JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2023.2182639 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN a a b Yingting Chen , Charlie Q.L. Xue and Cong Sun a b Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 17 August 2022 With the proliferation of globalization in architectural profession, the trade between China and the Accepted 16 February 2023 United States, as the largest importer and exporter, is the industry leader and trendsetter in transnational architectural practice. However, despite the dominance of shopping malls in China– KEYWORDS US architectural trade, there is still a notable gap in systematic and in-depth exploration of Shopping mall design; shopping malls designed by US firms in China. To explore the situation, development, and impact transnational architectural of this representative phenomenon, this study comprehensively analyzes 170 shopping malls built practice; overseas in China by 26 representative American architectural firms from 1990 to 2021 based on five architectural impact; China- US architectural trade dimensions: geographical distribution, construction period, scale and types, forms and design vocabulary, and top designers. The findings demonstrate that this transnational architectural trade is spontaneously generated by the market economy, whereas intentionally amplified by regional development positioning and subject to changes in the international situation. The basic reason for the prevalence stems from the deep understanding of business logic, high degree of professionalism, and unparalleled experience, whereas the fundamentals lie in the respect for the harmony of people, architecture, and the environment; constant innovation in response to the changing market; and persistent pursuit of more optimal green, resilience, and wellbeing. CONTACT Charlie Q.L. Xue, email@example.com Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Suite 405, Festival Walk Office Tower, 80 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 Y. CHEN ET AL. Beijing and Shanghai. Thus, why do Chinese clients 1. Background and research questions and governments seek services from the United Globalization, a widespread phenomenon that has States and rapidly develop a considerable number of affected all the aspects of public and private life transnational shopping malls in China? In addition, (Held 1999), has led to world-wide growth of architec- what is the motive of American architects who have tural practice, increased participation of transnational projects in or around the United States to travel thou- agents, and the emergence of multinational modes of sands of miles to China for practice? Although shop- design in the consumption, production, and interpre- ping malls are challenged by booming online tation of architecture (Cody 2003; Ren 2011; Xue, Ding, shopping, how has the design of American malls and Chen 2021; Ponzini 2020). According to a survey evolved over the past three decades to maintain their conducted by the magazine Building Design (BD) in lasting attractiveness to Chinese consumers? 2021, the top 30 architectural firms in the world have 941 offices in 135 countries, and 12 (40%) of the 30 firms are located in the United States. 2. Literature review and research objectives The types of projects undertaken by the top 10 largest American architectural firms in China can be The popularity and great success of foreign architec- categorized into hospitality, residential, education, ture, represented by the United States, especially in sports, mixed use and shopping malls, offices and developing countries, can be said to be the driving headquarters, civic and culture, health care and hospi- force for most of the studies. Existing research on tals, science and technology, and transportation and how American-shaped architecture, including shop- other facilities. Given that the United States built the ping malls, are exported worldwide are numerous world’s first modern shopping mall, mixed use and and systematic. In 2003, Jeffrey Cody published his shopping malls account for the highest proportion book Exporting American Architecture 1870–2000, (20%) of the total types of projects (n = 184; Figure 1). which traced the contemporary development of In the late 1990s, when the GDP per capita reached American architectural exports, covering Latin US$2000 in China’s developed coastal cities, shopping America, Africa, East Asia, and the Pacific (Cody 2003). malls began to sprout, quickly followed by a spurt. Other than depicting the whole picture, Sklair and Between 2003 and 2013, the number of shopping Alaily-Mattar et al. focused their attention on star archi- malls in China increased from 236 to 3500, which is tects and their iconic buildings, such as shopping almost three times more than those in the United malls, museums, and urban megaprojects, discussing States (by 2014, the number of shopping malls in the how contemporary transnational capitalism and con- United States reached 1200) (Xue 2016). After 2013, sumerism are produced and manifested in globalized China’s economy entered a normal period of medium- cities, as well as their impact on the built environment speed development, whereas the number of shopping and urban development (Alaily-Mattar, Ponzini, and malls continued to rise rapidly. By 2016, approximately Thierstein 2020; Sklair 2017). Shopping Towns of 4000 shopping malls were built in China, with Europe 1945–1975 revealed the situation of modernist 19.7 million m of floor space under construction, design, the history of consumption, and the rapidly accounting for nearly 60% of the global total (CBRE, changing contexts of postwar Europe, and explored 2017). By 2021, the number was estimated to reach the role of modern American shopping center design 7500. China continues to lead as the most active mar- in urban renewal and the daily lives of citizens ket globally in terms of the development of shopping (Gosseye and Avermaete 2017). In the same vein, malls (iiMedia Research Group, 2021). Foreign archi- Camerin introduced the concept of “rental spaces” tects, especially American ones, prevail in benchmark and encompassed shopping malls as the most impor- projects. For example, in Beijing, Shanghai, and tant component in this broad sense, exploring how Guangzhou, 75% (15 out of 20) of the top shopping American-shaped rental spaces were exported abroad, malls in terms of sales and customer flow rates in 2021 particularly in the case of Eastern Europe, and how this are designed by foreign architects (excluding those in creation of new centralities on the basis of mainland China and Hong Kong), with 73% (11 out of a “multifunctionality” is designing the image of 15) of them being from American firms (Figure 2). a recognizable, exportable, and globally consumable China–US architectural trade is the industry leader city (Camerin 2022). and trendsetter in transnational architectural practice. These rich historical, empirical, and theoretical China itself houses many design institutes, especially in materials provide foundational information and serve The ranking of the largest design firms in the US comes from the Building and Design (BD) magazine, which annually surveys the world’s 100 largest architecture firms based on fee revenue and the number of fee-earning architects they employ. We count projects from the official websites of these top firms. CannonDesign and ZGF Architects, which do not post any projects in China on their official websites, are excluded. Southdale Mall (1956) in Edina, Minnesota, USA, is considered to be the world’s first modern shopping mall. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 Figure 1. The types of projects in China by the top 10 American architectural firms. Statistics by the authors. Figure 2. Geographic distribution of the designers for China’s 2021 top shopping malls: (a) all designers; (b) foreign designers. Drawn by the authors. to inform further discussions in this study. However, This study attempts to answer the aforementioned these international studies are either confined to the questions and fill the gaps in knowledge by conduct- early modern period or focused more on Europe, North ing a comprehensive analysis of a basic database, America, and APAC with a notable gap in systematic which covers 170 transnational shopping malls built and in-depth exploration of shopping malls in China– in China from 1990 to 2021 by 26 representative US architectural trade after China’s 1979 Reform and American architectural firms. The findings of this Opening. Studies by Chinese scholars have filled the study can provide a basis for the further analysis of gap in this important historical period, but American- this phenomenon by providing insights into construc- shaped shopping malls are mostly covered as an inte- tion as the first step. gral component of overview studies on transnational architectural production (Ren 2011; Xue 2006; Xue, Ding, and Chen 2021) and mall development history 3. Methodology (Al 2016; Wang 2019; Xue 2016); or scattered inter- 3.1. Definition views, reports, case studies that have focused more on summarizing and learning from the experience of A “shopping mall” is a North American term. The word American mall development, design, management, “mall” originally meant a pedestrian promenade with and operation (Guo 2020; Sun, Chen, and Xue 2023); shops along it (Longstreth 1997). This term has been or comparative studies, in particular, comparing the evolving since the early 1950s when the International development of Chinese malls with that of American Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) officially defined malls during the same period (Shi 2021; Yu 2018). a “shopping mall” (usually synonymous with 4 Y. CHEN ET AL. a “shopping center” ) as “a group of retail and other companies. It usually contains dozens or even hundreds commercial establishments that are planned, devel- of service places, such as supermarkets, specialized oped, owned and managed as a single property with stores, catering stores, grocery stores, as well as enter- on-site parking provided . . . the center’s size and orien- tainment, fitness, and leisure facilities” (MOFCOM, 2021). tation are generally determined by the market charac- Accordingly, a transnational shopping mall can be teristics of the trade area served by the center” (ICSC, defined as a freestanding building, a component of 1999). In the Chinese context, according to the a commercial complex, or a plaza/pedestrian street Classification of Retail Formats (GB/T18106-2021) issued with varied retail, leisure, and entertainment areas, by the Ministry of Commerce of China (MOFCOM), designed by foreign architects or architectural firms in a “shopping mall” refers to “a complex of a variety of collaboration with local design institutes, which can be retail stores, facilities, and services which have been classified into six types in accordance with the guide- developed, owned, and managed by relevant lines of the ICSC (2017) and MOFCOM (2021) (Table 1). Table 1. Transnational mall classification and typical characteristics. Compiled and adapted by the authors. Retail Trade Area No. of Area Types Definition (m ) Tenants No. and Type of Anchors Size General-Purpose Malls Super- Similar in concept to regional malls, but offering more 75,000 80–100+ Typically, 3+ Anchors 8– Regional variety + stores Full-line department store 40 km Mall and assortment. Mass merchant Discount department store Fashion apparel store Mini-anchor Cineplex or other large-scale enter- tainment attraction Food-and-beverage service cluster Regional General merchandise or fashion-oriented offerings. 35,000 40–80 Typically, 2+ Anchors 8– Mall Typically, enclosed with inward-facing stores connected by – stores Full-line department store 25 km a common walkway. Parking is usually constructed 75,000 Mass merchant underground or surrounds the outside perimeter. Discount department store Fashion apparel store Mini-anchor Cineplex or other large-scale enter- tainment attraction Food-and-beverage service cluster Community General merchandise or convenience-oriented offerings. 10,000 15–40 Typically, 2+ Anchors 5– Center Narrower range of apparel and other soft goods offerings – stores Department store 10 km than regional malls. 35,000 Fashion apparel store Discount specialty store (toys, books, electronics, home improvement/ fur- nishings or sporting goods, etc.) Supermarket Food-and-beverage service cluster Specialized-Purpose Malls Power Category-dominant anchors, including discount 25,000 N/A Typically, 3+ Anchors 8– Center department – Category killers, such as home 15 km stores, off-price stores, and wholesale clubs, with only 50,000 + improvement a few small tenants. Discount department Warehouse club off-price stores Wholesale clubs Factory Manufacturers’ and retailers’ outlet stores selling brand- 4,500 N/A Unspecified # of Anchors 40– Outlet name – Full-line department store 120 km goods at a discount. 35,000 + Mass merchant Discount department store Fashion apparel store Theme/ Leisure, tourist, retail, and service-oriented offerings with 7,500 N/A Unspecified # of Anchors 40– Festival entertainment as a unifying theme. Often in urban areas, – Full-line department store 120 km they 25,000 + Mass merchant may be adapted from older – sometimes historic – Discount department store buildings, Fashion apparel store and part of a mixed-use project. Sources: U.S. Shopping-Center Classification and Typical Characteristics (2017) issued by ICSC Classification of Retail Formats (GB/T18106-2021) issued by the Ministry of Commerce of China (MOFCOM) Generally speaking, there are three different physical configurations of shopping malls/centers: enclosed, open-air, and hybrid (Levi et al., 2012). Both a mall and a shopping center refer to a large space which allows a person access to more than one shop. The only dispute is over which one necessarily has to be in an enclosed space, but there is not yet a unanimous consensus (Hasa 2017; Difference Between 2022). These two words are often used as synonyms in the fields of design, business, management, and research (Ibrahim et al. 2018; Pitt and Musa 2009). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 Although a “shopping mall” is clearly defined, the structurally topped out and have started phased concept of “American” remains ambiguous. Given operations are included in the statistics and the political identity as a country of immigration, discussion). “America/US” can be regarded as nationality, educa- tional background, or a place for work. To delineate 3.2.1. Research and analysis methods the identity of an architectural design firm, this Since the 1980s, the introduction of American shop- study uses two criteria based on details provided ping malls has coincided with sweeping changes in by the American Institute of Architects (AIA). First, China, particularly in terms of shifting consumer a firm should be included in the AIA’s list. Second, demands brought about by rapid economic develop- the headquarters of the firm should be located in ment. To delineate such a complex issue spanning the United States. Thus, an American architectural 9.6 million km and over 30 years, this study adopts design firm is defined as an architectural design the mosaic method, which involves the quantitative firm founded and based in the United States and and qualitative analyses of collected cases and infor- accredited by the AIA. mation from five dimensions of American mall design and construction in China. First, the geographical and time distribution of 3.2. Research scope American shopping malls in China is examined to reflect the situation and process of development. By May 2022, a total of 85 firms are listed in the AIA Then, through the geographical and time distribu- Firm Directory of China. The results of multiple regis- tion of scale and types, the key features and influ - trations are combined, and 43 firms that are not based encing factors of this transnational production are in the United States (e.g., Aedas, Benoy, and analyzed. After that, the changes in forms and Foster + Partners) are excluded. Moreover, five firms design vocabulary reveal the mutual impact and with specific specialties (e.g., Adrian Smith + Gordon adaptation between American malls and the local Gill Architecture, M Moser Associates, and Walt Disney market in China. Finally, the development and Imagineering) and two firms (Handel Architects and design characteristics of mall projects of top JWDA) that have not completed a mall project in designers in China are discussed to explore the China by 2021 are excluded. Finally, 12 firms are reasons for their lasting appeal and possible included in the analysis. In addition, after a review of trends. the ENR 2021 Top 225 International Design Firms list , the BD 2021 Top 100 list , architectural journals, public (1) The geographical distribution of American malls media, and relevant websites of mixed-use and retail in China and specific cities can be visualized as buildings, 14 American firms accredited by the AIA are hot and cold regions/spots to understand mall included; of these, 10 firms are not registered in China importation and analyze why these regions/ but have branches in the country and four firms devel- cities need and can accommodate more oped well-known shopping malls in China but do not American shopping malls. have offices in China. Finally, 26 American architectural (2) The time distribution by completion year indi- firms are included in this study. cates fluctuations in construction over years and Shanghai Center is China’s first American com- can explain how political, economic, and cul- mercial complex (hospitality + office + residen- tural changes have affected the importation of tial + theater + exhibition + retail) built by John American malls from a macroperspective. Portman & Associates. The project was initiated in (3) The scale and types distribution reveals the the early 1980s, its design was started in May 1986, scale and functions of American malls. and construction was completed in 1990 (Portman Examination of the distribution of location, Architects 2022). Therefore, in this study, the time, scale, and types can indicate whether the completion year is used to determine the time of importation of American malls is demand-based a mall project. The study period is from 1990 to or a blind expansion. 2021. As of December 2021, on the basis of the list (4) The classification of forms and design voca- of firms (Figure 3) and the aforementioned time- bulary and the examination of their changes frame, a total of 170 featured American shopping over time demonstrate the evolution of mall malls built in China are included (some projects design and indicates how the design method that are still under construction but have been Hong Kong and Macau are also affected by the importation of transnational architecture, but the mechanism and performance are as distinct from those of Mainland China due to the differences in context, such as GDP, political system, and development policies, etc. Therefore, this paper focuses on Mainland China. Transnational shopping malls in Hong Kong and Macau are included in the database to illustrate the big picture, but are not involved in specific case studies. For the classification of scale and types, please see Table 3. 6 Y. CHEN ET AL. Figure 3. The selection of 26 U.S. architectural firms included in this study. Drawn by the authors. and strategies are adopted to meet consumer The development of shopping malls is closely needs. related to the consumption ability. The retail volume (5) “Top designers” highlight the three most repre- is positively correlated with the quantity and quality of sentative types of American design firms, which consumers, and the five most commonly used indica- have secured the most mall projects and con- tors are population, density, GDP per capita, urban structed retail area in China. The features and disposable income (UDI) per capita, and urbanization commonalities of their works and development rate (CBRE, 2017; DCID of MOFCOM, 2016; Xue 2016; indicate, in part, the taste of decision makers as You 2013). The distribution of American malls in China well as the reasons for the popularity of follows the same pattern, and density, GDP per capita, American malls in China. and UDI per capita are the most crucial factors (Table 2). East China has the most developed economy The above five aspects relate to development, scale and culture in terms of UDI per capita. The densest and design. They can delineate a panorama of South China with the highest GDP per capita, taking American designed shopping malls in China. advantage of the policy convenience of Hong Kong and Macao and its proximity to the Pacific, has fre- quent international communication and is the leader in economic and social development. Thus, American 4. Results and discussion shopping malls have flourished in these two regions. 4.1. Geographical distribution As presented in Figure 5, American malls in East and South China lead not only in quantity but also in the China is divided into seven geographical regions: East breadth of distribution. Although American malls in China, South China, North China, Central China, the other five regions are mainly concentrated in pro- Southwest China, Northwest China, and Northeast vincial capitals, they are spread across 19 cities in six China. All the seven regions have shopping malls provinces in East China and seven cities in one pro- designed by American architects. The three most con- vince as well as two special administrative regions in centrated regions are East China (44%), South China South China. (25%), and Southwest China (11%) (Figure 4). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 4. The geographic distribution of American shopping malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Table 2. The correlation between regional distribution of American shopping malls and the five indicators. Statistic by the authors. No. of UDI Region US Malls Population(million) Density/km GDP Per Capita Per Capita Urbanization Rate % East China 75 15.77 2,484 $22,835 $10,828 83.89% South China 42 11.92 7,170 $31,538 $10,582 96.01% Southwest China 19 21.06 952 $15,041 $7,279 75.45% North China 17 17.90 1,224 $22,022 $9,962 85.46% Northeast China 9 8.60 611 $12,533 $7,412 79.39% Central China 7 12.19 1,282 $19,316 $8,687 83.72% Northwest China 1 13.16 1,224 $12,095 $5,773 79.49% Correlation Coefficient (r) 0.1853* 0.5011*** 0.6234*** 0.7655*** 0.4135** *|r|<0.3 weak correlation, **0.3≤|r|<0.5 moderate correlation, ***0.5≤|r|<1 strong correlation. The data of the five indicators are averaged and weighted by the proportion of “The Number of Malls in a Specific City/The Total Number of Malls in the Region”. Sources: National Bureau of Statistics of China https://data.stats.gov.cn/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103; Statistics Bureaus of each province and city Southwest China ranks at the bottom for all the four the image of open and developed cosmopolitan cities. indicators except population. However, the number of Therefore, foreign architects, especially American archi- American malls in Southwest China exceeds that in tects from the world’s most developed economy, are in North China, which is the largest and most dynamic considerable demand. Compared with the southwest, northern economy represented by Beijing, Tianjin, and North, Northeast, and Central China have a lower demand Hebei and is even more than twice than that of for American architects. Northeast and Central China, which are the core of The second dimension focuses on the different roles industry and agriculture and the hub of land and and expectations of American shopping malls in urban water transportation. development. This contrast is the most evident in This contradiction can be explained from two dimen- Beijing (North China) and Chengdu (Southwest sions. First, unlike local malls, transnational malls shoulder China). Beijing, the political and economic center of the responsibility of building the image and lifestyle of an China, is a typical international metropolis with an international metropolis. Since the launch of the Belt and early economic start, superior resource allocation, and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, the southeast coast is no an urbanization rate as high as 87.50% (NBSC 2022). longer the only gateway for external trade and commu- The economy of Chengdu, a representative of Southwest China, started rising from 2003, grew con- nication. Because of easy inland access to Central and siderably in 2010, and increased rapidly after 2015, Southeast Asia, the southwest is becoming increasingly driven by a series of reforms, such as the Third Front connected with the international world. Status-seeking Construction (the 1960s), the Reform and Opening capitals, such as Chengdu and Kunming, are making (1979), the Western Development (2001), and the BRI efforts to lead and promote global exchange and develop 8 Y. CHEN ET AL. Figure 5. The city distribution of American shopping malls in China. Drawn by the authors. (2013) (The People’s Government of Sichuan Province thus driving the city’s economy to achieve a virtuous 2018; China Development Observation 2019). By 2021, cycle of sustainability. Chengdu ranked first among 16 new national cities with the most flexibility and development potential in 4.2. Time distribution by completion year three dimensions: concentration of commercial resources, vitality of urban residents, and diversity of As depicted by the 2-year moving average curves in lifestyle (Yicai, 2021). Figure 7, the highest number of American shopping Compared with Beijing, Chengdu’s lower urbanization malls in China was completed during 2010 to 2020, rate of 79.48% indicates its faster growth and new town with the highest growth observed between 2011 and boom (NBSC 2022; China Development Observation 2016, which largely coincides with the overall devel- 2019). Therefore, Beijing’s transnational shopping malls opment trend of shopping malls in China: the initial are mainly concentrated in downtown (Figure 6). stage of exploration (1990–2000), the transition stage Development of an increasing number of high-end of steady growth (2001–2010), and the leap stage from designs by American architects is the outcome of com- increment to surplus (2011 to present). Shopping malls mercial competition and can meet the growing consump- designed by American architects have played a marked tion and entertainment needs of citizens and visitors. For role in all the three periods, and some of them even Beijing, the importation of foreign architecture is closely directly lead to the turning point. related to social order, social class, social power, and other factors at the global level. Instead of shopping malls, 4.2.1. 1990–2000: the initial stage of exploration Beijing prefers iconic buildings, such as skyscrapers, sta- China–US relations began to normalize in 1972, and diums, signature headquarters, and cultural mega struc- the Reform and Opening in 1979 completely disrupted tures. By contrast, this type of political and social ideology the two-decade isolation after the founding of the is less visible in Chengdu. American shopping malls in People’s Republic of China. The following rapid eco- Chengdu represent urbanization and demonstrate nomic growth has provided opportunities for the a diffuse distribution (Figure 6). In new town areas, these development of shopping malls and enabled malls act as anchors and catalysts for the transition from American firms to gain work in China (McNeil, 2009; government-led demographic urbanization or land- Ren 2011). During his first visit to the United States in based urbanization to consumption-led urbanization, 1979, Deng Xiaoping was so impressed by the New national cities refer to the ones with the most possibility to become developed national cities, who are large, densely populated urban metropolises with considerable economic, cultural, and political influence in China. By 2021, the new national cities are ranked as Chengdu, Chongqing, Hangzhou, Xi’an, Wuhan, Suzhou, Zhengzhou, Nanjing, Tianjin, Changsha, Dongguan, Ningbo, Foshan, Hefei and Qingdao (Yicai 2021). Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904, to 19 February 1997) was a Chinese revolutionary leader, military commander, and statesman who served as the paramount leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from December 1978 to 1992. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 Figure 6. The geographical distribution of American shopping malls in Beijing and Chengdu. Drawn by the authors. Figure 7. The time distribution of American malls and overall malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Peachtree Center in Atlanta that he met with the archi- Shanghai in the 1990s. As China’s first commercial tect John C. Portman II and invited him to China. The complex that received investment from and was communication gave birth to Shanghai Center, which designed and developed by an American enterprise became one of the most popular destinations in (John Portman & Associates), the project integrated 10 Y. CHEN ET AL. the highest international standards of hospitality, Kerry Parkside by KPF, Hangzhou Mix C, Shenyang Mix offices, residential, and retail at the time and housed C, Tianjin Joy City by CallisonRTKL, and Chengdu the offices of international service companies as well as Yanlord Land Plaza by NBBJ, etc. During this period, the cultural offices of the consulates of many countries. shopping malls were developed in an orderly manner, This signals the beginning of transnational architec- and the benchmark mall projects designed by tural practice between China and the United States, American architects timely adapted to the market, bringing a whole set of modern American design con- driving the economic development of the city and cepts, construction techniques, management models, promoting retail upgrade and transformation. and lifestyle to China (Xue 2006). The World Trade Center, a commercial complex that 4.2.3. 2011 to present: the leap stage from was built in New York and New Orleans in the mid-1960s increment to surplus (He and Shen 1990), was transplanted to China in 1990. In 2008, the global financial crisis occurred. China’s The China World Trade Center responds to the trend of GDP growth fell below 10% since then and further globalization and considerably promotes Beijing’s mod- dropped below 8% in 2012. To cushion the impact, ernization and urbanization (He and Pang 2001). In the China implemented a “Four Trillion RMB Investment following decades, the design of the World Trade Center Plan” (Wang 2021). With the real estate industry in the spread to almost all major Chinese cities. United States being in depression, American architects Although Shanghai Center and China World Trade turned to the international market, especially China, Center aim more to accommodate foreign trade and for opportunities. At the same time, the overheating of exchanges, the Grand Gateway 66 (1999) developed by China’s residential development prompted intensive Callison RTKL is regarded by Shanghai people as the policies and initiatives for regulation, which further first large-scale shopping mall in the modern sense encouraged more domestic developers to turn to the (Wang 2021). The mall design follows a modern retail commercial industry for better preservation and appre- layout that distinguishes it from China’s old depart- ciation of capital. The growth rate of commercial real ment stores and includes 1400 parking spaces on two estate investment was maintained above 15% and underground levels, which was a forward-looking bold reached 30% by 2010 (Wang 2021). Numerous shop- move considering the scarcity of cars at that time. ping malls that received investment at that time were opened after 2011. 4.2.2. 2001–2010: the transition stage of steady The massive opening of shopping malls resulted in oversupply. In sharp contrast to the previous stage of growth steady growth, 64% of commercial projects held by the With the deepening of China’s Western Development in the 21st century, the GDP per capita achieved US top 100 real estate companies are losing money (Song 2019). However, some substantially successful cases $2000 from the southeast coast to some inland areas have stood out from the fierce competition. For exam- and shopping malls began to expand and spread. Following Hong Kong’s Hang Lung Properties, Sun ple, Guangzhou Taikoo Hui by Architectonica was listed as one of China’s top 10 shopping malls just Hung Kai Properties, Cheung Kong Holdings, Kerry 3 years after its opening in 2011, setting a new model Group, Swire Properties and Singapore’s CapitaLand, more state-owned and private enterprises such as and standard for the design and operation of mixed- use complexes (Wang 2021). American architects have China Resources Land, Wanda Group, COFCO Group, gained considerable recognition, and this led to etc. have joined in shopping mall development, creat- ing a series of renowned mall brands. The model pro- a surge in the number of American malls completed jects of these brands are often designed by American in China since 2015. The COVID-19 pandemic that started in 2019 has architects, such as Shanghai Super Brand Mall by Jerde exerted a contrasting impact on American malls and (2002), Shanghai Plaza 66 by CallisonRTKL (2006), Beijing Xidan Joy City by DCI (2007), and Shenzhen local malls in China (Figure 8). Many projects that were on hold due to the pandemic have resumed in 2021, City Crossing by CallisonRTKL (2009), etc. thus achieving a significant increase of 84%. However, From 2002 to 2008, developers mostly invested in residential projects and paid little attention to high-risk transnational malls experienced a sharp decline of 29% because of obstacles in foreign exchanges. commercial real estate. With the saturation of the resi- dential market and an increase in the housing vacancy rate, developers began considering commercial real 4.2.4. Scale and types distribution estate as a safe haven (Xue 2016). American architects As presented in Figure 9, 61% of American malls in China were favored for building influential benchmark malls. have a retail area of more than 75,000 m and 26% have Therefore, despite the decline in the overall mall an area of 35,000–75,000 m . The distribution of retail area growth rate, after an average 3-year of construction, is consistent with that of the mall type. More than half of 2010 saw the opening of various signature American- American malls in China are developed as super-regional shaped malls (Figure 7 & Figure 8), such as Shanghai malls with a trade area size of 8–40 km. The remaining JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 11 Figure 8. Comparison of the growth rate of American malls and overall malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Figure 9. The distribution of scale and types of American malls in China: (a) types; (b) scale. Drawn by the authors. 23% are regional malls with a trade area size of 8–25 km, Economic Area on the central axis of Tianjin and and 11% are community centers with a trade area size of Binhai New Area and adjacent to the Tianjin Free 5–10 km. Only 11% are specialized-purpose malls (theme/ Trade Zone (Architectonica 2022). This considerably festival, factory outlet, and power center) with the type of large mall was developed in response to the strategy theme/festival accounting for the largest share at 8%. of “Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Synergistic Development Overall, the geographical and time distribution of and Spatial Layout Optimization” proposed by the scale and types of American malls in China is President Xi Jinping at the Beijing Symposium on consistent, indicating that they meet market needs. 26 February 2014 (Xiao 2018). This mall not only In terms of geographical distribution (Figure 10), the enhances regional commercial support facilities for number of super-regional malls is the highest in all the Airport Economic Zone and Binhai New Area but the seven regions. East China (with the highest UDI also serves over 260 million residents of Tianjin and per capita) and South China (with the highest den- the Bohai Bay Area (WINDATA 2022). sity and GDP per capita) have the largest types of The period distribution reveals increase in scale malls, and each region has an American mall with and types (Figure 11). From 1990 to 2015, the retail a retail area of more than 300,000 m . The largest area of American malls in China mainly ranged from one is SM Tianjin Mall developed by Architectonica 100,000 to 200,000 m . With increases in the con- in North China. With a total construction area of sumption level and demand, American malls with 2 2 2 530,000 m , it is currently the largest shopping mall a retail area of over 300,000 m or even 400,000 m in Asia. This landmark is located at the Airport began to appear in 2016 (Nanjing World Trade 12 Y. CHEN ET AL. Figure 10. The geographical distribution of scale and types of American malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Figure 11. The time distribution of scale and types of American malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Center and SM Tianjin Mall) and 2019 (Dongguan Tiandi (2010). Subsequently, distinct American out- International Trade Center). In terms of type evolu- lets were transplanted exactly as they were to Wuxi tion, only general-purposed malls were present (2013) and Changsha (2018) by DCI. The SM Tianjin before 2000. In 2001, the success of Shanghai Mall (2016) has become a precedent for the type of Xintiandi by Benjamin Wood Studio and SOM, a power center. New World Development’s K11 which was themed on the historical preservation malls expanded from Hong Kong to Shanghai and revitalization of old buildings and local culture, (2013), Guangzhou (2016), Tianjin (2019 and 2021), led to the birth of a series of projects with the same and Wuhan (2020), and are noted for their art theme, including Wuhan Tiandi (2002), Lingnan themes. The OCT OH BAY in Shenzhen (2021), Tiandi (2003), Xihu Tiandi (2004), and Chongqing which integrates retail with resort and park, JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 13 attracted 14 million visitors throughout the year design characteristics of their mall projects in and won the honor of “National AAA Tourist China. Attraction” (Shenzhen China 2022). 4.4.1. High-rise specialists – KPF and SOM KPF and SOM are among the leading architectural 4.3. Forms and design vocabulary firms globally. Both of them have rich experience in working closely with American and international The appearance of a building is usually determined by enterprises (SOM 2022). The large-scale and multi- the architect’s design vocabulary or strategic metho- disciplinary nature and site-specific approaches, dology, which varies with the site condition and local allow KPF and SOM to provide the most advanced environment. Typical forms of American malls in China full-cycle services, ranging from site selection stu- can be categorized into three types: free standing, dies, program feasibility analysis, and environmental podium of a complex, and plaza/pedestrian street. On studies to site planning, architectural design, struc- the basis of the prevailing trend of design, we tenta- tural calculations, historical building preservation, tively classify the design vocabulary as rectilinear, geo- and various other tasks. Thus, they have won metric, and irregular (Table 3). many considerably large-scale multiphased com- Three-quarters of American malls in China are mercial projects in China, such as China World designed as the podiums of commercial complexes Trade Center (1990) by SOM, one of the largest to maximize clustering effect for commercial benefits high-profile commercial complexes globally devel- (Figure 12). More than half of them have geometric oped in three phases from 1990 to 2017. designs. Rectilinear designs were prevalent in the Moreover, technology and digital processes are cen- 1980s–1990s for their economy, practicality, and fitting tral to the strategic development of their projects. with the city fabric (Xue, Ding, and Chen 2021), Together with aggressive investment in research, whereas geometric designs have gained more popu- they have developed the world’s tallest towers, larity today for their eye-catching appearance as longest spans, most varied programs, and inventive landmarks. forms that incorporate green, resilience, and well- After the 20th century, the form of plaza/pedestrian ness (KPF 2022; SOM 2022). street and irregular design vocabulary began to However, KPF and SOM are admired by commer- emerge and has grown markedly since 2010 cial mixed-use developers more for their expertise (Figure 13). This development responds to socioeco- in high-rises, whereas the mall parts of most nomic and cultural development as well as changes in renowned projects are usually developed by retail consumer habits and preferences based on four crucial design specialties on a collaborative basis. For trends: (1) compounding of functions to meet perso- example, KPF’s Grand Gateway 66 (1999) in nalized needs while providing diverse and convenient Shanghai was in collaboration with Callison, Shin services; (2) unique theme and emphasis on people- Kong Place in Beijing (2007) with Sybarite, IFC of oriented experience to highlight the recognizable label Chengdu (2013) with Benoy, and Shanghai Qiantan that contributes to the core competitiveness of the Center with 5 + Design (2021). China World Trade mall; (3) high-tech, innovative development as Center (1990) was done by SOM in partnership with a response to the continual progress of science and Emery Roth & Sons (United States), Nikken Sekkei technology and the popularity of online–offline shop- (Japan), Arquitectonica (United States), and ping integration; and (4) high-density and eco- 5 + Design (United States). The retail areas they oriented development to advocate land-intensive ver- completed independently are mostly 30k-50k m attached to the towers, designed more to cater tical green consumption and management, promoting and serve the office population rather than radiate the global concept of health and sustainability to the community, such as Shanghai World Financial (Abutaleb et al. 2019; Warnaby and Medway 2018; Center by KPF (31,000 ㎡ ) and Jin Mao Tower by Xue 2016). SOM (23,257 ㎡ ). 4.4. Top American designers 4.4.2. Established retail designers – callisonRTKL Table 4 lists the top 10 American firms that have and Jerde won the highest number of mall projects in China. CallisonRTKL and Jerde are recognized among the Considering the number of projects and built retail world’s leading retail design firms. RTKL and area, the three most representative groups, KPF Callison established offices in Shanghai in 2004 and SOM, CallisonRTKL and Jerde, and Laguarda. respectively, were acquired by ARCADIS in 2007 Low Architects (LLA) and 5 + Design, will be dis- and 2014, and then merged in 2016 (CallisonRTKL, cussed in detail in terms of the development and 2022a). Jerde opened the first international office in 14 Y. CHEN ET AL. 上海前灘太古里 天津濱海城市廣場 杭州黃龍萬科中心 上海興業太古匯 杭州高德置地廣場 南昌綠地紫峰大廈 天山廣場 上海 成都來福士廣場 上海百玉蘭廣場 Table 3. The design vocabulary classification of American malls in China. Photo courtesy to KPF, SOM, Steven Holl Architects, Architectonica, AECOM, and 5 + Design. Vocabulary Definition Key Symbol Key Words Rectilinear A rectilinear design approach applies vertical ● Orderly, Logical and horizontal lines. Defined, Rigid Sterile, Static Examples SOHO Tianshan Plaza SOHO Hangzhou GT Land Jumeirah Vanke Huanglong Center Geometric A geometric design is a combination or ● Strong, Bold slight transformation of large volume ● Dynamic, Vigorous geometries such as circle, square, triangle, ● Striking, Exciting polygon, etc. Examples Chengdu Raffles City Nanchang Greenland Zifeng Tower SM Tianjin Mall SM Irregular An irregular design approach is free to No specific Nontraditional introduce any forms. Relaxed, Casual Interesting, Pleasant Spiritual, Sensual Examples Sinar Mas Center HKRI Taikoo Hui Qiantan Taikoo Li JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 15 Figure 12. The distribution of forms and design vocabulary of American malls in China: (a) forms; (b) design vocabulary. Drawn by the authors. Figure 13. The time distribution of forms and design vocabulary of American malls in China. Drawn by the authors. Hong Kong in 1995, entered the mainland China for ordinary people. Besides the notable Langham through Hong Kong in 2000, and set up AIA Place in Hong Kong (2004), Super Brand Mall in Shanghai Chapter in 2016 as one of the founding Shanghai (2022), Northstar Xin He Delta in members (ARCHINA 2022; Jerde 2022). Starting with Changsha (2012), Powerlong in Xiamen (2018), and the first mall projects Grand Gateway 66 (1999) and Wuhan Riverfront (2019) are all innovative Super Brand Mall (2002), CallisonRTKL and Jerde has examples. been actively practicing in China for more than Compared to Jerde’s wide exploration of the 20 years, designed a wide variety of malls, most of Asia-Pacific, CallisonRTKL focuses more on the which are over 100,000 m in size. Chinese market. By continually studying China’s Jon Jerde’s deep thinking and understanding of retail market, CallisonRTKL defines new generations placemaking, experiential retail, the way places born after the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s as core work, and the user experience are what the firm is forces driving the retail revolution in China. These built on. While many architects simply concentrate young consumers are more affluent and educated on the beauty of the building, Jerde was a pioneer than ever before and seek a diverse lifestyle full of in recognizing that the human experience is every- aspirations and ambitions. They focus more on thing – and that it should come first (Jerde 2022). expanding their horizons and experiences, desiring His use of avant-garde, flashy entertainment often to be unique and noticed. These characteristics challenged industry standards, promoting the crea- make them have high expectations of brands, con- tion of retail experience as well as common spaces sumer experiences, and high technology, constantly 16 Y. CHEN ET AL. Table 4. The top 10 U.S. firms with the greatest number of mall projects in China. Compiled by the authors. Featured Mall Projects Firm Malls Name City Year Retail Area Brief Introduction 1 KPF 29 Shanghai World Shanghai 2008 31,000 m A symbol of commerce and culture of Shanghai. Financial Center 上海環球金融 中心 2 CallisonRTKL 20 Grand Gateway Shanghai 1999 120,100 m The first commercial complex developed by the Hang Lung Group in 66 mainland China, ranked among the top 5 in Shanghai in terms of 港匯恒隆廣場 sales and customer flow rates. Plaza 66 Shanghai 2006 53,700 m One of Shanghai’s most successful mixed-use developments built 恆隆廣場 above the Xujiahui subway system. Shenzhen City Shenzhen 2009 208,000 m The first City Crossing in China and the largest mall with the highest Crossing sale in Shenzhen, ranking fourth in China. 深圳華潤萬象 3 Laguarda.Low 20 Shenyang Joy Shenyang 2006 340,000 m The first case in China to organically combine a fashionable pedestrian Architects City streetscape, a subway transportation hub and a leading (LLA) 沈陽大悅城 international shopping mall. OCT Bao’an OH Shenzhen 2021 120,000 m Integrating a beautiful ecological environment with a highly BAY experiential urban space. Won the first place of the ArchDaily 深圳寶安歡樂 China’s 2022 Building of the Year Awards. 港灣 4 SOM 15 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai 1999 23,257 m China’s first supertall and remains its most iconic in Shanghai today. 金茂大廈 5 DCI 12 Beijing Xidan Beijing 2007 105,000 m The first Joy City in China with sales ranked fifth in Beijing. Joy City 北京西單大悅 6 Jerde 10 Super Brand Shanghai 2002 243,000 m China’s first modern shopping mall positioned as a destination for Mall family entertainment. 正大廣場 Powerlong Xiamen 2018 80,000 m Awarded as 2019 Best TOD Commercial Mixed-Use Project by Global Xiamen Business Engine. 廈門寶龍一城 Wuhan Wuhan 2019 120,000 m The first city-level mall project of Greenland Group and the first Riverfront commercial shopping mall with the concept of “double ground 武漢綠地繽紛 floor” in Wuhan. 7 Architectonica 10 China World Beijing 1990 230,000 m As a component of China World Trade Center, the largest high-end Mall commercial complexes around the world, it is also one of the first 國貿商城 modern malls in China. Taikoo Hui Guangzhou 2011 138,000 m One of the precedents of TOD development, whose sales ranked third 太古匯 in China. 8 5 + Design 7 Qiantan Taikoo Shanghai 2021 120,000 m The latest mall project developed by Swire Properties. The first Li shopping mall in mainland China to achieve WELL Platinum 前灘太古里 Precertification. 9 Benjamin 6 Xintiandi Shanghai 2001 32,000 m The first project in China to combine old building restoration, Wood 上海新天地 renovation, and new construction. Studio 10 John Portman 6 Shanghai Shanghai 1990 30,000 m The first commercial complex that received investment from and was & Center designed and developed by American architects in China. The Associates 上海商城 tallest building in Shanghai when completed. Figure 14. Top mall designers and their representative projects in China. Provided by Guo Nu , adapted by the authors. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 17 looking for the next “hotspot,” striving to be the weather protective environment. The trend of shop- ping centers engulfed Europe from north to south after first to witness or attempt something new and shar- WWII in the 1950s to 1970s. While government- ing it wherever and whenever they can initiated housing program obviously pushed forward (CallisonRTKL, 2022b). modernity, private actors, in collaboration with public Therefore, CallisonRTKL focuses on three main stakeholders, defined modernity through spaces areas in their mall design: (1) Novel and unique imbued with the tantalizing logic of mass consumption shopping, leisure, and entertainment experience; (Gosseye and Avermaete 2017). The process once (2) Flexibility to ensure the constant introduction appeared in Europe happened in China in the 1990s, of new activities and products; (3) Transformative as depicted by this paper. For a country isolated with mix of formats to improve core market competitive- the outside world for 30 years, China was eager to ness (CallisonRTKL, 2022b). Through their persistent import foreign knowledge and design in the 1980s research on, insights into, and co-development with (Xue 2006). Portman and other American firms filled China’s retail market, CallisonRTKL is particularly the demand. Although the main stream shopping mall popular among local developers and has the widest design was from the US, “star architects” were less distribution of signature mall projects in China, involved (Alaily-Mattar, Ponzini, and Thierstein 2020). including Greenland Riverfront CBD (2012), Star architects are mostly seen in the cultural buildings Shuncheng Retail Center in Kunming (2009), Joy initiated by the government (Xue 2005). City in Tianjin (2010), MixC Centers in Shenzhen The dominant spread of American or American- (2009), Hangzhou (2010) and Chengdu (2012), and style products, customs, and institutional models Vanke Plazas in Shenzhen (2013) and Dongguan (2013), etc. has resulted in modern globalization being equal to “Americanization” (Strikwerda 2000). The archi- tectural field is no exception. The export of 4.4.3. Experienced rising stars – Laguarda.Low American architecture is the result of the global Architects (LLA) and 5 + design distribution of capital, involving a massive and LLA and 5 + Design were both founded after 2000. rapid accumulation of talents and experience, Despite their youth, LLA has built as many shop- which inevitably overflows the city and radiates ping malls in China as CallisonRTKL, and to the region, the country and the world, and 5 + Design has produced a number of award- brings with it the intersection and collision of winning projects such as Qiantan Taikoo Li in design concepts, techniques and technologies Shanghai (2021). with local habits (Xue, Ding, and Chen 2021). This Their success is not out of nowhere, which in fact export is filling the desire of developing countries stems from RTKL and Jerde (Figure 14). Pablo to upgrade the city image and the need for new Laguarda, founder and principal of LLA, was for- town construction. The recession of the late 1980s merly a vice president with the Dallas office of decimated domestic projects in the US, whereas RTKL; Michael Ellis, founder and principal of the rapid economic growth and drastic urbaniza- 5 + Design, served as partner and lead designer at tion of China/East Asia opened up opportunities to Jerde from 1996–2005 . 5+ Design’s application of curvilinear and staggered spatial arrangement to the world. Since the Reform and Opening in 1979, create striking shapes and unique multi-leveled China has been actively involved in the globaliza- experiences is clearly inherited from Jerde. tion of modern architecture and become the lar- Applying the three aforementioned principles, gest consumer of American architecture, which is RTKL’s projects embody the outdoor living asso- most evident in the importation of American shop- ciated with existing regional blocks, revolutionizing ping malls. By 2021, China has achieved an urba- the traditional mall design. LLA has taken this a step nization rate of 64.72% compared with 82.90% of further and produced themed city-level develop- the United States, 84.20% of the United Kingdom, ments represented by the OCT OH BAY in and 91.90% of Japan, and the market potential Shenzhen (2021). remains huge (NBSC 2022). The geographic and period distribution of 170 American malls in China macroscopically illustrate that 5. Conclusion this transnational architectural trade is spontaneously generated by the market economy, whereas intentionally Shopping mall is a building type first developed in the amplified by regional development positioning and sub- United States, to respond to the increasing demand on ject to changes in the international situation. The consumerism as well as pedestrian-oriented and Information from interview with Guo Nu, who was a lead designer at RTKL and Callison, and is currently the founder and principal of AUD (Architecture + Urban Design Consulting Inc.). 18 Y. CHEN ET AL. concentration of American malls in East China and South a continuous perspective on the accumulation of experi- China results from the high demand driven by the highest ence, contributing to the integrity of the knowledge of population density, GDP per capita, and UDI per capita. transnational production of modern architecture The prominence of Southwest China, on the other hand, around the world, and providing a timely and valuable suggests that the introduction of transnational malls, as lesson for other countries striving to modernize and a symbol of soft power and international metropolitan achieve balance among globalization, internationaliza- st image, is influenced by the city’s pursuit of status, new tion, and local development in the 21 century. town development patterns, and transformation toward more sustainable consumption-led urbanization. In terms of fluctuation over time, American malls and overall malls Disclosure statement in China demonstrate a similar development trend, but The authors declare that they have no known competing a diametrically opposite growth exhibited around 2010 financial interests or personal relationships that could have and 2021 due to the combined effects of the surplus of appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. malls, China’s real estate regulation policies, the 2008 global economic crisis, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Funding The scale and type distribution further reveals the key features of local needs and development from the This work was supported by the National Natural Science micro level. American malls are imported as super- Foundation of China [Project No. 51878584]; Sumitomo regional landmarks with striking geometric appear- Foundation [Project No. 208011]. ances and are majorly designed as the podiums of mixed-use complexes to achieve the maximum cluster- Notes on contributors ing effect for commercial benefits. In contrast to the apparently blind and massive expansion of local malls, Yingting Chen graduated from the University of Georgia with a Master's degree in Landscape Architecture and is currently the development of American malls in China has based a Ph.D. candidate in Architecture at City University of Hong on the premise of market trends and demands, main- Kong. She has 5-year practice experience in the US and China taining careful exploration and cautious progression. in the context of urban design, landscape architecture, and The changes in forms and design vocabulary, together architecture. Her research interest lies in the human-nature with the development and design characteristics of top relationship, the impact of design on health and wellbeing, designers, answer the question of how the design of and transnational design exchange and cooperation. Current research focuses on China’s importation of American archi- American malls has evolved over the past three decades tecture and China’s foreign-aided construction projects. She to maintain their lasting attractiveness to Chinese consu- has published one book chapter in “Exporting Chinese mers. The basic reason for the prevalence of American- Architecture: History, Issues and ‘One Belt One Road’” (C. Q. shaped shopping malls in China stems from their deep Xue, & G. Ding Eds., Springer, 2022) and research papers in understanding of the business logic, high degree of pro- professional and international refereed journals, such as the Journal of Architecture, Journal of Urban Design, fessionalism, and unparalleled accumulation of experi- International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications, ence/momentum. The complexity and great expectation and Architectural Practice etc. of mall projects make the clients, especially strong foreign Prof. Charlie Xue has taught architecture at City University of capitals, more willing to work with long-established and Hong Kong. An award-winning architect and writer, he has time-tested architects. The resulting dominance and published 16 books, including ‘Building a Revolution: inheritance relationship of top designers form an obvious Chinese Architecture since 1980’ (2006), ‘Hong Kong economic moat that local design institutes with a late Architecture 1945-2015: From Colonial to Global’ (2016), ‘A start in modern retail design can hardly compete with. History of Design Institutes in China: from Mao to Market’ (2018, with G. Ding), ‘Grand Theater Urbanism: Chinese cities The fundamental reason for the lasting appeal, however, in the 21st century’ (2019, ed.) and 'Exporting Chinese is not the superficial play of spectacular forms and high- Architecture' (2022, ed.). He has published more than 140 techs but the respect for the harmony of people, archi- research papers in professional and international refereed tecture, and the environment; constant innovation in journals and 35 book chapters. His book on Hong Kong was response to the changing market; and persistent pursuit awarded by the International Committee of Architectural of more optimal green, resilience, and wellbeing. Critics (CICA) in 2017. Xue’s research interests are in Chinese architecture, transnational design and high-density The analysis of the above aspects outlines a full pic- environment. ture of importing American shopping mall in an emer- ging country. In the interaction between the Dr. Cong Sun is currently an Assistant Professor at Shenzhen University. She completed her Ph.D. and had worked as a globalization of architecture and the development of research assistant at the City University of Hong Kong. Her modernization and urbanization in China, no outcome research focuses on modern Chinese architecture and high- indicates the beginning or an end but an ongoing density built environment. And she has published research process. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
– Taylor & Francis
Published: Mar 6, 2023
Keywords: Shopping mall design; transnational architectural practice; overseas architectural impact; China-US architectural trade