Cultural Heritage 2016 14,000 Suzhou Decentralised Multiple In a natural area of the city. The volume of the museum is scattered by the courtyards, and connected with corridors. The whole museum building is integrated with the natural environment. 54 Jingjiang Folk Museum 2016 30,000 Jingjiang; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H City 55 Xuzhou City Wall Museum 2016 950 Xuzhou; Centralised 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 56 Gongwang Art Museum 2016 37,816 Hangzhou; Decentralised 2.5 ≤ D/H Village 57 Ten Li Dowry Museum 2017 11,800 Ningbo; Serial Multiple County 58 New World Expo Museum 2017 46,550 Shanghai; Centralized 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 City 59 Design Museum of China 2018 16,800 Hangzhou; Centralised D/H < 1 City 60 Main Exhibition Hall of 2018 Jiangsu Horticultural 2018 12,680 Yangzhou Combined Multiple Exposition In the village. Through the layout of buildings with small inner courtyard, a sense of sequential rhythm is formed. The larger central courtyard is enclosed by connecting corridors, giving a sense of separation and connection. Part of the ﬂoor area sources in the table: Sun (2017). “Research on the Design of the Courtyards Space in Museums in Yangtze River Delta” Master diss., South China University of Technology. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 41 with the surrounding mountains and lakes and shows the repetition, and sightline shaping are used to enhance humility in Chinese traditional culture. visitors’ spatial experience in museums. As for the space scale, large-scale space consid- Thirdly, to be more speciﬁc, museum courtyard ers not only the surrounding urban texture, but it space responds to regional cultural traditions depend- also considers its own impact on the surroundings. ing on the diﬀerent design strategies of diﬀerent For example, in Taizhou Exhibition Centre of gross ﬂoor areas. If the area of a museum is less Scientiﬁc Outlook on Development, the courtyard than 5,000 m , centralised or decentralised layouts is designed to form a transition space by connect- are often adopted to respond to the urban and rural ing the two diﬀerent urban scales at the south and texture. The scale of the courtyard space is usually north, to improve original defects and continue the 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 in a centralised layout and 2.5 ≤ D/H in urban texture. In the combined layout, the scale of a decentralised layout, with a focus on creating the courtyard has many possibilities. For instance, a comfortable human scale. Also, sightline shaping is the courtyard of Ningbo Fellowship Museum pre- used to create a sense of spatial sequence. sents a diﬀerent spatial artistic conception through If the area is between 5,000 and 10,000 m ,serial diﬀerent scales of space. The scale of the entrance and centralised layouts become primary. The spatial courtyard is 2.5 ≤ D/H; theplandesignisclose to scale is usually 1 ≤ D/H < 2.5 and the scale of urban the square, giving visitors a feeling of openness, space is taken more into consideration. Spatial repeti- similar to the landscape that was used for classical tion and sightline shaping are used to emphasis spatial gardens in eastern China. While the D/H of “Water sequence. Street” courtyard is about 1.5, the plan is slightly If the area is greater than 10,000 m , a combined long, giving people a sense of being in Jiangnan layout prevails. There are many possibilities for spatial streets, encouraging people to move forward. scale (D/H), which may help maintain urban texture. For spatial sequence, spatial constriction and Spatial sequences emphasise narrative ﬂuctuations. In expansion, spatial repetition and sightline shaping addition, spatial expansion and constriction, spatial are comprehensively used. Courtyard space also repetition, and sightline shaping are used comprehen- solves complex function set and multiple streamlines sively in the museums under consideration, and of the museum. Meanwhile, spatial sequence design design details are emphasised to respond to the tra- focuses more on representing the narrative ﬂuctua- ditional context. tion in museum visits, consisting of the beginning, transition, climax, and ending. Furthermore, the 6 Discussion expression of courtyard materials and details are emphasised according to the traditional context. This article not only analyses the courtyard space characteristics, but also deeply studies the design process and methods of the cases and provides the 5 Conclusions following reference for future design practices. The study of museum courtyard space in eastern China First, it is evident from layout maps that the layout of is a new research topic under exploration. Within this amuseum’s courtyard space changes with its area. In context, this study is conducted on the basis of existing a smaller museum, a centralised single courtyard can practice and produces three conclusions. eﬀectively organise space and ensure the simplicity, pur- First, the design of contemporary museum court- ity and integrity of the museum. As the area of a museum yards, as based on the abstract spatial relationships of increases, its functions and streamlines become more traditional gardens as well as streets and villages, can diversiﬁed and complex, and its environmental impact echo eastern China’s traditional context. Most of all, on the surrounding area gradually increases. Therefore, an appreciation of a traditional garden’s implicit a multi-yard combination is adopted to ensure that beauty, with its ﬂowing spaces, philosophical and museum courtyards have a positive inﬂuence on the artistic conceptions, can have a profound inﬂuence environment. On the one hand, a multi-yard combination on the design of modern museum courtyards. can meet the needs of complex functional streamlines; Secondly, the design of the museum courtyard space on the other hand, the use of courtyards of diﬀerent reinforces cultural continuity in three dimensions: spa- scales can decompose building volume and achieve tial layout, spatial scale, and spatial sequence. For spatial atransitionaleﬀect on the environment. layout, the organisational forms of courtyards include Secondly, the three courtyard spatial design strate- the centralised layout, the decentralised layout, the gies, distinguished by museum area, can be further serial layout, and the combined layout. Regarding spa- divided into two categories in terms of their mode of tial scale, diﬀerent ratios of width to height (D/H) of expression: simile or metaphor. In this context, courtyards stimulate people’s memory of traditional “simile” refers to the use of the elements and voca- streets, patios, courtyards, and gardens. For spatial bulary of traditional courtyards in modern courtyard sequence, spatial expansion and constriction, spatial space, reproducing the appearance of traditional 42 L. SUN ET AL. garden architecture and giving visitors an intuitive Notes on contributors impression of tradition. Metaphor, in contrast, is the Lijun Sun, School of Architecture, Southeast University, modern interpretation of the spatial relationships and Nanjing, China. Ph.D. candidate of Southeast University. structure of the traditional courtyard. It is not limited Tel: +86-15895955509 E-mail: email@example.com. to the expression of form, but conveys an abstract Yang Wang, Architectural Design and Research Institute, similarity. Visitors experience only “local” and South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. “ancient” feelings during their visiting experience. In Doctoral supervisor and professor of South China University diﬀerent environments, these two modes have dis- of Technology. His research interests concern the regional architecture design, campus design, cultural architecture tinct advantages. Alternatively, a few architects have studies and related design practice. Tel:+86-13302303108 attempted to break away from the connection E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. between contemporary and traditional courtyards Jiawei Leng, School of Architecture, Southeast University, and create new contemporary cultural identities. Nanjing, China. Doctoral supervisor and professor of Thirdly, investigation of the process of designing Southeast University. His research focuses on the overall museum courtyard space reveals that some cases are design of architecture and urban environment, renewal designed from the perspective of urban design, whereas design of historic district and the design of underground others start with a traditional artistic conception of space. Tel: +86-13605192966 E-mail: email@example.com. aspeciﬁc courtyard scene. However, the process of design- ing museum courtyard space does not simply occur from theinsidetothe outsideorfromthe outsidetothe inside; References because it is the carrier of cultural expression, it has both Ashihara, Y. 1975. Design of External Space. Tokyo: a dominant context (such as the texture of urban space, Shokokusha. architecture, street) and an implicit context (such as the Ashihara, Y. 1984. The Aesthetic Townscape. MA: MIT Press. historical and cultural background, living habits), with Castells, M. 2010. The Power of Identity. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons. corresponding properties. The design must both echo Homadovski, A. 2009. “Transformations in Cultural the urban context and continue the regional culture. Institutions: Contemporary Museum Destinations and When the design process starts from internal space, the Inﬂuences of Industrial Branding Values.” Prostor 17 (2): spirit of the courtyard space is the starting point of the 386–395. design. Next, the courtyard space must be coordinated IMLS (Institute for Museum and Library Services). 2000. with the functions, space, and streamlines of the whole Perspectives on Outcome Based Evaluation for Libraries and Museums. Washington, DC: IMLS. museum and integrated with the city context. When the Konecni, V. J. 2015. “Two Extraordinary New Museums in design starts from the external environment, the courtyard South-Eastern China.” Art and Design Review 3 (3): 76–82. space needs to follow the city context at three levels: doi:10.4236/adr.2015.33010. region, block, and building. The design process thus Peponis, J., and J. Hedin. 1982. “The Layout of Theories in moves from the whole to the local. The courtyard space the Natural History Museum.” 9H 3: 21–25. Sun, L. J. 2017. “Research on the Design of the Courtyards helps to organise the museum plan, including its functions Space in Museums in Yangtze River Delta” Master diss., and streamlines, and the ﬁnal layout is rooted in the shape South China University of Technology. and expression of the courtyard space. Therefore, in the Tong, J. 1963. Jiangnan Yuanlingzhi. [Records of the Gardens ﬁnal expression, the design of courtyard space is an inte- in Jiangnan]. Beijing: China Industry Press. grated whole because of the repeated process of coordi- Wang, S. 2018. “Just for Pleasure. Foreword for the New nating with the external environment and internal space. Translated Version of Glimpses of Gardens in Eastern China.” Time Architecture 4: 54–55. Wineman, J. D., and J. Peponis. 2010. “Constructing Spatial Meaning: Spatial Aﬀordances in Museum Design.” Disclosure statement Environment and Behavior 42 (1): 86–109. doi:10.1177/ No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the authors.
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
– Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 2, 2019
Keywords: Courtyard space; eastern China; traditional context; design strategies