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COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY 2019, VOL. 24, NO. S1, 1–4 https://doi.org/10.1080/24699322.2018.1560103 EDITORIAL With the continuous development of science, technology estimated blood loss, hospitalization time, operation cost, and improvement of people’s living standards, the recurrence rate,. Results showed that the PELD method requirements for differentiated medical care, treatment was better than the other two comparable ones. quality and quality of life are gradually improved. People Zijian Zhao et al. proposed an automatic real-time not only care about the treatment results, but also the algorithm for 2 D tool detection and tracking on the basis comfort, privacy protection and minimally invasive during of a spatial transformer network and spatiotemporal con- the treatment. Thus, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) text in computer-assisted MIS. This study achieved great techniques have achieved significant improvement in performance with respect to the accuracy and the speed recent years. In MIS, doctors use a variety of techniques after compared with other four general visual tracking to operate with less damage to the body than with open methods in eight existing datasets. surgery. In general, MIS is associated with less pain, a Laparoscopy surgery is an important trend in the shorter time to be hospitalized and fewer complications future development of surgical methods since it has than conventional techniques. Robotic surgery is one of advantages of small trauma and rapid recovery Its’ role in the most typical MIS types, which provides a magnified, the surgical treatment of diseases has attracted more and 3 D view of the surgical site and helps the surgeon oper- more attention. Ke Xu et al. implemented a study aiming to 3 D reconstruction of the surgical scene based on the ate with precision, flexibility and control. Another typical MIS type is laparoscopy – surgery is done through one or disparity map generated by the depth estimation algo- more small incisions, using small tubes and tiny cameras rithm. They took unsupervised learning autoencoder and surgical instruments. Other typical MIS types include method to calculate the accurate disparity with a 101- endoscopic surgery, interventional surgery, etc. layer residual convolutional network. The method was Nevertheless, image processing and signal processing are validated on a Hamlyn center laparoscopic/endoscopic important for the surgery-related and clinical application. video dataset, which reported the potential to offer Novel clinical measurement and advanced signal process- dense disparity map and can meet surgical real-time ing methods are important or even essential in the clinic. requirement. The existing surgical robots for laparoscopic surgery In this supplement issue, researchers have addressed the recent technology advances in MIS, surgery technology, offer no or limited force feedback, and there are many clinical measurement, device development, modeling and problems for the traditional sensor-based solutions. signal processing. Baoliang Zhao et al. built a teleoperation surgical system Jinao Zhang et al. proposed a temperature distribution and validate the effectiveness of sensorless force feed- and thermal damage prediction model in soft tissues back. The success rate of stiffness differentiation experi- according to a combination of Galerkin method and ment was 96 and 80% for the tumor detection explicit forward finite difference method. In order to experiment. The results showed that the new system was address the expressive computation load involved in available for surgeons regain tactile information and dis- finite element analysis, graphics processing unit (GPU) tinguish between the healthy and cancerous tissue. acceleration was implemented using the high-level Zhonghao Han et al. presented a precise and efficient shader language, leading to a maximum reduction of targeting method for robot-assisted percutaneous needle 55.3 times in computation time comparing to standalone placement under C-arm fluoroscopy. A special end- central processing unit (CPU) execution. Tissue at the effector was constructed to perform fluoroscopy calibra- heat source point can be quickly necrotized in a matter tion and robot to image-space registration simultan- eously and automatically. In addition, formulations were of seconds, while it required several minutes to fully nec- rotize the entire neighboring tissues. given to compute the movement of robot targeting and Weijian Ren et al. compared three different minimally evaluate targeting accuracy using only one X-ray image. invasive techniques, percutaneous endoscopic lumbar Pre-clinical experiment showed that the maximal angle discectomy (PELD), mis-tlif combined with a contralateral error was 0.94 and the maximal position error of a tar- translaminar screw (MIS-TLIF CTS) and mis-tlif combined get located 80 mm below the end-effector was 1.31 mm. with bilateral pedicle screws (MIS-TLIF BPS) for the ther- Medical imaging technology plays a decisive role in apy of far lateral disc herniation in middle-aged and eld- the development of modern medicine. A complete erly patients via a retrospective chart view. The test inspection requires the collection of hundreds of 2 D contained various features from 74 patients, such as the data. However, the high dimensionality of data collection length of the incision, duration of the operation, has made it difficult to understand such a large amount 2 C. LIU AND L.-K. PAN of information relying on traditional two-dimensional volume was precisely measured under different afterloads expression, let alone efficient interpretation and analysis. (60, 80, 100, and 120 mmHg), drive pressure (from 90 to Medical image analysis has become more and more 300 mmHg at 30 mmHg intervals), and heart rate (45 to widely studied. It is no longer limited to diseases with 150 beats per minute). Stroke volume increased with obvious diagnostic features in the past. It begins to increasing drive pressure but decreased with an increas- expand into images of many different organs, anatomical ing peripheral resistance and kept consistent with the and functional processes and attempts to use computer- native heart. When set this device to a heart failure mode in couple with mock system, the device improved aided image analysis with automatic and accurate quanti- fication as well. The main contents of medical image ana- left ventricular pressure from 106 to 158 mmHg, and lysis include image registration and information fusion, stroke volume from 25.5 to 44 ml at 90 bpm. image visualization, functional analysis of time series Haisheng Zhang et al. developed a non-contact and images, and content-based image retrieval. non-invasive method using a microstrip antenna to con- Li Yao et al. developed a novel technique to distin- struct the detection system for cerebral hemorrhage. guish between an original image and its’ histogram They carried out an animal experiment with 13 rabbits in equalized version according to concepts of histogram different bleeding states: 1, 2 and 3 ml. All measured equalization and superpixel segmentation. This research data was sent to support vector machine (SVM) to assess can assist in image enhancement process for differentiat- the severity of cerebral hemorrhage. The -10 dB work- ing between enhanced/histogram equalized and ori- band of the antenna was 1.55–2.05 GHz and the fre- ginal images. quency range of the transmission parameters S21 above Ji Zhang et al. proposed a method for characteristics -30 dB is 1.2–3 GHz according to the test results. In the analysis and recognition of digitized tongue pictures and animal experiment, the phase difference of Transmission tongue coating texture according to fractal theory in coefficient S21 was gradually increased with the increase traditional Chinese medicine. They implemented it via a of bleeding volume. three-layers back propagation (BP) neural network with Xinghui Li et al. used three different types of syn- 587 digitized tongue coating. Results showed the simple chronous control methods based on physiological param- fractal dimension is sensitive to the thin/thick and greasy eters, electrocardiogram (ECG), fixed systole, ECG, aortic characteristics of digitized tongue pictures and could pressure, ECG and phonocardiogram (PCG) to trigger a judge the thickness of tongue coating well. The use of proposed intra-ventricular assist device (iVAD) in vitro cir- BP neural network could effectively increase accuracy culation system. The data showed that all three types of rate of judgment of tongue coating texture. synchronous control methods produced trigger pulses Liu Shuang et al. came up with a multi-feature fusion synchronously and that the iVAD synchronously beat method for medical image retrieval using wavelet and with the native heart. The combination of three syn- bag-of-feature. Wavelet decomposition was adopted to chronization methods can be applied to the iVAD to generate different resolution images. Bag-of-feature, tex- improve the reliability of synchronization. ture, and other feature are extracted from three different- Neural substrates of action to the object or this spe- level wavelet images. Then generate a similarity measure cific direct route, however, remain unclear, especially for function with these three features. The proposed multi- the connection from the visual pathway to the motor feature fusion method can achieve a high retrieval accur- cortex. Zijian Wang et al. conducted a study examined acy with an acceptable retrieval time. this issue by conducting a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiment, in which two To improve the quality of the super-resolution recon- structed medical images, Fang Zhang et al. gave an action generation tasks involving pictures of real objects improved adaptive multi-dictionary learning method, and the object’s nouns were used, with pictures naming which used the combined information of the medical and covert noun reading being the control tasks. The image itself and the natural images database. A pyramid result showed that the model predefined for the was generated by the self-similarity of low-resolution Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) and precuneus connect- images, the upper layer images were used in training dic- ing Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL) to the posterior medial tionary section and the top layer image was taken as the frontal cortex dominated over the others (with 0.45 prob- initial reconstruction image. This method can make full ability), suggesting that the PCC and the precuneus use of the same scale and different scale with similar locate at the neural substrates of action to the object. information of medical images. Simulation experiments In the 3 D reconstruction area, Zhen Shen et al. pre- were validated on both natural images and medical sented a general and efficient procedure to process the images. The proposed method was effective for improv- digital skull data to make the printed structures meet ing the effect of medical image super-resolution the requirements of anatomy education, which combines reconstruction. the use of five 3 D manipulation tools and the procedure Some minimally invasive assist devices were brought. can be finished within 6 hours. The model was printed Shidong Zhu et al. developed a novel intra-ventricular and compared with the cadaveric skull from frontal, left, assist device whose key parameter, such as, stroke right and anterior views respectively. The printed model COMPUTER ASSISTED SURGERY 3 can describe the correct structure and details of the skull established by using response surface methodology clearly, which can be considered as a good alternative to based on the simulation results. Through the simulation the cadaveric skull. of the control system, the trajectory curve of the end of Ziteng Liu et al. designed a cost-effective Virtual the manipulator was compared and the validity of the Reality (VR) application system for demonstration of 3 D mathematical model was verified. virtual anatomical models with non-contact interaction Physiological signal processing is also involved in this and stereo display. The system was integrated with hand special issue. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal has gesture interaction and voice interaction to achieve non- been widely used in the research of physiology, psych- contact interaction. A local relationship database was ology, neuroscience, and cognitive science. Surface EEG designed to record the anatomical terminologies to signal is very weak and extremely susceptible to interfer- speech recognition engine to query these uncommon ence during the collection process, resulting in the words. The results showed that their system was more unavailability of EEG data usually. Xin Liu et al. developed efficient than traditional interactive manner and verified a method for reducing interference of breathing and car- the feasibility and practicability in the sterile operat- diac contraction during near infrared spectroscopy brain ing room. activity measurement. A novel solution was used by com- Yawei Wang et al. discovered a simple geometric bining the recursive least squares adaptive filtering method for 3 D morphology reconstruction of a cell method with the least squares SVM to suppress physio- according to two orthogonal phase images. The edges of logical interference both in the superficial layers and a cell in two orthogonal projection directions were deeper layers of the head tissue, which obtained a better extracted from the corresponding phase images. Then, performance than the traditional recursive least with the help of geometric rotation method, 3 D surfaces squares method. of the cell membrane and its nuclei were reconstructed Dan Liu et al. focused on the evaluation of EEG signal respectively. Simulation and experimental results demon- quality using a developed model, employs amplitude, strated the validity and accuracy of this method for power frequency ratio, and alpha band power spectral spheroid cells. density (PSD) ratio of resting EEG as evaluation factors, Continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW- and performed a quantitative assessment of the signal NIRS) can be used to measure cerebral activity because it quality. It turned out to be effective both before and is noninvasive, simple and portable. However, the per- after short-term resting EEG collection. formance of the CW-NIRS is distorted by the presence of Denoising is a most important part in ECG signal proc- extracerebral layer. Change of optical parameters in the essing, Zhaoyang Wang et al. constructed a modified gray matter layer is inappropriately converted into the wavelet design with optimized filter coefficients obtained brain activity response. In the study of Yan Zhang et al., by approximating the amplitude-frequency response of a five-layer structure model constitute of scalp, skull, the ideal filter. This work had proven ability to remove cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter was the high-frequency component and enhance the domi- adopted and the mixture of the Intralipid, India ink and nating complexes in clinical data test. agar were applied to fabricate human brain tissue. The Overall, MIS and minimally invasive medicine are still NIRS measurement system was designed to detect the in development, there is a lot of room to improve for changes in the absorption coefficients of the gray matter minimally device and surgery techniques. With the and quantitatively analyses the influence of the extrac- advancement of drugs or the rapid development of erebral layers. Monte Carlo technique was performed to micro-robot technology, surgery is becoming more and compensate the partial volume effect introduced by the more invasive, and even some diseases may be cured extracerebral layers. The results of the in-vitro experi- without surgical intervention. The advancement of surgi- ments showed that the measured absorption coefficients cal treatment is constantly evolving in the interaction are about 9% of the standard value and the relative error between technology and concept progress. With the is about 91% due to the extracerebral layers. overall technological leap of human beings, such as com- Biomechanics modeling is critical in surgery using sur- puter intelligence technology, cloud computing, virtual gery robot assistants. However, due to the force of the reality technology, new materials and life sciences, endo- surgical instruments on the spine, there is a correspond- scopic mirror technology, etc., all innovate clinical treat- ing deformation in the surgical field, which affects the ment methods, while at the same time acting on medical accuracy of the operation. In order to improve the accur- concepts. The clinical application of ‘digital human’ anat- acy and safety of the operation. Weixin Guan et al. recon- omy, (CT/MRI), robot and ‘precise medicine’ has made structed the three-dimensional model of the lumbar the surgical diagnosis and treatment more individualized spine which included the vertebral body and the inter- and precise in the constant standardization and micro- vertebral disc based on the computed tomography (CT) scan data, and then the lumbar spine was analyzed by invasiveness. In short, minimalist surgery, a cross-century the finite element method. The mathematical model of new technological revolution in the field of human sur- the relationship between force and displacement was gery, is sweeping the globe. 4 C. LIU AND L.-K. PAN Disclosure statement 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ Chengyu Liu licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly University, Nanjing, China cited. email@example.com https://doi.org/10.1080/24699322.2018.1560103 Lung-Kwang Pan Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Takun, Taiwan
Computer Assisted Surgery – Taylor & Francis
Published: Oct 1, 2019
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