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A study on the direction of improvement by analyzing the characteristics of Goshiwons for urban regeneration in deteriorated residential blocks

A study on the direction of improvement by analyzing the characteristics of Goshiwons for urban... JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 2019, VOL. 18, NO. 5, 392–403 https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2019.1661254 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN A study on the direction of improvement by analyzing the characteristics of Goshiwons for urban regeneration in deteriorated residential blocks Hae-Yeon Yoo, Ji-Won Yang and Ji-Su Kim School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 4 May 2019 The purpose of this study is to propose a direction for improvement by analyzing the characteristics Accepted 19 August 2019 of Goshiwon, non-dwellings. For this purpose, before analyzing the policy alternatives and plans for improvement, this study classify the highly density area of Goshiwons by analyzing the character- KEYWORDS istics of its residents. First, this study derived the process and limitations of the related laws by Goshiwon; supported analyzing the policies and regulations about the domestic Goshiwons. Second, this study analyzed housing; affordable housing; the precedent research and case studies about domestic Goshiwons. Third, the types of Goshiwons social housing; urban were classified according to the distribution of resident types.Finally,thisstudyproposes apolicy regeneration alternative by analyzing the planning characteristics of the representative cases by types. 1. Introduction Goshiwons in South Korea by classifying cases by type according to the type of residents. 1.1 Background and purpose of research Figure 1 describes the backgrounds and changes of As interest in the Gosihwon has been heightened the Goshiwon since the 1970s. It also describes the situa- because of the recent series of incidents and tion at that time through some articles in the newspaper. domestic housing and welfare issues, there is a To that end, First, we looked at the policies and need for clear legal regulations on Goshiwons, and current status of the Goshiwons in South Korea. a survey to improve the residential environment of Second, prior research related to Goshiwons was ana- residents has emerged. It can be confirmed that lyzed. Third, the areas where the Goshiwons are con- South Korea’s concept of housing in Goshiwons centrated were analyzed according to the was formed with the start of the state examination characteristics of the residents, In order to typology of in the 1970s. Since then, the relocation of Seoul Goshiwons, the residents of Seoul visited many National University campuses and a schools from Goshiwons in Seoul through the cooperation of the the 1970s to the outside of the four main gates of city’s residential officials and conducted interviews old Seoul naturally formed “Goshi Villages”,such as with residents, actual measurements of space, and Dongjak-gu and Shillim-dong, and in the 1990s analysis of programs. and fourth, the planning charac- have become a type of housing for college stu- teristics of the common Goshiwons were analyzed. dents, with the weight of the IMF, the spread of Finally, we propose policy and planning improvements. online lectures, and the introduction of the law- Although this study categorized Goshiwons by region school system. Although many accidents and pro- and proposed improvement strategies for each type, blems have arisen from the 70s to the present day, the study focused on analyzing and categorizing the the number of high-school students has steadily current situation of Goshiwons. As a result, the pro- increased, to about 11,800 nationwide, with 80 per- posed improvement strategy is rather general. cent of them concentrated in Seoul. The purpose of this study is to analyze the back- 1.2 Previous studies ground and status of the Goshiwons and to suggest ways to improve them according to the characteristics For the purpose of this study, a prior study in South of each type in future projects for improving the Korea was analyzed. Recent domestic studies have been CONTACT Ji-Won Yang yyaanngg7799@naver.com School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea A “Goshiwon” is a space not intended for residential use but in which people are living. The term originated from the reading rooms that were originally study places in which test takers could take a nap for effective learning. In the wake of the 1997 foreign-exchange crisis, however, theGoshiwons gradually began to turn into lodging places for low-income people, and the low rent rather than the poor facilities or environment, makes one-person poor households vulnerable to social and economic conditions. Jin Mi-yun, Choi Sang-hee (2018), Supply of Goshiwon, Status of Operations Management, and Future Policy Direction, Land Housing Research,Vol. 26,no.3, pp. 5–35. National Emergency Management Agency, 2017 National Emergency Management Agency Statistical Yearbook. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 393 Figure 1. The background and change process of Goshiwon. (Source: 3siot, Shindonga, InfostockDaily, KBS, Modern History Digital Archive, A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwons and Future Policy Direction (2018)) Figure 2. Process of the study. mainly conducted in three aspects. First, plan related to 2. Domestic Goshiwon policy Goshiwons (Lee Jong-won, Lee Ho-young, Hong Won- 2.1 Laws relating to Goshiwons hwa, 2009; Seok Ho-tae, Yang Jeong-hoon, Kim Jin-ho, 2009); Second, factual survey related to Goshiwons The problems of accidents and safety in Goshiwons have (Cheong So-yi, Park Joon-young, 2010; Gwon Jeong- long been concerns. Accordingly, provisions on hyun, 2013); Third, related policies and regulations (Jin Goshiwon safety standards have been revised over the Mee-youn, Choi Sang-hee, 2018; Park Hyung-joo, 2008; years. However, Goshiwons built before the year of revi- Shin Sang-young, 2015; Lee Jung-yeon, 2014). Research sion show limits, in that active improvements are not is being conducted on various aspects, but studies sug- being made the policies are not legally effective. For gesting directions for improvement by typifying test example, the Special Act on the Safety Management of sites according to residence characteristics are insuffi- Multi-use Facilities, revised in 2009, mandates the instal- cient. Therefore, this is a basic study for classifying public lation of simplified sprinklers to prevent fires in sources according to the type of residents, suggesting a Goshiwons, but previous buildings are not regulated direction of planning and supporting policies by type. by sprinklers. Table 1 summarizes the preceding research in this Table 2 contains changes of laws related to the study. Ghoshiwon. 394 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 1. Advanced research. Division Author(Year) Main Contents Plan Lee, Jong-Won, Lee, Ho-Young, Hong, Won-Hwa A Research on Actual Condition for Fire Fighting Environment in (2009) Various Plan Types of Goshiwon and a Study on the Improvement in Fire Safety Capacity Seok, Ho-Tae, Yang, Jeong-Hoon, Kim, Jin-Ho(2009) A Study on the Evacuation Time according to the Width of Corridor, Emergency Exit and Staircase in Study room’s Fires Factual Survey Cheong, So-Yi, Park, Joon-Young(2010) A Study on the Management Status Problems of “Goshiwon” Gwon, Jeong-Hyun(2013) Usage Status and Improvement Direction of Goshiwon Regulations/Policy Jin, Mee-Youn, Choi, Sang-Hee(2018) A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwon and Future Policy Direction Park, Hyung-Joo, Shin, Dong-Cheol(2008) A Study on Fire Safety Regulatory Codes for Boarding Occupancy Facilities used as KOSIWON through an Investigation to the Yong-In KOSIWON’s Fire Case of with Global Fire Performance Code Shin, Sang-Young(2015) The Actual Situation and Policy Direction of quasi dwelling in Seoul Lee, Jung-Yeon(2014) A Study on the Classification and the Utilization Improvement Alternatives of Studio Type Public Facilities Table 2. Laws of Goshiwon. Law(Year) Main contents Abstract Regulations on safety - When changing the inner structure, it is required to report in Fire Safety Enhancement management of multiplex advance and use incombustible material. available premises (2009) - It is required to install a simplicity sprinkler in Multiplex Available Premises. Enforcement Decree of Building - Restrictions on facilities that interfere with fire prevention.: Restrictions on the installation of Goshiwon Law (2009) Facilities such as medical facilities, elderly care facilities, creche depending on the situation, Guidelines for infant and apartments cannot be installed in the same building finishing material as the Goshiwon. - Finishing materials for buildings shall be made of materials that do not interfere with fire protection. Enforcement Decree of Building - Mandatory installation of windows or facilities for lighting and Enhancement fire and evacuation safety Law (2010) ventilation. standard - The criteria setting of boundary walls between rooms and ground between floors standards. Enforcement Decree of Building - Prevent illegal accommodation from being built in residential Intensified regulation of utilization Law (2011) areas. - The floor area of the Goshiwon, which The second neighborhood living facilities, is reduced from 1,000 square meters to less than 500 square meters. Enforcement Decree of Building -To prevent illegal renovations of the interior of a house, such as Increase the fine of illegal renovations. Law (2012) the illegal increase of the number of households in a house, an increase in fines for buildings that add to or break up without reporting. Enforcement Decree of Building - Restrictions on the Location of Undergrounds in Goshiwon Comfort of Residential Environment, Law (2015) - Regulations for minimum corridor width 1.2 m and 1.5 m Evacuation and Fire Protection Criteria - For six stories or higher, it is mandatory to install a smoke eliminating equipment. - The Goshiwon and the maternity hospital cannot be installed in the same building. - The mandatory installation of boundary walls as refractory structures. - Reinforced Concrete Thickness 10cm, Plain Concrete Thickness 10cm, not less than 19cm in Concrete Block Structure. Enforcement Decree of Building - The second neighborhood living facilities (Total floor area less 2018’s Goshiwon Law (2018) than 500㎡) legal justice - Accommodation facilities (Floor area 500㎡ or higher) - Quasi-housing (apartments that do not belong to the second neighborhood living facilities) (Source: The Legislative Office (2018), A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwon and Future Policy Direction(2018)) 2.2 Laws and systems related to quasi housing Table 3 describes changes in housing welfare poli- cies and systems since 2006. To prevent non-dwellings such as Goshiwons and to provide a minimum living environment and space, the government has proposed various housing welfare 3. The classification of highly density area of policies since 2006, as shown in the table below. Goshiwon by resident type However, because non-dwellings residents often want to live near their jobs, legal standards are limited Goshiwons are divided into three main types of resi- and the policies are not actively enforced. dents in the area. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 395 Table 3. Housing welfare policy and system. Police/Law (Year) Main contents Abstract Emergency Aid and Support - A system that provides quick support for the cost of living for one Immediate support in case of emergency Act (2006) month to those in need of help in times of crisis such as difficulty of living. Seoul Housing Voucher - If the rent for low-income households exceeds a certain level of Partial subsidy for rent and monthly rent for Program (2010) income, some of the rent is provided as a coupon-type exchange low-income households voucher. homeless welfare law (2012) - Protection by Homeless Welfare Facilities. Appropriate housing support for the homeless - Protection by social welfare facilities and protection by other laws. -Support for the supply/temporary housing costs of rental housing. - Other housing support provided under the Presidential Decree. monthly rent loan (2015) - monthly rent loan for the Stability of Low-income Households lower-income group housing assistance Low income homeowners - Support comprehensive housing improvement by assessing the lower-income group improvement of living Support (2017) level of old age of a house, such as structural safety, facilities and conditions closures, among households with low economic income housing allowance system - Provide housing expenses for all households with median income lower-income group improvement of living revision (2018) of 43% or less based on income recognition regardless of their conditions working capacity or age. (Source: The Legislative Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Seoul youth housing portal Re-edit) First, it is a busy area of Goshiwons (Gangnam) 4. An analysis of the characteristics of the centered on office workers. Starting with Teheran-ro, Goshiwon’s planning by type the main road in Gangnam-gu, Seoul, there is a con- 4.1 Characteristics of highly density area of centration of Goshiwons along both sides of the Goshiwon and residents Seocho-gu. Also, a new form of Goshiwons has been found near some large hagwons. It has the highest For two months between January and February 2019, monthly rent in Seoul, with 22.1 percent of the total we conducted an on-site survey of residents of number of public institutions opened before 2009, Goshiwons, and interviewed managers for the purpose which is significantly lower than the Seoul average of of surveying the actual condition of the residential envir- 31.6 percent, indicating that there are many public onment and analyzing the planned characteristics. places in the new good environment. The details of the survey of the areas visited are Second, Goshiwons tend to be in a busy area cen- presented in Table 5, which summarizes the four tered on job seekers. Dongjak-gu is a huge cluster of cases in which there are implications among research educational facilities, related facilities, and Goshiwons cases, as well as the characteristics of unit-generation for national tests, with the Noryang district and large units and key spaces. academies. Affordable retail stores, restaurants, and Figure 2 represents the research procedure. cultural life tailored to students create a complex Goshi-village atmosphere. The number of Goshiwons We found that Goshiwons in Dongjak-gu, which stands at 498, the second largest area in South Korea has a high percentage of job seekers, had a relatively after Gwanak. Also, the ratio of Goshiwons that good residential environment and that public facilities opened before 2009 is 36.9 percent, with the portion were equipped. In Dongdaemun-gu/Seodaemun-gu, of the aged Goshiwons being significantly higher. monthly rent was relatively lower than in Dongjak- Third, Goshiwon is a busy district (Dongdaemoon) gu, and the aging residential environment and lack of centered on day laborers. It is concentrated around public space was found. In addition, as the residents subway stations, such as the Sindang-dong Station, were mainly employed, it was urgent to improve the Jegi Station, and Seomyeon Station on Line 1. The living environment and expand the community space Goshiwon monthly rent is the lowest in Seoul (aver- to secure the quality of life. age of 230,000 won), and facilities are often poor. The proportion of low-income and foreign workers among Goshiwon residents is high. 4.2 Characteristics of Goshiwon operating Table 4 describes the location of the Goshiwon's methods areas in Seoul. It contains the population change by Goshiwons are not a legally defined type and there- regions, geographical features and sociocultural fore exist in various forms and operate in a way that characteristics. avoids legal restrictions. The Goshiwons are largely Table 5 summarizes the analysis of main cases by operated in four ways: multiple houses, illegal multi- regions. family houses, one-room houses, and ordinary houses. Kookmin Bank (2011), A Study on the Trend of Housing Price in South Korea. National Human Rights Commission of Korea (2018), A Study on the Actual Conditions of Non-Housing and the Improvement of the System. Interviews and surveys of Goshiwon dwellers were conducted through consultation with Seoul Metropolitan Government officials. 396 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 4. Classification of highly density area of Goshiwons according to resident type. District Gangnam-gu Dongjak-gu Dongdaemun-gu Distribution Population Density 13,859 25,032 25,630 2 a (people/km ) Map Regional Characteristic - Located near a large private - Large institutes, related facilities, - Concentrating around a Sinseol- educational institute and main and Goshiwons are concentrated to dong Station, Jegi Station, street (Teheran-road) form town Cheongnyangni Station, Hoegi Station sociocultural characteristic The average monthly rent for a -Affordable prices for test student -The average monthly rent for a Goshiwon is 410,000 won. the - A variety entertainments and Goshiwon is 230,000 won. the highest monthly rent of an restaurants aimed at the younger lowest monthly rent of an Goshiwon in Seoul. (National generation create the exclusive Goshiwon in Seoul.(National Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) culture of Noryangjin Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) - Poor facilities - The percentage of low-income earners and foreign workers among Goshiwon residents is high.(A study for the provision of housing support plan for non- dwellings households (2013)) District Seocho-gu Gwanak-gu Seodaemun-gu Distribution Population Density 9,326 17,587 18,331 (people/km ) Map Regional Characteristic - Located near a large private - There are 901 Goshiwon in the area. - Concentrating around a Hongik Univ educational institute and main It is the largest Goshiwon area in Station, Sinchon Station, Ewha street (Teheran-road) the country. There are 74.3 Womans Univ Station, Kyonggi Goshiwon per 10000 houses. It is University and Myongji University. the most densely populated area of Goshiwon in the country. (Identification of non- dwellings situation and improvement plan,2018) sociocultural characteristic -There are 21.7 Goshiwon per 10000 - In the 1970s, the Goshiwon town -The largest room area in Seoul with houses. The number of Goshiwons which in Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu an average of 10.3 square meters in the area is smaller than the was established with the relocation -The average monthly rent for a average in Seoul. (Identification of of Seoul National University Goshiwon is 360,000 won. It is non- dwellings situation and campus and its impact is still second most expensive area for improvement plan, 2018) ongoing Goshiwon monthly rent in Seoul. (National Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) (Source: Current State and Policy Direction for Gosi-Housing Establishments in Seoul (2010)) http://data.seoul.go.kr/, 2018. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 397 Table 5. Residential environment analysis of Gangnam, Dongjak, Dongdaedmoon. Case Danbee House Han Tteut Goshiwon Winwin Goshiwon Site 31, Teheran-ro 14-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, South Korea 38, Noryangjin-ro 16-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea 411, Gosanja-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea Characters of Site - Located near large private educational institute - Located in a residential area - Commercial facility on the first floor - Share housing type - Located in a narrow alley - Located near subway station Plan Room Plan Room Image Common Space shared bathroom shared bathroom rooftop communal kitchen Characteristics of Plan Corridor width:1000mm Corridor width: 1235mm Corridor width: 1030mm Number of rooms on one floor: 7 ~ 10 Outside window size: 900 × 900 Internal window size: 500 × 600 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Percentage of public space: 0% Percentage of public space: 3.17% Number of rooms on one floor: 14 Number of rooms on one floor: 32 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Number of exits on one floor: 1 Name Soho Goshiwon Sejong Goshiwon Jiseong Goshiwon Site 212, Apgujeong-ro, Gangnam-gu, South Korea 60, Manyang-ro 14-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea 25, Cheonho-daero 35-gil, Dongdaemun-gu, South Korea Characters of Site - Located in a residential area - Commercial facility on the first floor - Commercial facility on the first floor - Located in the Noryangjin housing maintenance area - Located in a residential area Plan (Continued) 398 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 5. (Continued). Case Danbee House Han Tteut Goshiwon Winwin Goshiwon Room Plan Room Image Commual Space lounge lounge communal kitchen communal kitchen Characteristics of Plan Corridor width: 1000mm Corridor width: 1000mm Corridor width: 710 ~ 930mm Number of rooms on one floor: 46 Internal window size: 350 × 350 Internal window size: 600 × 600 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Percentage of public space: 17.84% Percentage of public space: 4.4% Number of rooms on one floor: 20 Number of rooms on one floor: 26 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Number of exits on one floor: 1 JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 399 Table 6. Building and floorplans characteristics. Division (Case) Plan Characteristics entrance Middle corridor type - All rooms have windows 2 (Han Tteut Goshiwon) Rotation type - Some rooms have windows 2 (Winwin Goshiwon) - Dangerous in case of fire escape. Isolation type - Illegal rooftop house 2 (Winwin Goshiwon) - Dangerous in case of fire escape. - Poor housing conditions First, it is a legal operation method to use multiple 4.3 Characteristics of planning according to houses. Multiple houses, a type of single-family Goshiwons building homes, do not have a complete residential form and 4.3.1. Planning of buildings and floor plans can have a bathroom for each room, but cooking is Goshiwons’ building plans and typical plans could considered illegal. The kitchens are jointly run. This largely be characterized into three types: duplicated case can be seen as a legal form of residence in the corridor, corridor, and single type. high court. In the duplicated corridor type, the most favorable Second, it is illegal operation using multiple residential environment of the high-level plan is to houses. Because a Goshiwon is vulnerable to fires, secure light and ventilation by placing windows in all many of the Goshiwons’ cooking facilities are set up individual rooms, in the form of sills located on both to attract residents, even though it is illegal to set up sides of the central corridor. an indoor cooking facility inside the Goshiwon. The corridor type creates a rotating corridor inside a Third, it is an illegal operation method that uses high-sill circle and places threads in the outer and center one-room housing. The methodistoregisterbuild- sections. As a floor plan to secure more yarn, the interior ings as Goshiwons and operate one-room resi- of thebuildingwillhavepoorwindowlessthreads,which dences equipped with cooking facilities illegally. will be leased at a lower price than windowed ones. The main reason for this is to maximize rental A single type is a form of securing additional income by reducing the parking area, using the threads through illegal alteration of the water tank fact that one-room housing is legally required to chamber located on the roof of the Goshiwon build- have 0.6 parking area per household, but one park- ing or by installing an illegal building. Because it is not ing area per 134 m . a normal method of building, it provides poor hous- Fourth, it is illegal to rent a small room in an ing environment and safety. ordinary house, which is generally referred to as a The three types of corridors are 800–1000 mm wide, gibang. which is narrower than in normal buildings and can In addition, the Goshiwons are illegally operated cause considerable inconvenience for circulation. The for various purposes, with 70 percent of the narrow corridor width was thought to require legal Goshiwon buildings in each region being used as restrictions, in that it was hard to escape in case of second-class residential facilities, with 2.4 percent fire and that noise generated from the chamber would being working facilities, 2.2 percent being educa- be transmitted to the side rooms, thereby reducing the tional facilities, and 1.2 percent being accommoda- quality of the residential environment. tion facilities. 400 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 7. Vertical circulation characteristics. Division (case) Section Characteristics Mixed with commercial facility -Included Commercial Facilities on Each Floor (Winwin Goshiwon) Mixed with dwelling - Residential Facilities and Goshiwon (Han Tteut Goshiwon) Mixed with commercial facility,dwelling - Included Commercial Facilities and Communal Spaces (Sejong Goshiwon) - Mainly located on the main street Dividing zone by gender - Facility classification by gender on each floor (Jiseong Goshiwon) -Discomfort in using public space Dividing gender by floor - Advantageous to security and living (Jang won Goshiwon) JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 401 Table 8. Communal space’s characteristics. Office workers Students Day workers Division (Case) (Dan bee House) (Han Tteut Goshiwon) (Jiseong Goshiwon) Communal bathroom o o o Communal shower room o o o Kitchen o o o Utility room X X o Storage X X o Entrance o o o Image Kitchen Communal bathroom Entrance Table 9. Community space’s characteristics. Office workers Students Day workers Division (Case) (Soho Goshiwon) (Sejong Goshiwon) (Winwin Goshiwon) Library o Lounge o o Maintenance o Rooftop o o o Image Lounge Library Rooftop Table 6 summarizes the characteristics of the build- directions around the vertical core. Since the kitchen, ing plans and features. which is a common space, exists only on one side, it has been confirmed that there is inconvenience in the wires caused by the separation of space, such as having to 4.3.2. Vertical circulation plan pass through the core space to use it. The vertical circulation of Goshiwons could be largely The vertical division of men and women is the type grouped into five types: commercial- residential, com- that separates the layers according to the sex of the mercial, residential, separated, and male and female. Goshiwons’ residents, and is designed for the security The commercial mixed type is the type of commer- of the residents and their convenience in life. cial facility planned for the upper or lower floors of Table 7 describes the cross-sectional conceptual the building. diagrams and the characteristics of the spatial Mixed-use housing is divided into layers of composition. Goshiwons and ordinary houses in the building, and movement to the rooftop, which is used as a smoking, laundry, and public space, may be encountered by both 4.3.3. Public space plan the high-ranking residents and the average resident. Both types of public offices showed similar views in A commercial-residential complex is when nearby planning public spaces. Public toilets, showers, kitch- living facilities, housing, and public information centers ens, and front doors (including new ones) were used are divided into floors. It is a type that is often seen on together, except for core spaces such as elevators and the side of the boulevard where commercial facilities stairs for vertical movement and management. Other are usually located. public spaces were difficult to find. The two-sided separation type uses some layers in Table 8 analyzes the characteristics of the the building as a test source, but divides them into two Communal Spaces. 402 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. such, it is not clearly part of the legal code and 4.3.4. Community space planning thus operates as an illegal residence in various There was a difference in community space by region. In the Goshiwon mainly used by Office workers, the forms. In the future, tougher legal sanctions and continuous inspections and management will be restroom, small community space, and canteen were needed to resolve them. checked, whereas in the Goshiwon mainly used by stu- dents was operating a library or lounge for the students Second, in common, problems such as lack of public who were the main residents. Compared to the above space, obsolescence of facilities, and lack of openings and closures in individual rooms were recognized. two regions, it was difficult to identify community spaces in most Goshiwon mainly used by day workers, Depending on the characteristics of the residential where monthly rent is low and the environment is poor. area, Goshiwons where students and job seekers reside can propose a space for daily workers, such as libraries, All three types of apartments had rooftops, but the physical environment was not so good that they were sports spaces, rest areas, and, finally, a space for psycho- not used as community spaces and were used for smok- logical healing and community formation, and Goshiwon, where office workers reside in general can ing, laundry drying, and baggage storage. The rooftop environment of the apartments surveyed in this study offer a space for joint meetings and devices. was not good, but the rooftop can be used as a com- Studies have shown that, depending on the type of munity of residents if the environment is good. resident, the programs and facilities of the public Table 9 is an analysis of the characteristics of spaces that should be proposed in the Goshiwon-con- Community Spaces. gested area should be diversified. In addition, the priority of policy support was given, indicating the urgency for policy training based on local and resident 5. Conclusion characteristics, not on uniform institutionalization. Policies have also changed and research has been under way recently as interest in domestic housing welfare and Disclosure statement Goshiwons has increased. The purpose of the plan is to identify the background and status of the high-ranking No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. officials and to categorize the Goshiwon types according to the type of residents in order to suggest a direction for Funding planning and policy improvement by type. Depending on the residents’ characteristics, This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Korea. (NRF-018R1D1A1B07050494) Goshiwons in Seoul can be classified into Gangnam/ This study was developed by expanding and supplementing Seocho-gu with a large number of workers, the presentation paper that won the Award for Excellence in Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu with a large number the 2019 General Assembly & Spring Annual Conference of of students, and Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu with AIK. a concentration of low-income and daily workers. First, the Gangnam/Seocho-Gyeong-gu area had rela- Notes on contributors tively high monthly rents and a pleasant residential envir- onment because of the characteristics of high-income Dr Hae-Yeon Yoo is an Associate Professor in the School of workers. Architecture at the Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea. Second, in Dongjak-gu/Gwanak-gu, large-scale hag- She is an architect and teaches and researches in the fields of design and urban regeneration. From 2000 until 2008 she won students are concentrated, showing the local char- was a senior architect at the SAMOO architects & Engineers. acteristics of preparing for college entrance exams or She earned doctorate from Seoul National University in public-service entrance exams. In the Goshiwon district, 2010 and then she studied urban regeneration laws and for a college student who is not preparing for job, the systems as a senior researcher at the Korea Land and living conditions were relatively good with the financial Housing Corp. until 2012. As an educator, she has sug- support of his parents. In particular, various entertainment gested and incorporated direction of the urban regenera- tion through the Local Connected Design. She is facilities and restaurants tailored to those in their 20s and researching affordable housing and prefab design for the 30s are creating a unique culture in the region. neighborhood regeneration part of an interdisciplinary Third, Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, has the research team funded by the National Research lowest monthly rent in areas where low-income peo- Foundation of Korea since 2012. She has been serving as a ple and day laborers are concentrated. However, the member of the committee in the fields of architecture, urban design and urban regeneration in diverse regions. residential environment is relatively poor. For example, she serves as head of the urban regeneration The investigation and analysis of these sources center in Shinwol 3-dong that is the local level urban regen- resulted in the following problems and limitations. eration areas in Seoul. She is co-chairman of the village First, the Goshiwon system is largely operated in community committee in Dongjak-gu, Seoul and a member four ways: as multiple houses, illegal multiple of the urban planning committee in Seocho-gu, Seoul. And houses, one-room houses, and general houses. As she has been a urban regeneration committee in Gyeonggi JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 403 Province. She is also a researcher for the Architectural 2019 ZEMCH (Zero Energy Mass Custom Home) in Institute Korea and a consultant on direction in order to November. He has been interesting in the urban regenera- transform space in schools at the Ministry of Education. tion's research field, so he will go on to master's in the field next year. Ji-Won Yang is an undergraduate in architecture at Soongsil University, South Korea. He has been participating Ji-Su Kim is an undergraduate in architecture at Soongsil as an assistant researcher for the A/Prof. Yoo Hae-yeon's University, South Korea. He has been participating as an research team since 2017. In 2017, he won the grand prize assistant researcher for the A/Prof. Yoo Hae-yeon's research at the '72-hour Project,' an urban renewal contest that team since 2019. In 2019, he won the “Youth Architect turned barren land in Seoul into a usable space, hosted Design Competition,” a competition for design of living by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and Hanwha infrastructure using low-rise residential area hosted by the Corporation. In 2019, he won the “Youth Architect Design Seoul Housing Corporation, and is currently working on Competition,” a competition for design of living infrastruc- projects related to urban regeneration and housing in ture using low-rise residential area hosted by the Seoul Seoul. He is participating as an assistant in the ZEMCH Housing Corporation, and is currently working on projects International Design Workshop at Seoul in November related to urban regeneration and housing in Seoul. He 2019. He has been interesting in the urban regeneration participated in the ZEMCH International Design Workshop and local connected school programs, so he will go on to at Melbourne in 2018 and is joining as an assistant for the master's in the field next year. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering Taylor & Francis

A study on the direction of improvement by analyzing the characteristics of Goshiwons for urban regeneration in deteriorated residential blocks

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Taylor & Francis
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© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China.
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1347-2852
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1346-7581
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10.1080/13467581.2019.1661254
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JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 2019, VOL. 18, NO. 5, 392–403 https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2019.1661254 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN A study on the direction of improvement by analyzing the characteristics of Goshiwons for urban regeneration in deteriorated residential blocks Hae-Yeon Yoo, Ji-Won Yang and Ji-Su Kim School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 4 May 2019 The purpose of this study is to propose a direction for improvement by analyzing the characteristics Accepted 19 August 2019 of Goshiwon, non-dwellings. For this purpose, before analyzing the policy alternatives and plans for improvement, this study classify the highly density area of Goshiwons by analyzing the character- KEYWORDS istics of its residents. First, this study derived the process and limitations of the related laws by Goshiwon; supported analyzing the policies and regulations about the domestic Goshiwons. Second, this study analyzed housing; affordable housing; the precedent research and case studies about domestic Goshiwons. Third, the types of Goshiwons social housing; urban were classified according to the distribution of resident types.Finally,thisstudyproposes apolicy regeneration alternative by analyzing the planning characteristics of the representative cases by types. 1. Introduction Goshiwons in South Korea by classifying cases by type according to the type of residents. 1.1 Background and purpose of research Figure 1 describes the backgrounds and changes of As interest in the Gosihwon has been heightened the Goshiwon since the 1970s. It also describes the situa- because of the recent series of incidents and tion at that time through some articles in the newspaper. domestic housing and welfare issues, there is a To that end, First, we looked at the policies and need for clear legal regulations on Goshiwons, and current status of the Goshiwons in South Korea. a survey to improve the residential environment of Second, prior research related to Goshiwons was ana- residents has emerged. It can be confirmed that lyzed. Third, the areas where the Goshiwons are con- South Korea’s concept of housing in Goshiwons centrated were analyzed according to the was formed with the start of the state examination characteristics of the residents, In order to typology of in the 1970s. Since then, the relocation of Seoul Goshiwons, the residents of Seoul visited many National University campuses and a schools from Goshiwons in Seoul through the cooperation of the the 1970s to the outside of the four main gates of city’s residential officials and conducted interviews old Seoul naturally formed “Goshi Villages”,such as with residents, actual measurements of space, and Dongjak-gu and Shillim-dong, and in the 1990s analysis of programs. and fourth, the planning charac- have become a type of housing for college stu- teristics of the common Goshiwons were analyzed. dents, with the weight of the IMF, the spread of Finally, we propose policy and planning improvements. online lectures, and the introduction of the law- Although this study categorized Goshiwons by region school system. Although many accidents and pro- and proposed improvement strategies for each type, blems have arisen from the 70s to the present day, the study focused on analyzing and categorizing the the number of high-school students has steadily current situation of Goshiwons. As a result, the pro- increased, to about 11,800 nationwide, with 80 per- posed improvement strategy is rather general. cent of them concentrated in Seoul. The purpose of this study is to analyze the back- 1.2 Previous studies ground and status of the Goshiwons and to suggest ways to improve them according to the characteristics For the purpose of this study, a prior study in South of each type in future projects for improving the Korea was analyzed. Recent domestic studies have been CONTACT Ji-Won Yang yyaanngg7799@naver.com School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea A “Goshiwon” is a space not intended for residential use but in which people are living. The term originated from the reading rooms that were originally study places in which test takers could take a nap for effective learning. In the wake of the 1997 foreign-exchange crisis, however, theGoshiwons gradually began to turn into lodging places for low-income people, and the low rent rather than the poor facilities or environment, makes one-person poor households vulnerable to social and economic conditions. Jin Mi-yun, Choi Sang-hee (2018), Supply of Goshiwon, Status of Operations Management, and Future Policy Direction, Land Housing Research,Vol. 26,no.3, pp. 5–35. National Emergency Management Agency, 2017 National Emergency Management Agency Statistical Yearbook. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 393 Figure 1. The background and change process of Goshiwon. (Source: 3siot, Shindonga, InfostockDaily, KBS, Modern History Digital Archive, A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwons and Future Policy Direction (2018)) Figure 2. Process of the study. mainly conducted in three aspects. First, plan related to 2. Domestic Goshiwon policy Goshiwons (Lee Jong-won, Lee Ho-young, Hong Won- 2.1 Laws relating to Goshiwons hwa, 2009; Seok Ho-tae, Yang Jeong-hoon, Kim Jin-ho, 2009); Second, factual survey related to Goshiwons The problems of accidents and safety in Goshiwons have (Cheong So-yi, Park Joon-young, 2010; Gwon Jeong- long been concerns. Accordingly, provisions on hyun, 2013); Third, related policies and regulations (Jin Goshiwon safety standards have been revised over the Mee-youn, Choi Sang-hee, 2018; Park Hyung-joo, 2008; years. However, Goshiwons built before the year of revi- Shin Sang-young, 2015; Lee Jung-yeon, 2014). Research sion show limits, in that active improvements are not is being conducted on various aspects, but studies sug- being made the policies are not legally effective. For gesting directions for improvement by typifying test example, the Special Act on the Safety Management of sites according to residence characteristics are insuffi- Multi-use Facilities, revised in 2009, mandates the instal- cient. Therefore, this is a basic study for classifying public lation of simplified sprinklers to prevent fires in sources according to the type of residents, suggesting a Goshiwons, but previous buildings are not regulated direction of planning and supporting policies by type. by sprinklers. Table 1 summarizes the preceding research in this Table 2 contains changes of laws related to the study. Ghoshiwon. 394 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 1. Advanced research. Division Author(Year) Main Contents Plan Lee, Jong-Won, Lee, Ho-Young, Hong, Won-Hwa A Research on Actual Condition for Fire Fighting Environment in (2009) Various Plan Types of Goshiwon and a Study on the Improvement in Fire Safety Capacity Seok, Ho-Tae, Yang, Jeong-Hoon, Kim, Jin-Ho(2009) A Study on the Evacuation Time according to the Width of Corridor, Emergency Exit and Staircase in Study room’s Fires Factual Survey Cheong, So-Yi, Park, Joon-Young(2010) A Study on the Management Status Problems of “Goshiwon” Gwon, Jeong-Hyun(2013) Usage Status and Improvement Direction of Goshiwon Regulations/Policy Jin, Mee-Youn, Choi, Sang-Hee(2018) A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwon and Future Policy Direction Park, Hyung-Joo, Shin, Dong-Cheol(2008) A Study on Fire Safety Regulatory Codes for Boarding Occupancy Facilities used as KOSIWON through an Investigation to the Yong-In KOSIWON’s Fire Case of with Global Fire Performance Code Shin, Sang-Young(2015) The Actual Situation and Policy Direction of quasi dwelling in Seoul Lee, Jung-Yeon(2014) A Study on the Classification and the Utilization Improvement Alternatives of Studio Type Public Facilities Table 2. Laws of Goshiwon. Law(Year) Main contents Abstract Regulations on safety - When changing the inner structure, it is required to report in Fire Safety Enhancement management of multiplex advance and use incombustible material. available premises (2009) - It is required to install a simplicity sprinkler in Multiplex Available Premises. Enforcement Decree of Building - Restrictions on facilities that interfere with fire prevention.: Restrictions on the installation of Goshiwon Law (2009) Facilities such as medical facilities, elderly care facilities, creche depending on the situation, Guidelines for infant and apartments cannot be installed in the same building finishing material as the Goshiwon. - Finishing materials for buildings shall be made of materials that do not interfere with fire protection. Enforcement Decree of Building - Mandatory installation of windows or facilities for lighting and Enhancement fire and evacuation safety Law (2010) ventilation. standard - The criteria setting of boundary walls between rooms and ground between floors standards. Enforcement Decree of Building - Prevent illegal accommodation from being built in residential Intensified regulation of utilization Law (2011) areas. - The floor area of the Goshiwon, which The second neighborhood living facilities, is reduced from 1,000 square meters to less than 500 square meters. Enforcement Decree of Building -To prevent illegal renovations of the interior of a house, such as Increase the fine of illegal renovations. Law (2012) the illegal increase of the number of households in a house, an increase in fines for buildings that add to or break up without reporting. Enforcement Decree of Building - Restrictions on the Location of Undergrounds in Goshiwon Comfort of Residential Environment, Law (2015) - Regulations for minimum corridor width 1.2 m and 1.5 m Evacuation and Fire Protection Criteria - For six stories or higher, it is mandatory to install a smoke eliminating equipment. - The Goshiwon and the maternity hospital cannot be installed in the same building. - The mandatory installation of boundary walls as refractory structures. - Reinforced Concrete Thickness 10cm, Plain Concrete Thickness 10cm, not less than 19cm in Concrete Block Structure. Enforcement Decree of Building - The second neighborhood living facilities (Total floor area less 2018’s Goshiwon Law (2018) than 500㎡) legal justice - Accommodation facilities (Floor area 500㎡ or higher) - Quasi-housing (apartments that do not belong to the second neighborhood living facilities) (Source: The Legislative Office (2018), A Study on the Conditions of Provision and Management of Goshiwon and Future Policy Direction(2018)) 2.2 Laws and systems related to quasi housing Table 3 describes changes in housing welfare poli- cies and systems since 2006. To prevent non-dwellings such as Goshiwons and to provide a minimum living environment and space, the government has proposed various housing welfare 3. The classification of highly density area of policies since 2006, as shown in the table below. Goshiwon by resident type However, because non-dwellings residents often want to live near their jobs, legal standards are limited Goshiwons are divided into three main types of resi- and the policies are not actively enforced. dents in the area. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 395 Table 3. Housing welfare policy and system. Police/Law (Year) Main contents Abstract Emergency Aid and Support - A system that provides quick support for the cost of living for one Immediate support in case of emergency Act (2006) month to those in need of help in times of crisis such as difficulty of living. Seoul Housing Voucher - If the rent for low-income households exceeds a certain level of Partial subsidy for rent and monthly rent for Program (2010) income, some of the rent is provided as a coupon-type exchange low-income households voucher. homeless welfare law (2012) - Protection by Homeless Welfare Facilities. Appropriate housing support for the homeless - Protection by social welfare facilities and protection by other laws. -Support for the supply/temporary housing costs of rental housing. - Other housing support provided under the Presidential Decree. monthly rent loan (2015) - monthly rent loan for the Stability of Low-income Households lower-income group housing assistance Low income homeowners - Support comprehensive housing improvement by assessing the lower-income group improvement of living Support (2017) level of old age of a house, such as structural safety, facilities and conditions closures, among households with low economic income housing allowance system - Provide housing expenses for all households with median income lower-income group improvement of living revision (2018) of 43% or less based on income recognition regardless of their conditions working capacity or age. (Source: The Legislative Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Seoul youth housing portal Re-edit) First, it is a busy area of Goshiwons (Gangnam) 4. An analysis of the characteristics of the centered on office workers. Starting with Teheran-ro, Goshiwon’s planning by type the main road in Gangnam-gu, Seoul, there is a con- 4.1 Characteristics of highly density area of centration of Goshiwons along both sides of the Goshiwon and residents Seocho-gu. Also, a new form of Goshiwons has been found near some large hagwons. It has the highest For two months between January and February 2019, monthly rent in Seoul, with 22.1 percent of the total we conducted an on-site survey of residents of number of public institutions opened before 2009, Goshiwons, and interviewed managers for the purpose which is significantly lower than the Seoul average of of surveying the actual condition of the residential envir- 31.6 percent, indicating that there are many public onment and analyzing the planned characteristics. places in the new good environment. The details of the survey of the areas visited are Second, Goshiwons tend to be in a busy area cen- presented in Table 5, which summarizes the four tered on job seekers. Dongjak-gu is a huge cluster of cases in which there are implications among research educational facilities, related facilities, and Goshiwons cases, as well as the characteristics of unit-generation for national tests, with the Noryang district and large units and key spaces. academies. Affordable retail stores, restaurants, and Figure 2 represents the research procedure. cultural life tailored to students create a complex Goshi-village atmosphere. The number of Goshiwons We found that Goshiwons in Dongjak-gu, which stands at 498, the second largest area in South Korea has a high percentage of job seekers, had a relatively after Gwanak. Also, the ratio of Goshiwons that good residential environment and that public facilities opened before 2009 is 36.9 percent, with the portion were equipped. In Dongdaemun-gu/Seodaemun-gu, of the aged Goshiwons being significantly higher. monthly rent was relatively lower than in Dongjak- Third, Goshiwon is a busy district (Dongdaemoon) gu, and the aging residential environment and lack of centered on day laborers. It is concentrated around public space was found. In addition, as the residents subway stations, such as the Sindang-dong Station, were mainly employed, it was urgent to improve the Jegi Station, and Seomyeon Station on Line 1. The living environment and expand the community space Goshiwon monthly rent is the lowest in Seoul (aver- to secure the quality of life. age of 230,000 won), and facilities are often poor. The proportion of low-income and foreign workers among Goshiwon residents is high. 4.2 Characteristics of Goshiwon operating Table 4 describes the location of the Goshiwon's methods areas in Seoul. It contains the population change by Goshiwons are not a legally defined type and there- regions, geographical features and sociocultural fore exist in various forms and operate in a way that characteristics. avoids legal restrictions. The Goshiwons are largely Table 5 summarizes the analysis of main cases by operated in four ways: multiple houses, illegal multi- regions. family houses, one-room houses, and ordinary houses. Kookmin Bank (2011), A Study on the Trend of Housing Price in South Korea. National Human Rights Commission of Korea (2018), A Study on the Actual Conditions of Non-Housing and the Improvement of the System. Interviews and surveys of Goshiwon dwellers were conducted through consultation with Seoul Metropolitan Government officials. 396 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 4. Classification of highly density area of Goshiwons according to resident type. District Gangnam-gu Dongjak-gu Dongdaemun-gu Distribution Population Density 13,859 25,032 25,630 2 a (people/km ) Map Regional Characteristic - Located near a large private - Large institutes, related facilities, - Concentrating around a Sinseol- educational institute and main and Goshiwons are concentrated to dong Station, Jegi Station, street (Teheran-road) form town Cheongnyangni Station, Hoegi Station sociocultural characteristic The average monthly rent for a -Affordable prices for test student -The average monthly rent for a Goshiwon is 410,000 won. the - A variety entertainments and Goshiwon is 230,000 won. the highest monthly rent of an restaurants aimed at the younger lowest monthly rent of an Goshiwon in Seoul. (National generation create the exclusive Goshiwon in Seoul.(National Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) culture of Noryangjin Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) - Poor facilities - The percentage of low-income earners and foreign workers among Goshiwon residents is high.(A study for the provision of housing support plan for non- dwellings households (2013)) District Seocho-gu Gwanak-gu Seodaemun-gu Distribution Population Density 9,326 17,587 18,331 (people/km ) Map Regional Characteristic - Located near a large private - There are 901 Goshiwon in the area. - Concentrating around a Hongik Univ educational institute and main It is the largest Goshiwon area in Station, Sinchon Station, Ewha street (Teheran-road) the country. There are 74.3 Womans Univ Station, Kyonggi Goshiwon per 10000 houses. It is University and Myongji University. the most densely populated area of Goshiwon in the country. (Identification of non- dwellings situation and improvement plan,2018) sociocultural characteristic -There are 21.7 Goshiwon per 10000 - In the 1970s, the Goshiwon town -The largest room area in Seoul with houses. The number of Goshiwons which in Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu an average of 10.3 square meters in the area is smaller than the was established with the relocation -The average monthly rent for a average in Seoul. (Identification of of Seoul National University Goshiwon is 360,000 won. It is non- dwellings situation and campus and its impact is still second most expensive area for improvement plan, 2018) ongoing Goshiwon monthly rent in Seoul. (National Housing Price Trend Survey(2011)) (Source: Current State and Policy Direction for Gosi-Housing Establishments in Seoul (2010)) http://data.seoul.go.kr/, 2018. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 397 Table 5. Residential environment analysis of Gangnam, Dongjak, Dongdaedmoon. Case Danbee House Han Tteut Goshiwon Winwin Goshiwon Site 31, Teheran-ro 14-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, South Korea 38, Noryangjin-ro 16-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea 411, Gosanja-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea Characters of Site - Located near large private educational institute - Located in a residential area - Commercial facility on the first floor - Share housing type - Located in a narrow alley - Located near subway station Plan Room Plan Room Image Common Space shared bathroom shared bathroom rooftop communal kitchen Characteristics of Plan Corridor width:1000mm Corridor width: 1235mm Corridor width: 1030mm Number of rooms on one floor: 7 ~ 10 Outside window size: 900 × 900 Internal window size: 500 × 600 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Percentage of public space: 0% Percentage of public space: 3.17% Number of rooms on one floor: 14 Number of rooms on one floor: 32 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Number of exits on one floor: 1 Name Soho Goshiwon Sejong Goshiwon Jiseong Goshiwon Site 212, Apgujeong-ro, Gangnam-gu, South Korea 60, Manyang-ro 14-gil, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea 25, Cheonho-daero 35-gil, Dongdaemun-gu, South Korea Characters of Site - Located in a residential area - Commercial facility on the first floor - Commercial facility on the first floor - Located in the Noryangjin housing maintenance area - Located in a residential area Plan (Continued) 398 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 5. (Continued). Case Danbee House Han Tteut Goshiwon Winwin Goshiwon Room Plan Room Image Commual Space lounge lounge communal kitchen communal kitchen Characteristics of Plan Corridor width: 1000mm Corridor width: 1000mm Corridor width: 710 ~ 930mm Number of rooms on one floor: 46 Internal window size: 350 × 350 Internal window size: 600 × 600 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Percentage of public space: 17.84% Percentage of public space: 4.4% Number of rooms on one floor: 20 Number of rooms on one floor: 26 Number of exits on one floor: 2 Number of exits on one floor: 1 JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 399 Table 6. Building and floorplans characteristics. Division (Case) Plan Characteristics entrance Middle corridor type - All rooms have windows 2 (Han Tteut Goshiwon) Rotation type - Some rooms have windows 2 (Winwin Goshiwon) - Dangerous in case of fire escape. Isolation type - Illegal rooftop house 2 (Winwin Goshiwon) - Dangerous in case of fire escape. - Poor housing conditions First, it is a legal operation method to use multiple 4.3 Characteristics of planning according to houses. Multiple houses, a type of single-family Goshiwons building homes, do not have a complete residential form and 4.3.1. Planning of buildings and floor plans can have a bathroom for each room, but cooking is Goshiwons’ building plans and typical plans could considered illegal. The kitchens are jointly run. This largely be characterized into three types: duplicated case can be seen as a legal form of residence in the corridor, corridor, and single type. high court. In the duplicated corridor type, the most favorable Second, it is illegal operation using multiple residential environment of the high-level plan is to houses. Because a Goshiwon is vulnerable to fires, secure light and ventilation by placing windows in all many of the Goshiwons’ cooking facilities are set up individual rooms, in the form of sills located on both to attract residents, even though it is illegal to set up sides of the central corridor. an indoor cooking facility inside the Goshiwon. The corridor type creates a rotating corridor inside a Third, it is an illegal operation method that uses high-sill circle and places threads in the outer and center one-room housing. The methodistoregisterbuild- sections. As a floor plan to secure more yarn, the interior ings as Goshiwons and operate one-room resi- of thebuildingwillhavepoorwindowlessthreads,which dences equipped with cooking facilities illegally. will be leased at a lower price than windowed ones. The main reason for this is to maximize rental A single type is a form of securing additional income by reducing the parking area, using the threads through illegal alteration of the water tank fact that one-room housing is legally required to chamber located on the roof of the Goshiwon build- have 0.6 parking area per household, but one park- ing or by installing an illegal building. Because it is not ing area per 134 m . a normal method of building, it provides poor hous- Fourth, it is illegal to rent a small room in an ing environment and safety. ordinary house, which is generally referred to as a The three types of corridors are 800–1000 mm wide, gibang. which is narrower than in normal buildings and can In addition, the Goshiwons are illegally operated cause considerable inconvenience for circulation. The for various purposes, with 70 percent of the narrow corridor width was thought to require legal Goshiwon buildings in each region being used as restrictions, in that it was hard to escape in case of second-class residential facilities, with 2.4 percent fire and that noise generated from the chamber would being working facilities, 2.2 percent being educa- be transmitted to the side rooms, thereby reducing the tional facilities, and 1.2 percent being accommoda- quality of the residential environment. tion facilities. 400 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. Table 7. Vertical circulation characteristics. Division (case) Section Characteristics Mixed with commercial facility -Included Commercial Facilities on Each Floor (Winwin Goshiwon) Mixed with dwelling - Residential Facilities and Goshiwon (Han Tteut Goshiwon) Mixed with commercial facility,dwelling - Included Commercial Facilities and Communal Spaces (Sejong Goshiwon) - Mainly located on the main street Dividing zone by gender - Facility classification by gender on each floor (Jiseong Goshiwon) -Discomfort in using public space Dividing gender by floor - Advantageous to security and living (Jang won Goshiwon) JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 401 Table 8. Communal space’s characteristics. Office workers Students Day workers Division (Case) (Dan bee House) (Han Tteut Goshiwon) (Jiseong Goshiwon) Communal bathroom o o o Communal shower room o o o Kitchen o o o Utility room X X o Storage X X o Entrance o o o Image Kitchen Communal bathroom Entrance Table 9. Community space’s characteristics. Office workers Students Day workers Division (Case) (Soho Goshiwon) (Sejong Goshiwon) (Winwin Goshiwon) Library o Lounge o o Maintenance o Rooftop o o o Image Lounge Library Rooftop Table 6 summarizes the characteristics of the build- directions around the vertical core. Since the kitchen, ing plans and features. which is a common space, exists only on one side, it has been confirmed that there is inconvenience in the wires caused by the separation of space, such as having to 4.3.2. Vertical circulation plan pass through the core space to use it. The vertical circulation of Goshiwons could be largely The vertical division of men and women is the type grouped into five types: commercial- residential, com- that separates the layers according to the sex of the mercial, residential, separated, and male and female. Goshiwons’ residents, and is designed for the security The commercial mixed type is the type of commer- of the residents and their convenience in life. cial facility planned for the upper or lower floors of Table 7 describes the cross-sectional conceptual the building. diagrams and the characteristics of the spatial Mixed-use housing is divided into layers of composition. Goshiwons and ordinary houses in the building, and movement to the rooftop, which is used as a smoking, laundry, and public space, may be encountered by both 4.3.3. Public space plan the high-ranking residents and the average resident. Both types of public offices showed similar views in A commercial-residential complex is when nearby planning public spaces. Public toilets, showers, kitch- living facilities, housing, and public information centers ens, and front doors (including new ones) were used are divided into floors. It is a type that is often seen on together, except for core spaces such as elevators and the side of the boulevard where commercial facilities stairs for vertical movement and management. Other are usually located. public spaces were difficult to find. The two-sided separation type uses some layers in Table 8 analyzes the characteristics of the the building as a test source, but divides them into two Communal Spaces. 402 H.-Y. YOO ET AL. such, it is not clearly part of the legal code and 4.3.4. Community space planning thus operates as an illegal residence in various There was a difference in community space by region. In the Goshiwon mainly used by Office workers, the forms. In the future, tougher legal sanctions and continuous inspections and management will be restroom, small community space, and canteen were needed to resolve them. checked, whereas in the Goshiwon mainly used by stu- dents was operating a library or lounge for the students Second, in common, problems such as lack of public who were the main residents. Compared to the above space, obsolescence of facilities, and lack of openings and closures in individual rooms were recognized. two regions, it was difficult to identify community spaces in most Goshiwon mainly used by day workers, Depending on the characteristics of the residential where monthly rent is low and the environment is poor. area, Goshiwons where students and job seekers reside can propose a space for daily workers, such as libraries, All three types of apartments had rooftops, but the physical environment was not so good that they were sports spaces, rest areas, and, finally, a space for psycho- not used as community spaces and were used for smok- logical healing and community formation, and Goshiwon, where office workers reside in general can ing, laundry drying, and baggage storage. The rooftop environment of the apartments surveyed in this study offer a space for joint meetings and devices. was not good, but the rooftop can be used as a com- Studies have shown that, depending on the type of munity of residents if the environment is good. resident, the programs and facilities of the public Table 9 is an analysis of the characteristics of spaces that should be proposed in the Goshiwon-con- Community Spaces. gested area should be diversified. In addition, the priority of policy support was given, indicating the urgency for policy training based on local and resident 5. Conclusion characteristics, not on uniform institutionalization. Policies have also changed and research has been under way recently as interest in domestic housing welfare and Disclosure statement Goshiwons has increased. The purpose of the plan is to identify the background and status of the high-ranking No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. officials and to categorize the Goshiwon types according to the type of residents in order to suggest a direction for Funding planning and policy improvement by type. Depending on the residents’ characteristics, This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Korea. (NRF-018R1D1A1B07050494) Goshiwons in Seoul can be classified into Gangnam/ This study was developed by expanding and supplementing Seocho-gu with a large number of workers, the presentation paper that won the Award for Excellence in Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu with a large number the 2019 General Assembly & Spring Annual Conference of of students, and Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu with AIK. a concentration of low-income and daily workers. First, the Gangnam/Seocho-Gyeong-gu area had rela- Notes on contributors tively high monthly rents and a pleasant residential envir- onment because of the characteristics of high-income Dr Hae-Yeon Yoo is an Associate Professor in the School of workers. Architecture at the Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea. Second, in Dongjak-gu/Gwanak-gu, large-scale hag- She is an architect and teaches and researches in the fields of design and urban regeneration. From 2000 until 2008 she won students are concentrated, showing the local char- was a senior architect at the SAMOO architects & Engineers. acteristics of preparing for college entrance exams or She earned doctorate from Seoul National University in public-service entrance exams. In the Goshiwon district, 2010 and then she studied urban regeneration laws and for a college student who is not preparing for job, the systems as a senior researcher at the Korea Land and living conditions were relatively good with the financial Housing Corp. until 2012. As an educator, she has sug- support of his parents. In particular, various entertainment gested and incorporated direction of the urban regenera- tion through the Local Connected Design. She is facilities and restaurants tailored to those in their 20s and researching affordable housing and prefab design for the 30s are creating a unique culture in the region. neighborhood regeneration part of an interdisciplinary Third, Dongdaemun/Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, has the research team funded by the National Research lowest monthly rent in areas where low-income peo- Foundation of Korea since 2012. She has been serving as a ple and day laborers are concentrated. However, the member of the committee in the fields of architecture, urban design and urban regeneration in diverse regions. residential environment is relatively poor. For example, she serves as head of the urban regeneration The investigation and analysis of these sources center in Shinwol 3-dong that is the local level urban regen- resulted in the following problems and limitations. eration areas in Seoul. She is co-chairman of the village First, the Goshiwon system is largely operated in community committee in Dongjak-gu, Seoul and a member four ways: as multiple houses, illegal multiple of the urban planning committee in Seocho-gu, Seoul. And houses, one-room houses, and general houses. As she has been a urban regeneration committee in Gyeonggi JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 403 Province. She is also a researcher for the Architectural 2019 ZEMCH (Zero Energy Mass Custom Home) in Institute Korea and a consultant on direction in order to November. He has been interesting in the urban regenera- transform space in schools at the Ministry of Education. tion's research field, so he will go on to master's in the field next year. Ji-Won Yang is an undergraduate in architecture at Soongsil University, South Korea. He has been participating Ji-Su Kim is an undergraduate in architecture at Soongsil as an assistant researcher for the A/Prof. Yoo Hae-yeon's University, South Korea. He has been participating as an research team since 2017. In 2017, he won the grand prize assistant researcher for the A/Prof. Yoo Hae-yeon's research at the '72-hour Project,' an urban renewal contest that team since 2019. In 2019, he won the “Youth Architect turned barren land in Seoul into a usable space, hosted Design Competition,” a competition for design of living by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and Hanwha infrastructure using low-rise residential area hosted by the Corporation. In 2019, he won the “Youth Architect Design Seoul Housing Corporation, and is currently working on Competition,” a competition for design of living infrastruc- projects related to urban regeneration and housing in ture using low-rise residential area hosted by the Seoul Seoul. He is participating as an assistant in the ZEMCH Housing Corporation, and is currently working on projects International Design Workshop at Seoul in November related to urban regeneration and housing in Seoul. He 2019. He has been interesting in the urban regeneration participated in the ZEMCH International Design Workshop and local connected school programs, so he will go on to at Melbourne in 2018 and is joining as an assistant for the master's in the field next year.

Journal

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building EngineeringTaylor & Francis

Published: Sep 3, 2019

Keywords: Goshiwon; supported housing; affordable housing; social housing; urban regeneration

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