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Aldo Rossi: Architecture and Memory

Aldo Rossi: Architecture and Memory Architecture has a long tradition of evoking memory, one that goes beyond the memory of shelter and dwelling. To imagine an architecture of memory is to understand the relationship that can exist between physical reality and mental meanings. Individual memory collects experience about the meaning of typology of fragments within a city. The memory shows a highly personal confrontation with the city, and the built form is an incredible example of how our lived experience in the city can be in one way a memory building. Rossi argues that the city has existed continuously through time as the basis for an attitude of exclusion that limits his formal repertoire to the most architecture of forms. Rossi employed memory as a valuable means, a starting point for creating architectonic structure rich with meaning and rich with potential which exploits thinking, reading, and responding. Based upon Rossi’s projects and writings, this study shows how Rossi elaborated instruments of typology and analogy, and reinterpretation of memory for operating the formal autonomy of architecture and architectural meaning on the city. Finally this paper argues that type can be operated through memory, individual and/ or collective, to convey meaning from the original context to the new site and situation. Keywords: memory; fragments; analogy; typology; autonomy Introduction Life is a continuous flow of experience; each act or artifacts, having value in the whole as well as individually moment of time is preceded by a previous experience as form, in a particular place(Rossi, 1982). The primary and becomes the threshold for the experience to elements in architecture become the means by which come(Bacon, 1967). Every historical process is a the city can be understood in terms of its significance. dialectical one in which one form of life generates its It is the relationships between architectural elements that opposite. In a city, it is intriguing to see a dialectic of becomes important, not simply the elements themselves. manifestations of different eras. Thus, buildings, towns Here lies the essence of how to deliver and infuse and cities are much more than physical artifacts, but also meaning into architecture, and in turn, the city itself. are reflections and incarnations of human aspiration and The city has always occupied a privileged place in the ontological meaning. Since a specific architectural form architectonic dream—it is the place where all orders are and style mainly depend upon the rate and pattern of possible(Agrest, 1991). It is within this set of ordering human interaction in relation to environment, life- systems that the city takes form, reflective of those perspectives is deeply rooted in time-perspectives, and respective senses of order and representative of them. thus our society has dissected humanity and built for One of the conditioning factors which effect an itself a mirror for its own reflection and architecture architectural intervention is locus. Aldo Rossi (1989) reflect a society’s views of time and change. identif ies locus as a relationship to the specific location. Would a more severe emphasis on social context in The locus is related to the memory—the memory of the the built environment from a reality with continuities of society. The remembrance—the ability to reminisce meanings benef icial to society? Can we justify the selectively and to call to consciousness the significant singular emphasis of a person or social attributes? Can biography and geography of one’s mind—is at the core the city have totality of formal allusions and devices from of what makes us human. Through remembrance we one needs to draw when designing in the city? The can inhabit the imagination with a symbolic environment experience of the city is what permits the discovery of extending far beyond the spatial and temporal limitations these elements, and identif ication of them as urban of individual existence. The development of remembrance was not simply an inner mental event. It *Contact Author: Seungkoo Jo, Professor, Tongmyong University required the creation of artif ices—language, ritual, and of Information Technology, #535 Yong-dang Dong, Nam Gu, artifacts. Busan, Korea Few theorists have investigated the formal nature of Tel: +82 (051) 610-8582 Fax: +82 (051) 610-8579 the city as extensively as Aldo Rossi has. Rossi described e-mail: skjo@tmic.tit.ac.kr the city as an artifact that possesses its own history. This (Received November 8, 2002 ; accepted February 21, 2003 ) artifact leaves traces of its history; these traces embody Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/May 2003/237 231 the memory of the city. As a diverse totality, the city is to a site spirit and specificity that combines to a form a haunted by meaning which the collective memory meaningful architectural intervention. In addition, the extracts from the traces. These traces are called intention is to light some elements of our understanding permanence by Rossi, the urban artifacts that preserve of time and change as revealed, as well as to indicate the history of the city as built form. The process, then, further directions of enquiry regarding the significance by which a city is imprinted with form constitutes its of a temporalizing order in design. Through Rossi’s urban history(Rossi, 1982). The succession of events investigations and operations on the city, his instruments over time, usually represented by some form of of typology and analogy, and reinterpretation of memory permanences, hold the memory of the city(Rossi, 1982). will be elaborated how architecture’s meaning is re- Time, and its associated memories, are an important established through individual and/or collective memory, piece of information in reading individual artifacts in a and how the formal autonomy of architecture constructs city. The past is a part of the antiquated equation the world in which we live. affecting society. The futurist myth of historical process, which is sustained by forgetting what has happened, is The Embeddedness of Time into Architecture in contrast to the construction of history that looks To imagine an architectural memory is to f irst backward. Walter Benjamin sees the modernity by understand the relationship that can exist between the seeing the present in terms of events of the past(Buck- two. Frances Yates(1966) argues how the memory Moss, 1989). This is very critical to create and read an imprints images onto built form, showing knowledge architecture of memory on the historically rich site, by being transmitted. The memory is in the sense that it is constantly reconsidering the events of the past. a deliberate attempt at recollection. One learns to see Sometimes critical, sometimes problematic, that the world in the detail only a designer would see as a history becomes an important part of the continuous and result of the sudden consciousness of a new world, constant dialog with the past is considerably significant. resulting in no perception being taken for granted. From History is a statement made by no one, but it is conceived this, architecture has a long tradition of evoking the as a statement, a discourse. The readers’ perception memory, one that goes beyond the memory of shelter dissolves the author in favor of the reader, who and dwelling. approaches a prior external text and reconstitutes its According to Cicero(Yates, 1966), he described the meaning according to the culture’s or his own system or mnemonic of places and images, and explained how the set of interpretive codes. The author acts and creates Roman rhetors utilized the technique of imprinting the text; the reader re-enacts to create his own images on specif ic places in order to both recall, and text(Strozier, 1988). Consciousness is important because provide an ordering system. Moreover, he describes the this is the means for shifts in theory as transformations artif icial memory in terms of the speech further: persons from one era of theoretical analysis to another. desiring to train this faculty (of memory) must select By considering the events of the past, we can better places and from mental images of the things they wish understand the future, create the vital form through the to remember and store those images in the places, so vast reservoir of memory, and transform the narrow that the order of the places will preserve the order of the boundaries of lived experience into wider environments things, and the images of the things will denote the things of shared experience. The loss of most of buildings, themselves and we shall employ the places and images which are in transition from the traditional homogeneity respectively as a wax writing-tablet and the letters written to a new way of architectural thought seems incoherent on it(Yates, 1966). This memory can be improved by either in physical or metaphysical form. If the history long speeches with great accuracy. of a building has some value to society and its citizens, If a specif ic building or space wants to be remembered, its meaning is evoked by the contrast of each tectonic images derived from each space of building should be structure representing its own time. Memory propagates placed in a logical sequence so that the orator can literally collective and individual meanings. Memory is walk through while he recites his speech. Therefore, accumulative and based upon past experiences. Our the memory system can hold the knowledge in a logical understanding of temporal meaning operates much more sequence, and retain that knowledge for a long period subtly, forming in advance our pre-reflective of time, dependent mainly on the strength of the memory understanding of the significance of entities in the world. of the loci rather than the images. Yates(1966) argues Inasmuch as life-perspectives and temporal meanings further that the formation of the loci is the most important are so embedded in architecture, architecture can be read step for three reasons: the strength of the visual within as a start to reinstate a collective memory into the built memory, the ability of the loci to act like wax tablets environment. that can be erased and written over again, and the ability Based upon Rossi’s works and writings, this paper is to use any spatial construct, from the house, to a public to identify the continuity of thought represented in built building, to the city. manifestations, and to describe that the notion of memory It was by this method of this artif icial memory that is is a major contributor to a continuity of images in a built established from places and images, the stock definition setting and that this continuity of site conditions can lead to be forever repeated down the ages. A locus is a place 232 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo easily grasped by the memory, such as a house, an which acts in a deeper way that is perhaps more closely intercolumnar space, a corner, an arch, or the like. related to our own conception of reality and our position Images are forms, marks or simulacra (formae, notae, within the universe. Rossi(1982) sees the city as the simulacra) of what we wish to remember. For instance theater of human events, the locus solus that not only if we wish to recall the genus of a horse, of a lion, of an contains events but is itself an event; it constitutes an eagle, we must place their images on definite loci(Yates, event. The locus Rossi(1982) def ines is the intersection 1966). of space, time, form, and site of a succession of both Aristotle was interested in the mental picture for the ancient and more modern events. Rossi’s theater was understanding and thinking processes in association with designed to be a floating structure to move through the knowledge and memory. He put memory in the same canals of Venice, literally constructing situations within area of the soul as the imagination, in a sense that the city. As the progeny of sixteenth century floating imagery is created for remembering new knowledge. pavilions, the theater was in the form of round canopies, The ability for the image to remain as a sense impression and belonged both to a family of floating machines and is described as memory, and is described in terms of to the genre of ephemeral festival structures like towers, movement, as in the movement of a ring imprinting a gateways, and fountains built for special civic occasions. wax tablet. To disclose how human beings make The Teatro is related to both to the tradition of the floating intelligible the world within which they find themselves, building and to the idea of a structure intended to Gaston Bachelard(1964) reads the world as it is temporarily alter the landscape of a city. spontaneously, and links memory to imagination. He Rossi argues in his book, A Scientif ic describes the house, not as an abstract object, but in Autobiography(1981), that his model, the Teatro, was terms of the primary virtues, those reveal an attachment Shakespear’s Globe Theater, revealing the similarity even that native in some way to the primary function of in the common names of Theaters of the World. Rossi inhabiting. Bachelard asks his readers to imagine quoted Shakespear’s dictum, All the World’s stage, and stairways, and concludes that in so doing, we will find looked for the universal knowledge of the world in the that in our imagination, we most often go down the one Teatro, where it seems likely that the Globe would have which leads to the cellar; yet we go up when we imagine searched for a way to express the space of theater. ourselves on the attic stairs, which are often steeper and According to Rossi(1981), the Teatro was built at the perhaps more primitive. Since to do so requires some Fusina shipyards and towered by sea to the Punta della conscious effort on our part, over time the memory can Dogana that seemed a place where architecture ended be effaced. Images like an architectural object may leave and the world of the imagination or even the irrational a deeper impression on the mind because of their ability began. In relation to memory, Rossi uses the to be experienced immediately. Shakespearean Theater as a model to produce its The range of loci seems very important to us in that intimate, using geometric configuration. The notion of the art of memory is a technique for a mental mapping floating images means literally wandering in the canals system. Yates(1966) describes the increasingly elaborate of Venice, constantly creating situations within the city. memory systems created during the Middle Ages and In addition, the nature of the theater works as a memory Renaissance, leading to the creation of the memory loci within the city. theater. During the Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas very Since there are no longer universal truths in Rossi’s much dominates the teaching of the artificial memory, world, the position of the theater is reinterpreted, and what Aquinas has recorded is a continuation of constantly creating reinterpretation of memory. A sketch classical memory treatises, expounding the importance by Rossi for the theater is quite related to the attempt to of memory loci, and images upon which attach to them. recall something within his personal memory. When From this teaching, however, the Middle Ages seemed we are asked to imagine some beautiful house, we each to move toward a tradition of icons as images, and the are free to attribute our own characteristics to this house creation of a structure within which these striking images at will. Someone may imagine this home as a historic would active memory. mansion in downtown; others may imagine a modern In the Venice of modern times, Aldo Rossi tried to one in suburbs. In both cases, we are totally free to grasp the highest reality through a magically activated conjure up specif ic images at will, as each such image imagination in his project, Teatro del Mundo(1979), remains wholly within our own individual control. Like where the mind and memory of man was considered this example, the memory represents a highly personal divine. As Vidler points out in The Architectural confrontation within the city. Thus, based upon the Uncanny(1992), the notions of an architectural sublime geometric spaces which can be consciously manipulated and other notions of architecture’s ability to evoke and measures, our lived spaces and experiences which emotions cab be linked to its ability to tap the hidden or engage our entire way of being can be a memory theater. repressed memory of the unconscious mind, often making the unfamiliar all to familiar. This architecture of uncanny is acting as a powerful memory device that is allied with that of the classical artif icial memory, but JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 233 Analogy collage of the city to be created through a typological Rossi argued that architecture should achieve formal memory of the city, thus haunting the city with meaning. autonomy, to gain identity, in order to meaningfully relate Here the notion of collage as a means of representation and to convey meaning. By establishing a unique, finds itself very much aligned with the situation present separate identity, each form could be read more easily in the comprehension of contemporary city. It provides in opposition to another. In relation to the discipline of a means of contending with a diverse sense of order by architecture, Rossi accepted the visual form of the city, association and dependence on the relationships of to a larger degree, of factors which operated outside. To disparate elements, not necessarily the elements Rossi, the discipline is very much autonomous, and thus themselves. he intended to put his attitude of operating within a given Rossi(1982) makes the observation that forms have context from an interventionalist point of view. an autonomous life which supersedes the functions for Rossi is very much concerned with the concepts of which they were designed. As proof he cites the fragments and collage, disregarding scale and context, existence of building types in the city that transform but searches for the relationship of memory to the city. through history while retaining their vitality. Rossi His individual architectural fragments experience the applied his meaning-laden type-forms to the actual city in the way of flaneur, attempting to observe and geography of the city, and thus suggested two kinds of locate the traces of that truth within the context of the transformation for further readings and imaginations: city. Rossi argues the city is the locus of collective dislocation of place and dissolution of scale. In this memory, and by this means that the city acts as a wax sense, Tafuri(1988) argues that at the origins of the tablet that gathers up the traces of lived experience in critical act, there always lies a process of destroying, of order to create its monuments. Monuments as a means dissolving, or disintegrating a given structure. No of memory is to return to an idea of consciousness, to criticism exists that does not retrace the process that has remind and hence restore a thought of life. Memory is given birth to the work and that does not redistribute the not an exact science; it is never accurate and is often elements of the work into a different order, if for no other cumbersome if so. Monuments could be metaphors for reason than to construct typological models(Tafuri, events, places or spirits. 1988). Rossi’s process of analogically transforming Rossi stated, the idea of analogy can never be fully typologies traced the memory of an artifact back toward possessed by the conscious and rational mind, this is its constantly removed origins. what makes it real to the human psyche. In the Tetro theater and Modena cemetery(1971), Rossi Over time, as I began to grasp this meaning(that dissolved the subject/ object dichotomy of the audience/ analogies not only exist within the discipline of actor relationship by housing both together in a floating architecture, but are also the essence of its meaning), stage that was at once a stage for the city to observe and each project became extremely simple, substituting observation point. In addition, the division of space observation and study for construction. The task was between actors and audience was dissolved. Subject and no longer, as I had once thought, to describe object became integrated. Rossi(1982) defined the city: architecture, to catalogue and order form. Thought By architecture I mean not only the visible image of the still fascinated by what is unexpected in catalogues, city and the sum of its different architectures, but from dictionaries and botanical tables to engineer’s architecture as a construction, the construction of the manuals. I now saw how the catalogueing was city over time. As a process over time, the city represents organized according to an analogical procedure in multiple fragments and sedimentations. Rossi’s method which the end of an operation differed from its of reading these fragments was to establish binary means(Rossi,1979). oppositions: type and program, part and whole, specific place and universal, and history and present. The drawing of the Analogous City(1976) by Rossi This establishment of oppositions is constructed to shows how the city can be depicted, using the meaning highlight the relationships between forms and that resided within the identifiable or referenced forms. ideas(memory). It was not really a logical process of For Rossi’s Analogous City, there is no real site existing. thought, but analogical one, following the comparison Michel Foucault’s(1974) type of history throws light on that was elaborated by Jung to Freud. Jung wrote: the analogous city: for he def ines a history of ruptures, “Logical thought is thinking in words. Analogical interruptions, and discontinuities, a history that searched thought is sensed, yet unreal, imagined, yet silent. It is among the strata and layers of time for the points where archaic, unexpressed, and practically inexpressible in concepts were displaced and transformed, or the words(Moneo et al, 1985).” Rossi regarded the moments where history was moved. Tafuri(1988) analogical process not as a discourse, but rather as a explained the rule of describing city: “The law of mediation, an interior monologue. In Canaletto painting assemblage was fundamental. And since the assembled in the Parma museum Rossi noted that the various works objects belonged to the real world, the picture became a by Palladio and their removal in space constitute an neutral f ield on which to project the experience of shock analogue representation related to the history of both suffered in the city.” Hence the Analogous City allows architecture and the city itself that could not have been 234 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo expressed in words(Moneo et al, 1985). According to Rossi(1982) recognizes historical process: type reacts Rossi, the collage showed aspects of memory, a memory dialectically with technique, function and style. As an circumscribed within the city, north Lombardy. example, he cites the house with a loggia: the basic plan Tafuri(1988) argues that Canaletto’s painting and of organization has existed for centuries, but changes in Analogous City were combinatory manipulations of real social customs, construction techniques, and family and ideal places. Rossi wanted to take in the whole of hierarchies have caused many variations in its actual reality, object and subject, history and memory, the city design. In this sense, Rossi’s interpretation of building as structure and the city as myth(Tafuri, 1988). These is both acultural and ahistorical. Type is the abstraction analogical, fragmented constructions of type-forms left of memory to which will be referenced, and type is an the observer to play out the game proposed by the abstract principle concerning basic needs and beauty architect, throwing oneself into the deciphering and while specific forms depend on historical circumstances recognition of the elements of his puzzle(Tafuri, 1988). and social context. In such readings, the meaning would come from As a device, Rossi used type-forms to make a new motivations behind the architecture, individual or kind of classification for interpretation, and to initiate collective (Moneo et al, 1985). The fragmentation of design processes in the Teatro project and Modena the city emphasized on associations, correspondence, cemetery. Type was operated through memory, and relationships as the bases for an underlying order or individual and/ or collective, to transport meaning from structure. the original context from which Rossi adopted the form, to the new site and situation. No type can be identified Typology with a particular form, but all architectural forms can Typology has been an evolving notion from the be referred to types(Moneo, 1976). Similarly, Plato beginning of mans construction of his environment. thought of ideas as generic concept which is assigned to Peter Eisenman defines the idea of type in introduction a word. In the Republic Plato(1992) refers to form as to Architecture of the City(1982): follow: We have been in the habit, if you remember, of The new time of architecture is thus that of memory, positing a form, wherever we use the same name in many which replaces history. The individual artifact for the instances, one form for each many. Rossi argues that first time is understood within the psychological architecture is constructed with known primary and construct of collective memory. Time as collective intelligible elements. memory leads Rossi to his particular transformation For Rossi, within an urban environment there are some of the idea of time. With the introduction of memory primary elements(monuments) with the collective into the object, the object comes to embody both an memory of the urban populace. He interprets idea of itself and a memory of a former self. monuments as the vehicles of public images, rituals and Typology becomes transcendent of form and allows myths. This capacity of primary elements is contrasted memory to be carried throughout the history of with the general fabric of the city, including residential architectural piece, connected rather to the events of the and commercial buildings, places for everyday life which city. Plato describes the meaning of form between the accommodate variable human activities over an extended abstract world of ideas and the sensible world of physical period of time. Rossi(1982) mentions permanence and things. According to Plato(1992), the world of reality is architectural forms through history and memory as composed of ideas while the world of experience is made follow: of images which are only the shadows or reflections of When a project or a form is not utopian or abstract the intelligible forms or ideas. Thus, if ideas are but evolves from the specific problems of the city, it transcendent, intelligible, unique, immutable, eternal and persists and expresses these problems both through non-spatial, then images are immanent, sensible, its style and form as well as through its many multiple, mutable, ephemeral and spatial. Rossi believes deformations. These deformations and alterations are that the history of the built environment can be analyzed of limited importance precisely because architecture, in terms of typologies. Rossi(1982) suggests that in or the fabbrica of the city, constitutes an essentially architecture type is the product of the history, the spatial collective artifact and derives from this its composition and the use of Building. This interpretation characteristic features. does not contradict the definition of type in Quatremère Citing the Palazzo della Ragione in Padua, de Quincy’s treatise. Rossi’s interpretation of Rossi(1982) insists that one can still experience the form Quatremère’s type, however, is both literal and of the past in this monument and the physical form of idiosyncratic. For Rossi, type is something that precedes the past has assumed different functions and has the form; it is the principle that remains unaltered in spite continued functions. Alan Colquhoun(1981) voiced the of the changes of the form. In this sense, type is seen as communicative value of type and exploiting tools to an objective, logical principle. A type is suggestive and create new forms. He believed that a design should stem general, and thus architectural type has no precise form from the proper understanding of the problem at hand, or content. To Rossi the buildings are architectural and that the fact that a designer needs to rely on the celebrities rather than characteristic examples. Type—as inherited form, or mental picture of the f inal JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 235 design—is only a remedy. Moreover, he recognized that Each typological element is effective in the way that type, like language, fulf ills a communicative and social multiple readings of form and function can be made by role, linking tradition with the present. He thinks that individual. Having rationalized his own theory of while in the stage of craftsmanship, the form of an object typological dependence and autonomy of architecture, was the carrier of message, i.e. the image that craftsman Colquhoun insisted that architecture never free from had, in a later stage the communicative value persisted forms of the past and stressed the folly of theories that in artistic forms, not as the expression of the artist’s idea assumed so. Colquhoun established the place for the but as a system of representation which embodies these general physical or mathematical laws within the process values. of architectural problem solving. He argues: Because In the Modena cemetery, Rossi believed that type can the general laws of physics and empirical facts are even be transformed, creating a dialogue that can be saturated less capable…in the world of architecture…of fixing a with meanings and cross references, and hence he f inal configuration than in the case of an airplane or a thought about the memory of type from personal bridge, recourse to some kind of typological model is experience of place rather than the historical formal even more necessary(Colquhoun ,1981). What he made memory of type. His typological reading of the cemetery clear was the importance of using the idea of type as is that of a city for the dead, and is meant to be read on apparatus, as Rossi prescribed, with which to operate on the scale of the city. To Rossi, the necropolis is a memory the city, creating new meanings. The ideas that took system, utilizing the typological construction of the city from the typological soup of the collective memory, to allow for the collective memory. Rossi conf irmed, were to be the substance for analogical form. Conclusions Architecture is a part of the social history of man, and as such, can be associated with events, places, people, and ideals. With this association, time and space is infused into the medium of memory. An object, place, or event can become a richer experience for all who participate with it. Time and space can exist in a single architectonic structure in which past memories are integrated, interpreted, and modified through new eyes, Fig. 1. Modena Cemetery or in a adjacent structure in which meaning is reinforced by the contradiction. In relation to the recovery of typology, Moneo To Rossi, architectonic structure can be always mentions Modena cemetery: death is in this way reinterpreted, for in this world there seems to be no longer incorporated in the graveyard, to an artif icial social any universal truths, but rather a constant reinterpretation milieu whose meaning is found in ritual(Moneo, 1981). of memory, the continuous juxtaposition of the fragments Rossi performed the operations of dislocation of place from one to other fragments, the constant alteration of and dissolution of scale on type-form to evoke new typology which invests the monument with its ability to meanings from his own suggested readings. The hold a discourse with the city. The memory represents a columbaria which enclosed the cemetery were overscaled highly personal confrontation with the city, and the built for a prominence and for a dramatic sense of closure. form is an incredible example of how our lived This insistence on built form to house the dead brought experience in the city can be in one way a memory to full objectif ication Rossi’s underlying analogy of the building. Rossi employed memory as a valuable means, cemetery as a house for the dead. Rossi employed the a starting point for creating architectonic structure rich type that was well-established in the collective Italian with meaning and rich with potential which exploits memory and was in fact represented as a paradigm in thinking, reading, and responding. The validity of Rossi the adjacent Costa Cemetery. The analogical operation today, is about the use of type and memory as an upon this type involved an allusion to the house as a instrument for operating in a city, offering tremendous microcosm of the city, hardly a new concept. Rossi interpretative flexibility, and allows the architecture to developed the Modena enclosed, complete, and read as a poem within our collective imagination. His autonomous in a relational manner by analogical ability to modify the context and the system that the built reference. The intervention of an urban artifact in the environment reflects, is revealed in his projects and larger urban scale is an analogous process acting through writings, and his autonomous architecture, in addition, typology, and thereby memory, with which Rossi is expressed in the development of a typology of transcended from as merely archaeological artifact and relationships between architecture and the city. brought the “process of architecture into the realm of the psychological, transforming both subject and object (Rossi, 1982).” 236 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo and Projects, New York: Rizzoli International References 9) Plato,(1992) The Republic, A. D. Lindsay(trans.), J. M. London: 1) Agrest, D. I.(1991) Architecture from Without: Theoretical Framing Dent & Sons Ltd. for a Critical Discourse, Cambridge: MIT Press 10) Rossi, A.(1979) Aldo Rossi in America: 1976 to 1979, Cambridge: 2) Bachelard, G.(1964) The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press MIT Press 3) Bacon, E. N. (1967) Design of Cities, London: Thames and Hudson 11) Rossi, A.(1982) The Architecture of the City, Cambridge: MIT Press 4) Buck-Moss, S.(1989) The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Bejamin 12) Strozier, R. M.(1988) Saussure, Derrida & the Metaphysicas of and the Arcades Project, Cambridge: MIT Press Subjectivity, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 5) Colquhoun, A.(1981) Essays in Architectural Criticism: Modern 13) Tafuri, M.(1988) Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Architecture and Historical Change, Cambridge: MIT Press Development, Cambridge: MIT Press 6) Foucault, M.(1974) The Order of Things, New York: Vintage Books 14) Vidler, A.(1992) The Architectural Uncanny, Cambridge: MIT Press 7) Moneo, R.(1981) “Aldo Rossi: The idea of Architecture and the 15) Yates, F. A.(1966) The Art of Memory, Chicago: University of Modena Cemetery,” in Oppositions, no.5, 2-16 Chicago Press 8) Moneo, R., Arnell, P., & Bickford, T.(1985) Aldo Rossi: Buildings JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 237 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering Taylor & Francis

Aldo Rossi: Architecture and Memory

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Publisher
Taylor & Francis
Copyright
© 2018 Architectural Institute of Japan
ISSN
1347-2852
eISSN
1346-7581
DOI
10.3130/jaabe.2.231
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See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Architecture has a long tradition of evoking memory, one that goes beyond the memory of shelter and dwelling. To imagine an architecture of memory is to understand the relationship that can exist between physical reality and mental meanings. Individual memory collects experience about the meaning of typology of fragments within a city. The memory shows a highly personal confrontation with the city, and the built form is an incredible example of how our lived experience in the city can be in one way a memory building. Rossi argues that the city has existed continuously through time as the basis for an attitude of exclusion that limits his formal repertoire to the most architecture of forms. Rossi employed memory as a valuable means, a starting point for creating architectonic structure rich with meaning and rich with potential which exploits thinking, reading, and responding. Based upon Rossi’s projects and writings, this study shows how Rossi elaborated instruments of typology and analogy, and reinterpretation of memory for operating the formal autonomy of architecture and architectural meaning on the city. Finally this paper argues that type can be operated through memory, individual and/ or collective, to convey meaning from the original context to the new site and situation. Keywords: memory; fragments; analogy; typology; autonomy Introduction Life is a continuous flow of experience; each act or artifacts, having value in the whole as well as individually moment of time is preceded by a previous experience as form, in a particular place(Rossi, 1982). The primary and becomes the threshold for the experience to elements in architecture become the means by which come(Bacon, 1967). Every historical process is a the city can be understood in terms of its significance. dialectical one in which one form of life generates its It is the relationships between architectural elements that opposite. In a city, it is intriguing to see a dialectic of becomes important, not simply the elements themselves. manifestations of different eras. Thus, buildings, towns Here lies the essence of how to deliver and infuse and cities are much more than physical artifacts, but also meaning into architecture, and in turn, the city itself. are reflections and incarnations of human aspiration and The city has always occupied a privileged place in the ontological meaning. Since a specific architectural form architectonic dream—it is the place where all orders are and style mainly depend upon the rate and pattern of possible(Agrest, 1991). It is within this set of ordering human interaction in relation to environment, life- systems that the city takes form, reflective of those perspectives is deeply rooted in time-perspectives, and respective senses of order and representative of them. thus our society has dissected humanity and built for One of the conditioning factors which effect an itself a mirror for its own reflection and architecture architectural intervention is locus. Aldo Rossi (1989) reflect a society’s views of time and change. identif ies locus as a relationship to the specific location. Would a more severe emphasis on social context in The locus is related to the memory—the memory of the the built environment from a reality with continuities of society. The remembrance—the ability to reminisce meanings benef icial to society? Can we justify the selectively and to call to consciousness the significant singular emphasis of a person or social attributes? Can biography and geography of one’s mind—is at the core the city have totality of formal allusions and devices from of what makes us human. Through remembrance we one needs to draw when designing in the city? The can inhabit the imagination with a symbolic environment experience of the city is what permits the discovery of extending far beyond the spatial and temporal limitations these elements, and identif ication of them as urban of individual existence. The development of remembrance was not simply an inner mental event. It *Contact Author: Seungkoo Jo, Professor, Tongmyong University required the creation of artif ices—language, ritual, and of Information Technology, #535 Yong-dang Dong, Nam Gu, artifacts. Busan, Korea Few theorists have investigated the formal nature of Tel: +82 (051) 610-8582 Fax: +82 (051) 610-8579 the city as extensively as Aldo Rossi has. Rossi described e-mail: skjo@tmic.tit.ac.kr the city as an artifact that possesses its own history. This (Received November 8, 2002 ; accepted February 21, 2003 ) artifact leaves traces of its history; these traces embody Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/May 2003/237 231 the memory of the city. As a diverse totality, the city is to a site spirit and specificity that combines to a form a haunted by meaning which the collective memory meaningful architectural intervention. In addition, the extracts from the traces. These traces are called intention is to light some elements of our understanding permanence by Rossi, the urban artifacts that preserve of time and change as revealed, as well as to indicate the history of the city as built form. The process, then, further directions of enquiry regarding the significance by which a city is imprinted with form constitutes its of a temporalizing order in design. Through Rossi’s urban history(Rossi, 1982). The succession of events investigations and operations on the city, his instruments over time, usually represented by some form of of typology and analogy, and reinterpretation of memory permanences, hold the memory of the city(Rossi, 1982). will be elaborated how architecture’s meaning is re- Time, and its associated memories, are an important established through individual and/or collective memory, piece of information in reading individual artifacts in a and how the formal autonomy of architecture constructs city. The past is a part of the antiquated equation the world in which we live. affecting society. The futurist myth of historical process, which is sustained by forgetting what has happened, is The Embeddedness of Time into Architecture in contrast to the construction of history that looks To imagine an architectural memory is to f irst backward. Walter Benjamin sees the modernity by understand the relationship that can exist between the seeing the present in terms of events of the past(Buck- two. Frances Yates(1966) argues how the memory Moss, 1989). This is very critical to create and read an imprints images onto built form, showing knowledge architecture of memory on the historically rich site, by being transmitted. The memory is in the sense that it is constantly reconsidering the events of the past. a deliberate attempt at recollection. One learns to see Sometimes critical, sometimes problematic, that the world in the detail only a designer would see as a history becomes an important part of the continuous and result of the sudden consciousness of a new world, constant dialog with the past is considerably significant. resulting in no perception being taken for granted. From History is a statement made by no one, but it is conceived this, architecture has a long tradition of evoking the as a statement, a discourse. The readers’ perception memory, one that goes beyond the memory of shelter dissolves the author in favor of the reader, who and dwelling. approaches a prior external text and reconstitutes its According to Cicero(Yates, 1966), he described the meaning according to the culture’s or his own system or mnemonic of places and images, and explained how the set of interpretive codes. The author acts and creates Roman rhetors utilized the technique of imprinting the text; the reader re-enacts to create his own images on specif ic places in order to both recall, and text(Strozier, 1988). Consciousness is important because provide an ordering system. Moreover, he describes the this is the means for shifts in theory as transformations artif icial memory in terms of the speech further: persons from one era of theoretical analysis to another. desiring to train this faculty (of memory) must select By considering the events of the past, we can better places and from mental images of the things they wish understand the future, create the vital form through the to remember and store those images in the places, so vast reservoir of memory, and transform the narrow that the order of the places will preserve the order of the boundaries of lived experience into wider environments things, and the images of the things will denote the things of shared experience. The loss of most of buildings, themselves and we shall employ the places and images which are in transition from the traditional homogeneity respectively as a wax writing-tablet and the letters written to a new way of architectural thought seems incoherent on it(Yates, 1966). This memory can be improved by either in physical or metaphysical form. If the history long speeches with great accuracy. of a building has some value to society and its citizens, If a specif ic building or space wants to be remembered, its meaning is evoked by the contrast of each tectonic images derived from each space of building should be structure representing its own time. Memory propagates placed in a logical sequence so that the orator can literally collective and individual meanings. Memory is walk through while he recites his speech. Therefore, accumulative and based upon past experiences. Our the memory system can hold the knowledge in a logical understanding of temporal meaning operates much more sequence, and retain that knowledge for a long period subtly, forming in advance our pre-reflective of time, dependent mainly on the strength of the memory understanding of the significance of entities in the world. of the loci rather than the images. Yates(1966) argues Inasmuch as life-perspectives and temporal meanings further that the formation of the loci is the most important are so embedded in architecture, architecture can be read step for three reasons: the strength of the visual within as a start to reinstate a collective memory into the built memory, the ability of the loci to act like wax tablets environment. that can be erased and written over again, and the ability Based upon Rossi’s works and writings, this paper is to use any spatial construct, from the house, to a public to identify the continuity of thought represented in built building, to the city. manifestations, and to describe that the notion of memory It was by this method of this artif icial memory that is is a major contributor to a continuity of images in a built established from places and images, the stock definition setting and that this continuity of site conditions can lead to be forever repeated down the ages. A locus is a place 232 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo easily grasped by the memory, such as a house, an which acts in a deeper way that is perhaps more closely intercolumnar space, a corner, an arch, or the like. related to our own conception of reality and our position Images are forms, marks or simulacra (formae, notae, within the universe. Rossi(1982) sees the city as the simulacra) of what we wish to remember. For instance theater of human events, the locus solus that not only if we wish to recall the genus of a horse, of a lion, of an contains events but is itself an event; it constitutes an eagle, we must place their images on definite loci(Yates, event. The locus Rossi(1982) def ines is the intersection 1966). of space, time, form, and site of a succession of both Aristotle was interested in the mental picture for the ancient and more modern events. Rossi’s theater was understanding and thinking processes in association with designed to be a floating structure to move through the knowledge and memory. He put memory in the same canals of Venice, literally constructing situations within area of the soul as the imagination, in a sense that the city. As the progeny of sixteenth century floating imagery is created for remembering new knowledge. pavilions, the theater was in the form of round canopies, The ability for the image to remain as a sense impression and belonged both to a family of floating machines and is described as memory, and is described in terms of to the genre of ephemeral festival structures like towers, movement, as in the movement of a ring imprinting a gateways, and fountains built for special civic occasions. wax tablet. To disclose how human beings make The Teatro is related to both to the tradition of the floating intelligible the world within which they find themselves, building and to the idea of a structure intended to Gaston Bachelard(1964) reads the world as it is temporarily alter the landscape of a city. spontaneously, and links memory to imagination. He Rossi argues in his book, A Scientif ic describes the house, not as an abstract object, but in Autobiography(1981), that his model, the Teatro, was terms of the primary virtues, those reveal an attachment Shakespear’s Globe Theater, revealing the similarity even that native in some way to the primary function of in the common names of Theaters of the World. Rossi inhabiting. Bachelard asks his readers to imagine quoted Shakespear’s dictum, All the World’s stage, and stairways, and concludes that in so doing, we will find looked for the universal knowledge of the world in the that in our imagination, we most often go down the one Teatro, where it seems likely that the Globe would have which leads to the cellar; yet we go up when we imagine searched for a way to express the space of theater. ourselves on the attic stairs, which are often steeper and According to Rossi(1981), the Teatro was built at the perhaps more primitive. Since to do so requires some Fusina shipyards and towered by sea to the Punta della conscious effort on our part, over time the memory can Dogana that seemed a place where architecture ended be effaced. Images like an architectural object may leave and the world of the imagination or even the irrational a deeper impression on the mind because of their ability began. In relation to memory, Rossi uses the to be experienced immediately. Shakespearean Theater as a model to produce its The range of loci seems very important to us in that intimate, using geometric configuration. The notion of the art of memory is a technique for a mental mapping floating images means literally wandering in the canals system. Yates(1966) describes the increasingly elaborate of Venice, constantly creating situations within the city. memory systems created during the Middle Ages and In addition, the nature of the theater works as a memory Renaissance, leading to the creation of the memory loci within the city. theater. During the Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas very Since there are no longer universal truths in Rossi’s much dominates the teaching of the artificial memory, world, the position of the theater is reinterpreted, and what Aquinas has recorded is a continuation of constantly creating reinterpretation of memory. A sketch classical memory treatises, expounding the importance by Rossi for the theater is quite related to the attempt to of memory loci, and images upon which attach to them. recall something within his personal memory. When From this teaching, however, the Middle Ages seemed we are asked to imagine some beautiful house, we each to move toward a tradition of icons as images, and the are free to attribute our own characteristics to this house creation of a structure within which these striking images at will. Someone may imagine this home as a historic would active memory. mansion in downtown; others may imagine a modern In the Venice of modern times, Aldo Rossi tried to one in suburbs. In both cases, we are totally free to grasp the highest reality through a magically activated conjure up specif ic images at will, as each such image imagination in his project, Teatro del Mundo(1979), remains wholly within our own individual control. Like where the mind and memory of man was considered this example, the memory represents a highly personal divine. As Vidler points out in The Architectural confrontation within the city. Thus, based upon the Uncanny(1992), the notions of an architectural sublime geometric spaces which can be consciously manipulated and other notions of architecture’s ability to evoke and measures, our lived spaces and experiences which emotions cab be linked to its ability to tap the hidden or engage our entire way of being can be a memory theater. repressed memory of the unconscious mind, often making the unfamiliar all to familiar. This architecture of uncanny is acting as a powerful memory device that is allied with that of the classical artif icial memory, but JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 233 Analogy collage of the city to be created through a typological Rossi argued that architecture should achieve formal memory of the city, thus haunting the city with meaning. autonomy, to gain identity, in order to meaningfully relate Here the notion of collage as a means of representation and to convey meaning. By establishing a unique, finds itself very much aligned with the situation present separate identity, each form could be read more easily in the comprehension of contemporary city. It provides in opposition to another. In relation to the discipline of a means of contending with a diverse sense of order by architecture, Rossi accepted the visual form of the city, association and dependence on the relationships of to a larger degree, of factors which operated outside. To disparate elements, not necessarily the elements Rossi, the discipline is very much autonomous, and thus themselves. he intended to put his attitude of operating within a given Rossi(1982) makes the observation that forms have context from an interventionalist point of view. an autonomous life which supersedes the functions for Rossi is very much concerned with the concepts of which they were designed. As proof he cites the fragments and collage, disregarding scale and context, existence of building types in the city that transform but searches for the relationship of memory to the city. through history while retaining their vitality. Rossi His individual architectural fragments experience the applied his meaning-laden type-forms to the actual city in the way of flaneur, attempting to observe and geography of the city, and thus suggested two kinds of locate the traces of that truth within the context of the transformation for further readings and imaginations: city. Rossi argues the city is the locus of collective dislocation of place and dissolution of scale. In this memory, and by this means that the city acts as a wax sense, Tafuri(1988) argues that at the origins of the tablet that gathers up the traces of lived experience in critical act, there always lies a process of destroying, of order to create its monuments. Monuments as a means dissolving, or disintegrating a given structure. No of memory is to return to an idea of consciousness, to criticism exists that does not retrace the process that has remind and hence restore a thought of life. Memory is given birth to the work and that does not redistribute the not an exact science; it is never accurate and is often elements of the work into a different order, if for no other cumbersome if so. Monuments could be metaphors for reason than to construct typological models(Tafuri, events, places or spirits. 1988). Rossi’s process of analogically transforming Rossi stated, the idea of analogy can never be fully typologies traced the memory of an artifact back toward possessed by the conscious and rational mind, this is its constantly removed origins. what makes it real to the human psyche. In the Tetro theater and Modena cemetery(1971), Rossi Over time, as I began to grasp this meaning(that dissolved the subject/ object dichotomy of the audience/ analogies not only exist within the discipline of actor relationship by housing both together in a floating architecture, but are also the essence of its meaning), stage that was at once a stage for the city to observe and each project became extremely simple, substituting observation point. In addition, the division of space observation and study for construction. The task was between actors and audience was dissolved. Subject and no longer, as I had once thought, to describe object became integrated. Rossi(1982) defined the city: architecture, to catalogue and order form. Thought By architecture I mean not only the visible image of the still fascinated by what is unexpected in catalogues, city and the sum of its different architectures, but from dictionaries and botanical tables to engineer’s architecture as a construction, the construction of the manuals. I now saw how the catalogueing was city over time. As a process over time, the city represents organized according to an analogical procedure in multiple fragments and sedimentations. Rossi’s method which the end of an operation differed from its of reading these fragments was to establish binary means(Rossi,1979). oppositions: type and program, part and whole, specific place and universal, and history and present. The drawing of the Analogous City(1976) by Rossi This establishment of oppositions is constructed to shows how the city can be depicted, using the meaning highlight the relationships between forms and that resided within the identifiable or referenced forms. ideas(memory). It was not really a logical process of For Rossi’s Analogous City, there is no real site existing. thought, but analogical one, following the comparison Michel Foucault’s(1974) type of history throws light on that was elaborated by Jung to Freud. Jung wrote: the analogous city: for he def ines a history of ruptures, “Logical thought is thinking in words. Analogical interruptions, and discontinuities, a history that searched thought is sensed, yet unreal, imagined, yet silent. It is among the strata and layers of time for the points where archaic, unexpressed, and practically inexpressible in concepts were displaced and transformed, or the words(Moneo et al, 1985).” Rossi regarded the moments where history was moved. Tafuri(1988) analogical process not as a discourse, but rather as a explained the rule of describing city: “The law of mediation, an interior monologue. In Canaletto painting assemblage was fundamental. And since the assembled in the Parma museum Rossi noted that the various works objects belonged to the real world, the picture became a by Palladio and their removal in space constitute an neutral f ield on which to project the experience of shock analogue representation related to the history of both suffered in the city.” Hence the Analogous City allows architecture and the city itself that could not have been 234 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo expressed in words(Moneo et al, 1985). According to Rossi(1982) recognizes historical process: type reacts Rossi, the collage showed aspects of memory, a memory dialectically with technique, function and style. As an circumscribed within the city, north Lombardy. example, he cites the house with a loggia: the basic plan Tafuri(1988) argues that Canaletto’s painting and of organization has existed for centuries, but changes in Analogous City were combinatory manipulations of real social customs, construction techniques, and family and ideal places. Rossi wanted to take in the whole of hierarchies have caused many variations in its actual reality, object and subject, history and memory, the city design. In this sense, Rossi’s interpretation of building as structure and the city as myth(Tafuri, 1988). These is both acultural and ahistorical. Type is the abstraction analogical, fragmented constructions of type-forms left of memory to which will be referenced, and type is an the observer to play out the game proposed by the abstract principle concerning basic needs and beauty architect, throwing oneself into the deciphering and while specific forms depend on historical circumstances recognition of the elements of his puzzle(Tafuri, 1988). and social context. In such readings, the meaning would come from As a device, Rossi used type-forms to make a new motivations behind the architecture, individual or kind of classification for interpretation, and to initiate collective (Moneo et al, 1985). The fragmentation of design processes in the Teatro project and Modena the city emphasized on associations, correspondence, cemetery. Type was operated through memory, and relationships as the bases for an underlying order or individual and/ or collective, to transport meaning from structure. the original context from which Rossi adopted the form, to the new site and situation. No type can be identified Typology with a particular form, but all architectural forms can Typology has been an evolving notion from the be referred to types(Moneo, 1976). Similarly, Plato beginning of mans construction of his environment. thought of ideas as generic concept which is assigned to Peter Eisenman defines the idea of type in introduction a word. In the Republic Plato(1992) refers to form as to Architecture of the City(1982): follow: We have been in the habit, if you remember, of The new time of architecture is thus that of memory, positing a form, wherever we use the same name in many which replaces history. The individual artifact for the instances, one form for each many. Rossi argues that first time is understood within the psychological architecture is constructed with known primary and construct of collective memory. Time as collective intelligible elements. memory leads Rossi to his particular transformation For Rossi, within an urban environment there are some of the idea of time. With the introduction of memory primary elements(monuments) with the collective into the object, the object comes to embody both an memory of the urban populace. He interprets idea of itself and a memory of a former self. monuments as the vehicles of public images, rituals and Typology becomes transcendent of form and allows myths. This capacity of primary elements is contrasted memory to be carried throughout the history of with the general fabric of the city, including residential architectural piece, connected rather to the events of the and commercial buildings, places for everyday life which city. Plato describes the meaning of form between the accommodate variable human activities over an extended abstract world of ideas and the sensible world of physical period of time. Rossi(1982) mentions permanence and things. According to Plato(1992), the world of reality is architectural forms through history and memory as composed of ideas while the world of experience is made follow: of images which are only the shadows or reflections of When a project or a form is not utopian or abstract the intelligible forms or ideas. Thus, if ideas are but evolves from the specific problems of the city, it transcendent, intelligible, unique, immutable, eternal and persists and expresses these problems both through non-spatial, then images are immanent, sensible, its style and form as well as through its many multiple, mutable, ephemeral and spatial. Rossi believes deformations. These deformations and alterations are that the history of the built environment can be analyzed of limited importance precisely because architecture, in terms of typologies. Rossi(1982) suggests that in or the fabbrica of the city, constitutes an essentially architecture type is the product of the history, the spatial collective artifact and derives from this its composition and the use of Building. This interpretation characteristic features. does not contradict the definition of type in Quatremère Citing the Palazzo della Ragione in Padua, de Quincy’s treatise. Rossi’s interpretation of Rossi(1982) insists that one can still experience the form Quatremère’s type, however, is both literal and of the past in this monument and the physical form of idiosyncratic. For Rossi, type is something that precedes the past has assumed different functions and has the form; it is the principle that remains unaltered in spite continued functions. Alan Colquhoun(1981) voiced the of the changes of the form. In this sense, type is seen as communicative value of type and exploiting tools to an objective, logical principle. A type is suggestive and create new forms. He believed that a design should stem general, and thus architectural type has no precise form from the proper understanding of the problem at hand, or content. To Rossi the buildings are architectural and that the fact that a designer needs to rely on the celebrities rather than characteristic examples. Type—as inherited form, or mental picture of the f inal JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 235 design—is only a remedy. Moreover, he recognized that Each typological element is effective in the way that type, like language, fulf ills a communicative and social multiple readings of form and function can be made by role, linking tradition with the present. He thinks that individual. Having rationalized his own theory of while in the stage of craftsmanship, the form of an object typological dependence and autonomy of architecture, was the carrier of message, i.e. the image that craftsman Colquhoun insisted that architecture never free from had, in a later stage the communicative value persisted forms of the past and stressed the folly of theories that in artistic forms, not as the expression of the artist’s idea assumed so. Colquhoun established the place for the but as a system of representation which embodies these general physical or mathematical laws within the process values. of architectural problem solving. He argues: Because In the Modena cemetery, Rossi believed that type can the general laws of physics and empirical facts are even be transformed, creating a dialogue that can be saturated less capable…in the world of architecture…of fixing a with meanings and cross references, and hence he f inal configuration than in the case of an airplane or a thought about the memory of type from personal bridge, recourse to some kind of typological model is experience of place rather than the historical formal even more necessary(Colquhoun ,1981). What he made memory of type. His typological reading of the cemetery clear was the importance of using the idea of type as is that of a city for the dead, and is meant to be read on apparatus, as Rossi prescribed, with which to operate on the scale of the city. To Rossi, the necropolis is a memory the city, creating new meanings. The ideas that took system, utilizing the typological construction of the city from the typological soup of the collective memory, to allow for the collective memory. Rossi conf irmed, were to be the substance for analogical form. Conclusions Architecture is a part of the social history of man, and as such, can be associated with events, places, people, and ideals. With this association, time and space is infused into the medium of memory. An object, place, or event can become a richer experience for all who participate with it. Time and space can exist in a single architectonic structure in which past memories are integrated, interpreted, and modified through new eyes, Fig. 1. Modena Cemetery or in a adjacent structure in which meaning is reinforced by the contradiction. In relation to the recovery of typology, Moneo To Rossi, architectonic structure can be always mentions Modena cemetery: death is in this way reinterpreted, for in this world there seems to be no longer incorporated in the graveyard, to an artif icial social any universal truths, but rather a constant reinterpretation milieu whose meaning is found in ritual(Moneo, 1981). of memory, the continuous juxtaposition of the fragments Rossi performed the operations of dislocation of place from one to other fragments, the constant alteration of and dissolution of scale on type-form to evoke new typology which invests the monument with its ability to meanings from his own suggested readings. The hold a discourse with the city. The memory represents a columbaria which enclosed the cemetery were overscaled highly personal confrontation with the city, and the built for a prominence and for a dramatic sense of closure. form is an incredible example of how our lived This insistence on built form to house the dead brought experience in the city can be in one way a memory to full objectif ication Rossi’s underlying analogy of the building. Rossi employed memory as a valuable means, cemetery as a house for the dead. Rossi employed the a starting point for creating architectonic structure rich type that was well-established in the collective Italian with meaning and rich with potential which exploits memory and was in fact represented as a paradigm in thinking, reading, and responding. The validity of Rossi the adjacent Costa Cemetery. The analogical operation today, is about the use of type and memory as an upon this type involved an allusion to the house as a instrument for operating in a city, offering tremendous microcosm of the city, hardly a new concept. Rossi interpretative flexibility, and allows the architecture to developed the Modena enclosed, complete, and read as a poem within our collective imagination. His autonomous in a relational manner by analogical ability to modify the context and the system that the built reference. The intervention of an urban artifact in the environment reflects, is revealed in his projects and larger urban scale is an analogous process acting through writings, and his autonomous architecture, in addition, typology, and thereby memory, with which Rossi is expressed in the development of a typology of transcended from as merely archaeological artifact and relationships between architecture and the city. brought the “process of architecture into the realm of the psychological, transforming both subject and object (Rossi, 1982).” 236 JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo and Projects, New York: Rizzoli International References 9) Plato,(1992) The Republic, A. D. Lindsay(trans.), J. M. London: 1) Agrest, D. I.(1991) Architecture from Without: Theoretical Framing Dent & Sons Ltd. for a Critical Discourse, Cambridge: MIT Press 10) Rossi, A.(1979) Aldo Rossi in America: 1976 to 1979, Cambridge: 2) Bachelard, G.(1964) The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press MIT Press 3) Bacon, E. N. (1967) Design of Cities, London: Thames and Hudson 11) Rossi, A.(1982) The Architecture of the City, Cambridge: MIT Press 4) Buck-Moss, S.(1989) The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Bejamin 12) Strozier, R. M.(1988) Saussure, Derrida & the Metaphysicas of and the Arcades Project, Cambridge: MIT Press Subjectivity, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter 5) Colquhoun, A.(1981) Essays in Architectural Criticism: Modern 13) Tafuri, M.(1988) Architecture and Utopia: Design and Capitalist Architecture and Historical Change, Cambridge: MIT Press Development, Cambridge: MIT Press 6) Foucault, M.(1974) The Order of Things, New York: Vintage Books 14) Vidler, A.(1992) The Architectural Uncanny, Cambridge: MIT Press 7) Moneo, R.(1981) “Aldo Rossi: The idea of Architecture and the 15) Yates, F. A.(1966) The Art of Memory, Chicago: University of Modena Cemetery,” in Oppositions, no.5, 2-16 Chicago Press 8) Moneo, R., Arnell, P., & Bickford, T.(1985) Aldo Rossi: Buildings JAABE vol.2 no.1 May 2003 Seungkoo Jo 237

Journal

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building EngineeringTaylor & Francis

Published: May 1, 2003

Keywords: memory; fragments; analogy; typology; autonomy

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