JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 2021, VOL. 20, NO. 5, 566–580 https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2021.1942000 URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN Comprehensive assessment to residents’ perceptions to historic urban center in megacity: a case study of Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, China a b b a Zhaohua Deng , Dantong Chen , Xiaoling Qin and Shifu Wang a b State Key Lab of Subtropical Building Science, School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 4 February 2021 Understanding residents’ perceptions of the urban form can guide efforts to improve the urban Accepted 8 June 2021 milieu. However, existing research on place perception of historic environment has overlooked the social dimension and focused on isolated historic quarters, resulting in “zones of gentrifica - KEYWORDS tion.” Thus, a comprehensive analytical framework to the urban image inquiry of a megacity Urban image perception; historic urban center is proposed to address this gap. An online questionnaire is distributed cognitive map; affective among the residents of the Yuexiu District in Guangzhou, China. The collected data are map; historic urban center; processed using ArcGIS to create a 3D cognitive map and a 2D affective map. The relationships urban design between environmental features, subjective evaluated qualities, and residents’ perceptions are analyzed statistically where applicable. Results show that large natural features and public spaces are the most prominent for residents of a historic urban center, whereas designated historic districts are rarely noticed. In addition, districts are more imageable than landmarks, paths are frequently overlooked, and contextual sizable forms and functions are highly notice- able, different from conventional studies. Evaluations of walking environments, public spaces, and landscapes and green areas by residents are strongly correlated with their affective experiences. With the above findings, implications in improving socially-oriented urban design strategies in historic urban centers are discussed. 1. Introduction Most historic urban centers are also living commu- nities. Thus, understanding how residents perceive Reimaging cities through careful preservation and their urban environment is necessary to formulate regeneration strategies that target urban renaissances socially-oriented design strategies and policies (Punter 2009) has long been the main approach in (Mondschein and Moga 2018). Accordingly, person– revitalizing decaying city centers, particularly in his- environment congruity is arguably a suitable ideology, toric cores. In such locations, the sense of place is a renewed theme in urban image research, and gen- often emphasized through their unique and authentic erally linked to the discourse surrounding quality of life imageability, usually using urban design (Heath, Oc, (Wicker 1972; Moser 2009; Kothencz et al. 2017; and Tiesdell 2013), to address the historical, cultural, Douglas, Russell, and Scott 2019). High quality of life economic, or environmental values (Bandarin and van can lead to the achievement of considerable sustain- Oers 2012). In addition to historic preservation mea- able development goals on the basis of respect for the sures, most of the conventional planning and design environment and social well-being (WCED 1987). This approaches applied to historic quarters focus on place- congruity could arguably be achieved from the posi- promotion (Cuthbert 2006) to improve their competi- tive relationships existing between objective environ- tiveness in retail, culture, and tourism and compete mental qualities and expressed subjective and with suburbanization. However, these practices are personal satisfaction (Liu, Deng, and Peng 2020). highly criticized for their gentrification consequences However, it is seldom applied in the design aspect of (Tallon 2013). Although the local communities’ crucial historic urban centers. role in historic urban center development has been Personal environmental perception is the key documented (Nasser 2003), the relationship between assessment of person–environment congruity as one residents and the preservation and regeneration stra- of the primary endeavors in urban design. Since Lynch tegies remains underexplored. This case also applies to (1960) penned his “five-element” systematic approach social sustainability in urban design strategies for to urban image, scholars maintained an interest in historic urban centers, containing complex urban cen- studies of environmental perception. They sought to ter functions and invaluable built heritages. identify the relationship between the physical urban environment and public perceptions and behaviors. CONTACT Shifu Wang email@example.com State Key Lab of Subtropical Building Science, School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 567 Early research on the urban image included structural The relationships existing between the perceived analyses of cities, aiming to provide novel references images and the relevant factors – forms and functions for urban planning and design or tourist destination of perceived environmental features, personal environ- management (Mercer 1971). In a later study of urban mental quality appraisals, and social backgrounds – are form and its link with urban planning and design based discussed. Finally, the results of the study are pre- on Canter’s (1977) theory of place psychology, Punter sented with their implications, and directions for future (1991) used the term “components of a sense of place” research are suggested. to describe a high level of affection in reaction to the urban form in an individual. Montgomery (1998) devel- oped this construct further as one of the key principles 2. Theoretical framework in urban design quality that emerges as a conventional 2.1. Urban design in historic urban centers assessment approach of the relationship between urban form and social meaning (Campbell 2002; Urban design is an effective tool in the preservation Swapan, Bay, and Marinova 2018). It involved the iden- and regeneration of historic quarters. This tool has tification of environmental features (Green 1999; Tu been acknowledged as a global practice in historic and Lin 2008) or the use of maps (Müller-Eie and preservation, transforming from being building-based Llopis Alvarez 2020). in the 1970s to area-based in the 1990s (Heath, Oc, Preparing future visions for historic urban centers and Tiesdell 2013). In the field of historic preservation, with insufficient focus on the quality of life does little in scholars and professionals work hard to preserve and achieving sustainable revitalization. As cities transform enhance the historic fabric and values without com- from places of production to places of consumption promising authenticity (Gratz 1989; Burtenshaw, (Wynne, O’Connor, and Phillips 1998), preservation and Bateman, and Ashworth 1991). In the process, urban regeneration strategies for historic urban centers have morphology and visual management have been long been influenced by economic, cultural, historical, added to the agenda (Pendlebury 1999). By carefully and aesthetic values. Improvement policies for historic fixing or changing urban forms and functions in urban centers are normally profit-oriented (Tallon response to the constrained contexts, historic quarter 2013), top–down, elite-led, and with little consultation revitalization efforts arguably have common concerns of residents (Shin 2010; Cheng, Yu, and Li 2017). with urban design, permeable and legible urban Therefore, social values are rarely addressed. This gap forms, and high-quality public spaces (Couch and leads to a mismatch between the provided vision and Dennemann 2000). Economic values are also hoped local community needs and a waste of historical urban to be promoted, and residents, jobs, tourists, and centers’ sustainability effects. This level of ignorance is investors are expected to be attracted through apparent in the historic quarters in Western countries. urban design (Cuthbert 2006; Punter 2009; Tallon It is also dominant in fast-developing countries where 2013; García-Hernández, de la Calle-Vaquero, and real estate incentives are normally utilized to finance Yubero 2017; Davoodi and Dağlı 2019), although preservation measures (Shin 2010). Consequently, an social values are understated. inconsistency of place quality is generated, leading to Urban design policies in historic urban centers nor- some isolated zones with significant historical and mally overlook residents’ demands. This gap creates cultural values and a sharp downgrade of place quality a mismatch between local needs and the vision of outside the quarters. urban regeneration. The social dimension is subse- For historic urban centers in modern megacities, quently missing from the three pillars of sustainable understanding residents’ cognitive and affective per- development, in which economic and environmental ceptions of the urban form and the possible hidden dimensions will likely succeed. Although scholars factors that influence them is critical to identify poten- stressed the importance of quality of life, social wel- tial improvement opportunities in the urban space. fare, and governance in urban regeneration (Hall and These efforts can lead to a better quality of life and Barrett 2012), the emphasis is still on the economic sustainable urban development. Therefore, in the pre- sides of policies and practices, excluding community sent study, a review of literature on urban design in value and community voice (Couch and Dennemann historic urban centers is conducted. Prior studies 2000; Tallon 2013). As most of the historic revitalization related to environmental perception under a person– plans include strong efforts to attract tourists, consu- environment congruity ideology are analyzed. mers, and investors, they are strongly criticized by the Subsequently, an analytical framework is proposed to competition with the local community for resources examine a historic urban center’s cognitive–affective (Law 1994; Mowforth and Munt 2009) and the resulting urban image comprehensively. The Yuexiu District in gentrified effects (Marks 1996; Smith 1998). Therefore, Guangzhou, China, is used as a case study. Following the need for more community-based policies is urged the explanation of the data collection and processing (Dhingra, Singh, and Chattopadhyay 2017) to provide methods, two types of urban images are produced. an opportunity for long-term stewardship and create 568 Z. DENG ET AL. an environment that supports a high quality of life cognition is not necessarily a positive response, an for all. affective map offers great potential to steer efforts Limited by administrative, resource, or investment toward urban improvement, leading to the term “per- boundaries, the conventional place-promotion son–environment congruity.” approach to urban design in historic quarters is always Person–environment congruity refers to a positive concentrated in isolated areas. Thus, it generates space relationship established between objective environ- of a quality that is incompatible with residents’ daily mental quality and individuals’ subjective satisfaction. urban lives (Tallon 2013). The UK Department of After being proposed by earlier researchers (Barker Environment (1987) clarified that historic quarters 1968; Wicker 1972; Stokols 1982), the concept was should retain a strong relationship with the city to later systematically developed by Moser (2009). It ensure a complete living and working environment. was considered a result of cognition, motivation, However, evidence of how it could avoid the effects and behavior, demonstrating a certain level of satis- of “zones of gentrification” remains scarce (Sorkin faction to a locality (Moser 2009; Liu, Deng, and Peng 1992). As the places of historical, cultural, and tourist 2020). At the core of the concept is the belief that interest are not necessarily the places of interest to when an environment supports people’s activities, residents in their daily lives, the mismatch between people respect the environment in their interactions, these two circles creates a discontinuity of urban spa- raising the considerations of individuals related to the tial quality, leading to the construction of an excluded quality of life and the social expression of well-being. landscape (Yeoh and Huang 1996). These phenomena The themes of correlation, antecedence, and conse- are more extreme in fast-developing cities in which quence and the meaning of the psychological aspects historic preservation zones counteract the tabula rasa of place are of particular concern (Gifford 2014). tendency of real estate development (Broudehoux However, the challenge lies in its application to 2004). The function of the social construct for the broader urban scales and the subsequent increase in urban public realm (Heath, Oc, and Tiesdell 2013) is complexity. consequently diminished by isolated zones. Under the ideology of person–environment congru- Accordingly, the entire historic urban center should ity, cognitive and affective meanings are the two key be addressed with the input of residents, rather than personal attributions to the environment (Russell and focusing on individual historic quarters or improve- Pratt 1980). Cognition can be thought of as legibility ment projects, to achieve social sustainability in his- perception from the physical environment, helping toric urban centers through urban design. people orient themselves and understand the urban form (Nasar 1994; Del Aguila, Ghavampour, and Vale 2019). Affect is a measurement of the level of indivi- 2.2. Environmental perception under a person– dual satisfaction with the environment (Yik, Russell, environment congruity ideology and Steiger 2011; Del Aguila, Ghavampour, and Vale 2019). Some studies argued that environmental cogni- Understanding users’ environmental perception is tion helps build meaning, and thus it contributes to the a pre-condition for preparing an urban design strategy. sense of place as one of the essential principles in the When addressing social sustainability, residents are the shaping of urban form (Montgomery 1998). In terms of major players to be concerned. With regard to loca- methods, the sketch map method, which was once tions and attributes, environmental perception offers applied to understand people’s perceptions of urban considerable potential in revealing the psychological physical structures, has now been adapted to map transformations of an individual in response to his or people’s emotions related to, and satisfaction with, her daily spatial environment (Kitchin 1994; Downs and the urban setting (Curtis et al. 2014). Lynch’s (1960) Stea 2011; Mondschein and Moga 2018). It may be cognitive map approach focused on how people iden- visualized in two forms, of which cognitive map tify the physical structure of a city or orient themselves reflects the perceived physical features. When adapted within the urban environment. Subsequently, Nasar to reveal meanings, cognitive maps can subsequently (1990) extended this approach and further presented be referred to as an evaluative map, emotion map, or the satisfaction of individuals in the urban environ- affective map (Nasar 1990; Williams 1992; Huang, Tang, ment through affective maps, seeking to guide urban and Wang 2015). They can also relate to the concept of environmental aesthetics focusing on the human sense of place as one of the three key components of aspects of the urban form. In practice, identifying place-making in urban design besides physical form how the public perceives the built environment and and activities (Canter 1977; Punter 1991; Montgomery understanding what factors lead to such a perception 1998). The sense of place refers to environmental satis- can help planners and designers achieve sustainability faction or place attachment depending on an indivi- at an urban scale (Green 1999; Campbell 2002; dual’s expectations and focuses. It can compensate for Mondschein and Moga 2018; Aram et al. 2019; Del the deficit of environmental conditions (Le Vy-Leboyer Aguila, Ghavampour, and Vale 2019). and Ratiu 1993), leading to a sustainable society. As JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 569 Although urban design is based in part on person– minds. The second angle is the affective impression, environment congruity, it normally focuses on the rooted in their environmental appraisals/evaluations of values of history, culture, commerce, tourism, and the the locations in question, leading to a level of emo- environment when applied to historic urban centers. tional satisfaction with the environment. These two How to achieve socially sustainable designs with the approaches to the urban image are associated with community in historic urban centers, rather than in individuals’ social backgrounds and their daily local individual historic quarters, has been less researched. knowledge of the urban environment, leading to qual- In addition, the question of how physical environ- ity of life. ments can be improved to better support the life of A case study is carried out to test the proposed residents has been the subject of fewer studies. Given theoretical framework. The Yuexiu District in the complex nature of historic urban centers and their Guangzhou, China, is selected as it shares some com- regeneration, in terms of the approach to design stra- mon characteristics with other historic urban centers in tegies, a more bottom–up approach is needed to com- most of the megacities around the world. It also faces pensate for the elite-led design decision-making similar difficulties when looking for social sustainability approach to bridge the gap between environmental in urban design. Having just been through rapid urban improvement and quality of life. Measures need to be development, it has designated selective historic quar- taken to explore the general urban image with an ters in which its cultural authenticity would be pre- injection of emotional expression and clarify the typol- served. Through environmental improvement ogies and users’ evaluations of the corresponding programs, it has been transforming itself into a place environmental features on the basis of local for consumption, attracting investments to boost cul- knowledge. tural tourism and modify or redevelop opportunistic spaces for office, retail, recreation, accommodation, and housing. The present case study was proposed to 2.3. Theoretical framework for cognitive– answer three questions: affective urban image inquiry Under the new analytical framework, what are resi- dents’ perceptions to their daily urban environment in Given the strengths and limitations of existing litera- a historic urban center? ture, a suitable approach is identified in the present What are the environmental features and qualities research. The proposed method is used to understand that contribute to these perceptions? residents’ urban perception prior to formulating How do social backgrounds influence these urban design strategies and policies for historic urban centers perceptions? concerning social sustainability. Residents gain long- term local knowledge of their urban environments, and their views can serve as valuable reference points 3. Method in achieving high quality of life. The results of this study will provide evidence of the deep-rooted needs In determining environmental perception in a historic and expectations of residents in support of the pre- urban center and the causal relations rooted in resi- paration of urban designs for historic urban centers. By dents’ local knowledge, the conventional cognitive extending the ideas of person–environment congruity, mapping approach has advantages and challenges, a comprehensive analytical framework for the study of as discussed above. However, historic urban centers the cognitive–affective urban image, injected with spa- in modern megacities bring additional challenges to tial information, approaching the issue from two studies on the urban image. These challenges are angles is proposed (Figure 1). The first angle is cogni- related to the increased urban scale, diverse lifestyles, tive perception, referring to the perceived representa- multiple transportation modes, and mixed land-use, tive environmental features stored within residents’ which blur the boundaries between residential Figure 1. A comprehensive analytical framework for cognitive–affective urban image inquiry to historic urban centers. 570 Z. DENG ET AL. neighborhoods, commercial zones, and shopping 3.2. Data collection and analysis destinations. In a megacity, individuals perceive only Within the proposed analytical framework (Figure 1), some of the information, being bounded by their life strategies need to be carefully chosen for the repro- circles. The general urban perception is also rooted in duction of the perceived images. Different challenges their daily experiences and activities, such as com- should be considered in studying urban perception in muting. Accordingly, a new research approach megacities. They are locational accuracy, large sample grounded in daily urban experiences and location- size with diverse demographic groups, and ease of based evaluation is needed to address these sampling. On-site or off-site sketch maps can guaran- challenges. tee the accuracy of feedback (Lynch 1960; Appleyard 1970; Nasar 1990). Interviews based on sketch maps 3.1. Image of Yuexiu: an old district in the offer the further advantage of allowing direct public megacity of Guangzhou appraisals of the urban form (Müller-Eie and Llopis Alvarez 2020). However, these conventional methods The case chosen for this study is Yuexiu – an adminis- are time-consuming and could only afford limited sam- trative district in central Guangzhou, the capital of ples. Studies show that applying a questionnaire on- Guangdong Province in Southern China. The district site or via mail could net hundreds, and even thou- covers an area of 33.80 km . It had a population density sands, of samples (Nasar 1990; Williams 1992; Green of 35,000/km in 2016, which is higher than most 1999; Stylidis, Sit, and Biran 2014; Gilboa et al. 2015). In historic centers in other megacities, including such an approach, the respondents could be asked to London, Paris, and Barcelona (Guangzhou Yuexiu highlight the representative features and make an District Government 2019). Yuexiu is flanked by the appraisal with geo-references. The growing public Baiyun Mountain to the north and the Pearl River access to the Internet makes large sample online ques- along its southern edge, creating Guangzhou’s scenic tionnaires even more feasible for megacity research. and historic Yunshan–Zhushui (Baiyun Mountain–Pearl The adopted approaches to the analysis of environ- River in Chinese) panorama. Guangzhou has devel- mental features also need to be carefully decided. They oped into a major international metropolis, and it is need to respect the nature of the urban environment if host to the largest trade fair in China (Hong and Bian they are to ease planning decision-making. For urban 2017). As part of the city’s development strategy in the cognition, form and function are the two key objective 1990s, key international and national firms started to factors within the urban physical environment, as peo- move from the old city center to the new CBD and ple’s understandings of the city are based on their other newly developed locations, where new shopping perceptions of its form, visibility, function, and out- facilities and new employment hotspots were estab- standing elements (Appleyard 1970). For the issue of lished. Simultaneously, traditional wholesalers and form, Lynch (1960) raised five elements (landmark, commercialized streets continued to thrive as a result node, path, edge, and district) for the structuring of of affordable prices. Under China’s efforts to improve the public’s mental image. Later research found its infrastructures, Guangzhou, with its 2,000-year his- sequential (roads) and spatial (buildings, landmarks, tory and central districts, such as Yuexiu, has come to or districts) elements to be more easily retained in offer a diversity of transportation choices, including the public consciousness (Appleyard 1970). metro, bus, ferry, taxi, online car-hailing, cycling, and Landmarks, and sometimes nodes, are often high- walking. lighted as the anchor points in urban cognition To preserve and enhance its history and culture, (Erçevik Sönmez and Erinsel Önder 2019). By contrast, Guangzhou has designated around ten historic preser- paths play a lesser role in people’s understanding of vation districts in Yuexiu. The density of the district has the urban structure (Evans, Marrero, and Butler 1981). increased continuously over the last century, although Huang et al. (2021) further used big data in accordance current development activities take place only in pie- with Lynch’s (1960) category. They found that “district,” cemeal infills or as part of public improvement pro- “landmark,” and “path” were “in good agreements with jects. The district has constantly been searching for benchmarks,” but “edge” and “node” were less so. improvements in quality of life within the relatively A possible reason could be a path also has the char- stable built environments. Efforts are exerted to acteristics of an edge in the real world, and a landmark reverse the decay of public infrastructures and low- covers node characteristics when the population is quality housing estates, finance the preservation of clustering. Accordingly, the “landmark–path–district” cultural relics, upgrade public spaces and streets, over- approach is proposed to classify the physical urban haul urban functions and services, and attract employ- form’s typology. The most prominent land uses in ees and businesses. These characteristics make Yuexiu cities are commercial, residential, transportation, and a good case for examining how an urban image is public space. However, for historic urban centers, cul- formed from daily experiences in historic urban centers tural functions also have significant roles to play in the in megacities. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 571 formation of the urban image (Dai et al. 2018). For current planning tools. Thus, the six scales chosen for a healthy city, nature’s features, such as mountains, quality appraisal are public spaces, recreational facil- rivers, and green areas, are crucial for urban form ities, shopping facilities, landscape and greenery, trans- sustainability (Jabareen 2016). They also have been portation services, and the walking environment. proven to significantly contribute to personal percep- Together with the one scale designed to assess the tions of urban character (Green 1999). In terms of overall affective impression of the locality among the function, the typologies referred to in the present residents, six instruments in the form of five-point study are categorized under the headings of public Likert-type scales for the measurement of specific loca- space, transportation, culture, public service, residen- tional qualities are established, with responses ranging tial, office, commercial, and natural areas. from “1 = not satisfied” to “5 = extremely satisfied.” Quality appraisals are made to identify the links Additional personal data are also needed, including between the perceived objective environment and gender, age, career level, duration of residency, mode the relevant subjective affective impression. Multi- of mobility, and home address. attribute evaluations in the form of post-occupancy In December 2018, the designed questionnaires surveys are a common technique (Carp and Carp were published online, and students in the Yuexiu 1982; Zimring 2002; Johansson, Sternudd, and District and their families were invited to participate. Kärrholm 2016), with studies in this direction involving As students (including primary and middle schools) in broad ranges of scales or factors, depending on the Yuexiu normally live in the district, a large sample size research objectives (Table 1). For questionnaires of residents was guaranteed. By January 2019, a total applied to non-professionals, factors such as architec- of 2,170 completed questionnaires had been received, ture and town-planning space (Bonaiuto, Fornara, and 1,573 of which were from respondents with a home Bonnes 2003), ground floor access and streetscape, address in Yuexiu who were validated and subse- and building appearance and landscape (Tu and Lin quently selected for further analysis. The respondents’ 2008) may be too vague for the respondents to com- sociodemographic information was requested at the prehend. Additionally, indicators for the measurement beginning, including home address, gender, family of changes in urban forms, such as urban grain, city role, age, career, length of residency, and the most block, density, and compactness (Jabareen 2016), are frequently used daily mobility mode. Their demo- not ideal in this case, as no radical change of urban graphic profile included different social groups and form is foreseeable in the historic urban center. Scales individuals of varying ages, gender, and career status strongly related to social aspects, such as pace of life, (Table 2). The female respondents (60.71%) far out- welfare provision, people and social relations numbered the male respondents (39.29%). Although (Bonaiuto, Fornara, and Bonnes 2003), public security, the majority were in the 31–40-year age range social interaction and mutual help, sense of insecurity, (38.78%), the most prominent career status was educa- and sense of pressure (Tu and Lin 2008), fall outside the tion, with students accounting for 35.47% of the total. realm of planning interventions. Finally, those normally Nearly 80% of the respondents had lived in the Yuexiu beyond the general public’s knowledge, such as adapt- district for more than ten years (78.96%), and the ability and permeability (Montgomery 1998), are also majority used the metro (32.99%) for their daily com- ruled out. mute, followed by buses (24.09%). On the basis of quality evaluations from previous In the online questionnaire, the respondents were studies, scales or factors needs to be appraised to asked to write down the names of the most impressive come up with a response that suits the character of environmental neighborhood features within a 15- historic urban centers and can be managed using minute walk out of their homes, such as buildings, Table 1. Scale/factor comparisons in quality appraisals of urban environments from selected studies. Sustainable Urban Perceived Residential Environment Residential Perception to Form Indicators Quality (Bonaiuto, Fornara, and Perceived Residential Environment Quality (Tu and Tourist City (Stylidis, Sit, and (Jabareen 2016) Bonnes 2003) Lin 2008) Biran 2014) Density Architectural and town-planning Urban Planning and Design (including ground Physical appearance Diversity space floor access and streetscapes, open spaces and Community services Mixed land use Organization of accessibility and green areas) (including the Compactness roads Security and Social Relationships transportation system) Passive solar design Green areas Transportation and Commercial Services Entertainment Greening- People and social relations Residential Atmosphere opportunities ecological design Welfare services Environmental Health Social environment Sustainable Recreational services Environmental pollution transport Commercial services Facility Management Transport services Pace of life Environmental health Upkeep and care Scales/factors in bold indicate similar scales to those selected for the present research. 572 Z. DENG ET AL. Table 2. Demographic profile of the respondents. addresses using address resolution methods. If an Factors Variables Number Percentage urban block gained more than one value, the average Gender Male 618 39.29% of the contributing values was used. However, if an Female 955 60.71% urban block had missing values, no respondents were Family role Children 565 35.92% Parents 918 58.36% living in that block. Thus, the affective satisfaction Grandparents 90 5.72% values of these urban blocks were recorded as 0. Age 6–12 322 20.42% 13–20 243 15.45% A multiple regression analysis was carried out to 21–30 17 1.08% identify the association between the affective satisfac- 31–40 610 38.78% tion scale and the six environmental quality appraisal 41–60 298 18.94% Above 60 83 5.28% scales. An F test was applied to identify any correla- Length of Under 3 46 2.92% tions between different sociodemographic character- Residency 3–5 65 4.13% 5–10 220 13.99% istics (gender, family role, age, career, length of Above 10 1242 78.96% residency, and mobility mode) and personal affective Mobility Mode On foot 330 20.98% Cycle 71 4.51% satisfaction. Bus 379 24.09% Metro 519 32.99% Car 256 16.27% Others 18 1.14% 4. Results Career Public Servant 52 3.31% Privately Employed 242 15.38% 4.1. Urban cognitive map Art, Education or Research 68 4.32% Health Care 58 3.69% As for urban cognition, 249 environmental features Service Industry 153 9.73% Freelancer 363 23.08% were named by the respondents, with a total men- Unemployed or 79 5.02% tioned frequency of 2,209. These features were subse- Housewife Student 558 35.47% quently developed into a 3D cognitive map using the Total 1573 100% methods described above (Figure 2). The respondents were spread over the Yuexiu District, and some lived locations, or landscapes (using one to three words). closer to the district boundary. Accordingly, some Within the same walking distance, the respondents environmental features were located outside the dis- evaluated their levels of overall affective impression. trict boundary (20.48% of the total). Most of the men- They measured the environmental quality appraisals tioned features were concentrated around the old city that contributed to this level of satisfaction. Six scales core, the Beijing Road District (with a mentioned fre- (public space, recreational facilities, shopping facilities, quency of 7.51%), and the Martyrs Park (6.43%; landscape and green areas, transportation services, Table 3). and walking environment) ranging from “1 = not satis- Natural landscapes, urban parks, and public spaces fied” to “5 = extremely satisfied” were used. were prominent features. Ancient landscape character- For the production of a cognitive image map, the istics were found to dominate the old city center in coordinate finding function of the Baidu Map was used residents’ minds. The Baiyun Mountain (4.39%) stretch- (Baidu 2020a). The environmental features were ing from the north and the Pearl River (2.17%) running located in GIS on an ordinance survey map down- along the southern edge received considerable men- loaded from the Baidu Map (Baidu 2020b). The tions. In between, the Donghao Creek (2.13%) was an ArcScene component of ArcGIS 3D Analyst was obvious inclusion, running from the mountain to the employed to visualize the cognitive map in three river, along with frequently mentioned large urban dimensions, in which the mentioned frequencies con- parks, such as the Martyrs Park (6.43%), stituted the z-axis, indicating the levels of imageability. Huanghuagang Park (4.71%), Luhu Park (3.76%), Accordingly, a 3D cognitive map for the Yuexiu District Donghu Park (3.35%), and Yuexiu Park (4.84%), scat- could be created. Its representative features were later tered across the city. Commercial districts were promi- arranged in terms of form (landmark, path, and district) nent on the map, including the pedestrianized and function (public space, transportation, culture, commercial Beijing Road District, a designated historic public service, residential, office, commercial, and nat- district with a 2,000-year history, followed by the mod- ure), as explained previously, to explain their spatial ern China Plaza (3.94%) shopping complex. The his- structure. toric quarters had only limited mentions. In the areas The urban block approach was adopted in the affec - surrounding the district boundary, a host of strong tive map to reflect residents’ affective perception. modern structures had risen, including the Zhujiang Urban blocks could be created in GIS using the road New CBD (0.50%) and Canton Tower (6.29%, as the network and boundary data of nature’s features down- most prominent landmark) to the east and the loaded from the Baidu Map. The overall affective Shamian Historic District (0.45%) and Liwan Lake impression values were transferred to the correspond- (0.09%) to the west. Although some transportation ing urban blocks containing respondents’ home infrastructures were obvious on the map, such as the JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 573 Figure 2. Cognitive map of the Yuexiu District based on an online questionnaire answered by residents. Table 3. Selective environmental features named by residents. Environmental Features Frequency Percentage Form Function Ranking Beijing Road District 166 7.51% District Commercial 1 Martyrs Park 142 6.43% District Public Space 2 Canton Tower 139 6.29% Landmark Public Service 3 Yuexiu Park 107 4.84% District Nature 4 Huanghuagang Park 104 4.71% District Public Space 5 Baiyun Mountain 97 4.39% District Nature 6 China Plaza 87 3.94% Landmark Commercial 7 Luhu Park 83 3.76% District Nature 8 Zhongshan Library 64 2.90% Landmark Public Service 10 Pearl River 48 2.17% Path Nature 13 Donghao Creek 47 2.13% Path Nature 14 Ersha Island 12 0.54% District Public Space 31 Zhujiang New CBD 11 0.50% District Commercial 33 Shamian Historic District 10 0.45% District Culture 38 Liwan Lake 2 0.09% District Nature 100 Inner Ring Road 1 0.05% Path Transportation 133 Table 4. Form typologies of environmental features reported Inner Ring Road and several arterial roads, they by residents. attracted extremely few mentions (0.05%). No artificial Mentions Features Mentions per landmarks were prominent in the old city center. Most Form Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Feature of the mentioned features were outside the desig- District 1122 50.79% 70 28.11% 16.03 nated historic districts. Landmark 915 41.42% 138 55.42% 6.63 Path 172 7.79% 41 16.47% 4.20 Within the historic urban center, districts were more Total 2209 100.00% 249 100.00% 8.87 prominent than landmarks in residents’ perception, and paths were mentioned much less frequently, dif- 16.03 mentions per feature, showing a high degree of ferent from prior studies. The form typologies of the consensus for certain districts. Paths accounted for the mentioned environmental features are broken down in fewest features (16.47%), mentions (7.79%), and the Table 4. Although more than half were landmarks lowest average value of mentions per feature (4.20), (55.42%), they had fewer than half of the total men- with extremely limited imageability. Among the paths, tioned frequencies (41.42%) with 6.63 mentions per the Pearl River and Donghao Creek, as large-scale nat- feature (compared with the average value of 8.87), ural landscapes, were mentioned most frequently and showing a relatively dispersed characteristic. far more than road infrastructures. Although districts accounted for only 28.11% of the In terms of the functions of the environmental fea- total environmental features mentioned, they gar- tures, nature was the most imageable. It recorded the nered more than half of the mentions (50.79%), with 574 Z. DENG ET AL. Table 5. Functional typologies of environmental features mentions and features and were mentioned occasion- reported by residents. ally only at a neighborhood level. Although transporta- Mentions Features Mentions tion accounted for a large number of features (18.88%), per it attracted only a few mentions (4.26%). Function Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Feature Nature 403 18.24% 12 4.82% 33.58 Public space 543 24.58% 26 10.44% 20.88 Culture 280 12.68% 26 10.44% 10.77 4.2. Urban affective map Commercial 486 22.00% 58 23.29% 8.38 Public service 304 13.76% 42 16.87% 7.24 For the affective map, the independent neighbor- Residential 46 2.08% 14 5.62% 3.29 Office 53 2.40% 24 9.64% 2.21 hoods were based on two conditions: the form of the Transportation 94 4.26% 47 18.88% 2.00 urban block and walking distance from the respon- Total 2209 100.00% 249 100.00% 8.87 dent’s home address coordinates. The walking dis- tance, set originally as 1,000 m using a buffer most mentions per feature (33.58; Table 5). Although geoprocessing tool in GIS, showed no significant spa- this function had the least features (4.82%), it benefited tial differences. Thus, 500 m was used to generate from considerable mentions (18.24%). Public space better results (Figure 3). ranked second with 20.88 mentions per feature, with The affective satisfaction values of the urban blocks a relatively large number of features (10.44%) and are as follows (N = 2942, M = 3.921, and SD = 0.328). mentions (24.58%). Nature and public space had simi- The urban blocks in the west, including the ancient city lar forms, being either large districts or paths, dominat- core, recorded low satisfaction values. Those in the ing the urban landscape with strong recreational east with less than 100 years of history and adjacent functions and proximity to dense residential areas. to the new CBD further to the east had high satisfac- Functions related to culture, commerce, and public tion values. In the west, most of the urban blocks service were all close to the overall average mentions recorded low–medium satisfaction levels due to the per feature of 8.87 (10.77, 8.38, and 7.24, respectively). lack of maintenance of infrastructure and the substan- They showed strongly dispersed characteristics and dard housing conditions. The only exceptions were were imageable only at a neighborhood scale. Much observed in the southwest corner, which features fewer imageable features were found in the residential, a historic quarter that has undergone regeneration in office, and transportation functions (3.29, 2.21, and recent years and the offices on the mixed-use Changdi 2.00, respectively). All of them had extremely few Financial Street (predominantly small-scale private Figure 3. Affective map of the Yuexiu District based on online questionnaires conducted with residents for the classification of natural discontinuities. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 575 financial services). The historic quarters of the Oversea control variables. The final model (Model 2) included Chinese Village near the Huanghuagang Park and the 12 variables, and the regression was significant: F(6, Xinhepu District to the north of Donghu Park also 1572) = 461.547, p < 0.001, and R = 0.779 (Table 6). All recorded high degrees of satisfaction. This finding predictors investigated were significant and weighted was probably due to the environmental improvement differently in the following order: walking environment and historic preservation programs that were intro- (B = 0.321, t(1572) = 16.034, p < 0.001) > public space duced. In addition, only the parcel of the renovated (B = 0.265, t(1572) = 12.446, p < 0.001) > landscape and historic districts was reported with high satisfaction. green areas (B = 0.203, t(1572) = 11.039, p < 0.001) > Urban blocks with high-quality urban services shopping facilities (B = 0.078, t(1572) = 4.579, tended to enjoy high satisfaction. The lowest values p < 0.001) > transportation services (B = 0.065, t were recorded in the northwest corner and the area to (1572) = 4.100, p < 0.001) > recreational facilities the south of the Yuexiu Park. The Railway Depot is (B = 0.047, t(1572) = 2.349, p < 0.05). These results located in the former, and the latter had a limited indicated that the quality of the public realm, such as number of respondents. The highest values were in walking environments, public spaces, and land- recorded around Luhu Park, Ersha Island, Donghu scaped areas, contributed most to a high quality of Park, Guangzhou Zoo, and Huanghuagang Park, urban life. Although shopping facilities, transportation which might be due to the regular maintenance of services, and recreational facilities have significant the urban parks and their neighborhoods. Generally, effects on affective satisfaction, their levels of influ - urban blocks near big schools and hospitals recorded ences were slightly limited. relatively high satisfaction levels. This finding was partly due to the high-quality basic urban services 4.3. Social differentiation in urban perceptions provided. For example, the urban blocks close to pub- lic facilities, such as Zhixin Middle School, the North The relationship between sociodemographic charac- Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, the First Affiliated teristics and affective environmental satisfaction was Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, or Guangzhou Tieyi explored using an F test supported by backtesting, as Middle School, all recorded high satisfaction values. shown in Table 7. Aside from the length of residency The urban blocks near the Pearl River also recorded (p > 0.05), other sociodemographic factors were sig- high degrees of satisfaction, except for the part in the nificantly related to personal affective satisfaction at middle-south corner, which is dominated by old low- the p < 0.05 level. The male residents (M = 3.95) rise dilapidated residential buildings. scored higher than the female residents (M = 3.86), A multiple hierarchical regression analysis was con- and children (M = 4.06) and grandparents (M = 4.07) ducted to determine the relationship between envir- scored higher than parents (M = 3.78). Satisfaction onmental quality appraisal and affective satisfaction. was higher among the young (ages 6–12, M = 4.01; This method predicted the affective environmental ages 13–20, M = 4.12) and old residents (ages above satisfaction from the environmental quality appraisal 60, M = 4.10) than those of middle age (ages 21–30, variables of public space, recreational facilities, shop- M = 3.59; ages 31–40, M = 3.80; ages 40–60, M = 3.74). ping facilities, landscapes and green areas, transporta- Students (M = 4.06) were more optimistic than those tion services, and walking environments using the working in private sectors (M = 3.71), healthcare demographic variables of family role, gender, age, workers (M = 3.78), and freelancers (M = 3.75). career, length of residency, and mobility mode as the Service industry workers (M = 3.97) and those Table 6. Multiple hierarchical regression analysis for the prediction of affective satisfaction based on quality appraisals. Model 1 Model 2 Variables B SE.β t B SE.β t Intercept 3.711** 22.581 0.167 1.789 Family role 0.101 0.066 0.915 −0.018 −0.012 −0.342 Gender −0.059 −0.033 −1.308 −0.016 −0.009 −0.736 Age −0.073 −1.920 −1.811 −0.002 −0.004 −0.106 Career −0.008 −0.039 −1.065 −0.001 −0.005 −0.290 Length of residency 0.058 0.046 1.785 0 0 0.021 Mobility mode 0.068** 0.091 3.598 −0.003 −0.004 −0.327 Public space 0.265** 0.266 12.446 Recreational facilities 0.047* 0.050 2.349 Shopping facilities 0.078** 0.081 4.579 Landscape and greening 0.203** 0.210 11.039 Transportation services 0.065** 0.073 4.100 Walking environment 0.321** 0.334 16.034 R 0.024 0.779 F 6.321** 461.547** ΔR 0.024 0.757 ΔF 6.321** 895.119** N = 1572, *p < 0.05, and **p < 0.001. 576 Z. DENG ET AL. Table 7. F test of affective satisfaction within sociodemographic characteristics. Factors Variables N M Std. Deviation Variance F-Ratio Sig. Gender Male 618 3.95 0.88 0.78 4.27* 0.04 Female 955 3.86 0.85 0.73 Family role Children 565 4.06 0.85 0.73 20.21** 0.00 Parent 918 3.78 0.87 0.75 Grandparent 90 4.07 0.76 0.58 Age 6–12 322 4.01 0.86 0.73 9.23** 0.00 13–20 243 4.12 0.85 0.72 21–30 17 3.59 0.87 0.76 31–40 610 3.80 0.85 0.72 41–60 298 3.74 0.90 0.81 Above 60 83 4.10 0.76 0.58 Career Student 558 4.06 0.85 0.71 6.82** 0.00 Public Servant 52 3.85 0.85 0.72 Privately Employed 242 3.71 0.90 0.81 Art, Education or Research 68 3.87 0.90 0.80 Health Care 58 3.78 0.96 0.91 Service Industry 153 3.97 0.89 0.79 Unemployed or Housewife 79 4.01 0.73 0.53 Freelancer 363 3.75 0.83 0.69 Length of Residency Under 3 46 3.80 0.83 0.69 0.74 0.53 3–5 65 3.97 0.97 0.94 5–10 220 3.84 0.91 0.82 Above 10 1242 3.91 0.86 0.83 Mobility Mode Car 256 3.78 0.90 0.82 8.05** 0.00 Metro 519 3.80 0.88 0.78 Bus 379 3.91 0.84 0.70 On Foot 330 4.12 0.80 0.63 Cycle 71 3.99 0.84 0.70 Other 18 3.44 1.04 1.09 The results of backtesting are as follows: Children > Parent*, Grandparent > Parent*, 6–12 years old > 21–30 years old*, 6–12 years old > 31–40 years old *, 6–12 years old > 41–60 years old*, 13–20 years old > 21–30 years old*, 13–20 years old > 31–40 years old*, 13–20 years old > 41–60 years old*, Above 60 years old > 21–30 years old*, Above 60 years > 31–40 years old*, Above 60 years old > 41–60 years old*, Students > Privately Employed*, Students > Healthcare Workers*, Students > Freelancers*, Service Industry Workers > Privately Employed*, Service Industry Workers > Freelancers*, Unemployed or Housewives > Privately Employed*, Unemployed or Housewives > Freelancers*, On Foot > Car*, On Foot > Metro*, On Foot > Bus*, On Foot > Other*, and Cycle > Other*; N = 1572, *p < 0.05, and **p < 0.001. unemployed or housewives (M = 4.01) were more a new type of urban perception rooted in residents’ optimistic than those working in private sectors daily lives in a historic urban center, reflecting their (M = 3.71) and freelancers (M = 3.75). Residents quality of life. In addition, a 3D cognitive map provides mainly commuted by foot (M = 4.12) scored higher direct visualization of the level of imageability of the than those by bicycle (M = 3.99), metro (M = 3.8), bus environmental features with the forms and functions (M = 3.91), and other mobility modes (M = 3.44). that are of most concern in planning terms. Affective Residents mainly commuted by bicycle (M = 3.99) perception, when supported by environmental evalua- scored higher than those by other mobility modes tions, serves as a bridge between people and the (M = 3.44), and car users recorded the lowest satisfac- environment. It also helps identify locations and envir- tion (M = 3.78). These results revealed a tendency for onmental aspects with potential for future environ- residents with few social pressures, such as children, mental improvement, resulting in a better quality of the elderly, and housewives, to be more positive in life. The imageability of urban form is linked closely to their emotional responses. In terms of the daily mobi- form and function, and the affective reflection is clo- lity mode, the slower the transportation mode, the sely related to the quality and maintenance of the happier the resident, suggesting that sustainable neighborhood environments. This framework leads to transport modes provide a high level of satisfaction varying results to most conventional historic preserva- in the quality of life. tion, tourism-related, or business-incentive place- promotion approaches, in which strong emphasis is on enhancing historical, cultural, and economic values 5. Discussion through selective place-making processes (Tallon 2013). Supporting the formulation of suitable urban design The above results reveal that the officially desig- strategies and policies for a socially sustainable historic nated historic districts judged purely for their historical urban center, a cognitive–affective framework for the and cultural values were not highly perceived by resi- study of residents’ urban image is created and tested in dents. In terms of urban form cognition, natural land- this research. The proposed method is used to explore scapes in districts or path forms were the most their possible causes and formulate urban planning prominent features defining the permanent urban suggestions for the creation of high quality of life. structure, followed by large public spaces. Public With the proposed cognitive–affective framework, spaces and nature’s features provided crucial functions the cognitive map and the affective map demonstrate JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 577 in terms of leisure and recreation, and their high ima- being fully developed and highly mixed, with desig- geability benefitted from their dominant forms and nated historic quarters and imbalanced spatial invest- essential healing functions. For residents who are ment. A few lessons could be learned from the case familiar with their city, the districts were the most study that could steer future policy decisions. prominent forms in their minds, especially in the his- First, in terms of the physical environment, basic toric city center, different from previous studies identi- environmental qualities of urban blocks, rather than fying landmarks as the most prominent environmental eye-catching features, contribute most to residents’ features in wayfinding and the creation of a mental affective experience of their urban environment in image (Lynch 1960; Erçevik Sönmez and Erinsel Önder historic urban centers. Landmarks may not be a wise 2019). The landmarks in the old city center were mainly choice for redevelopment in old city centers. By con- commercial or cultural and related to public service trast, mixed-use is a crucial condition for success. provision. However, they were less prominent in resi- Urban form cognition can steer urban renovation, clar- dents’ minds. The reason was the scale limitations ifying that block-level measures are most needed, and under the constraints of site size and strict historical designing places should be done for everyday life contexts. Large mountains, rivers, built landmarks, and rather than attracting curious tourists. Second, the sig- concentrations of commercial functions attracted nificant role of quality open space containing artificial attention from the context and merited deliberation. or natural landscaping in the spatial definition of the Residents’ affective experiences were positively and imagined urban structure is further strengthened. It significantly correlated with their evaluations of walk- enhances the urban identity in residents’ minds and ing environments, public spaces, and landscapes and affectively increases personal satisfaction in the daily green areas. This finding represented the basic quality urban environment. Accordingly, the design, improve- of the daily life environment in the public realm and ment, and maintenance of open space need to go indicated steps that could be taken to improve the beyond itself and address the surrounding neighbor- quality of life. Although recreation, shopping, and hoods that provide crucial context and access routes. transportation services were also significant, they Third, commercialization and tourism need to be care- were found to contribute less to environmental fully managed, as both could contradict residential satisfaction. satisfaction. As the budgets are always not enough Individuals’ social backgrounds also influenced their for revitalizations, balanced investments by the public perceptions of urban images to a significant degree. sector are needed to improve the quality of life outside The affective evaluations gave indications of ways of place-promotion districts. The direct off-site contribu- improving quality of life. The lower the social pressure tions enhancing the quality of targeted space could of residents, the more satisfied they tended to be with also be used for commercial infill developments. It their daily urban environment. Sustainable daily mobi- could also be part of the planning conditions or plan- lity modes, such as walking, cycling, and riding buses, ning contributions. also tended to be associated with high levels of envir- In this study, only the perceptional aspect of the onmental satisfaction. historic urban center of a megacity was covered, with Sustainable urban centers are good places to work, families of students as the main respondents. Thus, enjoy, and live. Places with obvious historical, cultural, further research could directly explore the relevant or economic values are rapidly improved through design strategy. The finding that districts were more place-promotion design strategies and following prominent than landmarks might only be applicable in a careful financial cost-effective analysis. However, historic urban centers without prominent historic land- social sustainability is less researched and addressed marks like Yuexiu. In terms of the conception of place, in practice. Yuexiu is a good example in this regard, only two dimensions of Canter’s (1977) theory, physical Figure 1. 578 Z. DENG ET AL. form and conception, were considered in this study, Baidu. 2020a. “Coordinate Finding System 5th January, 2020.” http://api.map.baidu.com/lbsapi/getpoint/index. leaving the issue of behaviors for further investigation. html Baidu. 2020b. “Baidu Map 4th January, 2020.” www.map. baidu.com Disclosure statement Bandarin, F., and R. van Oers. 2012. The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. author(s). Barker, R. G. 1968. Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Funding Bonaiuto, M., F. Fornara, and M. Bonnes. 2003. “Indexes of Perceived Residential Environment Quality and This work was supported by the MOE (Ministry of Education Neighbourhood Attachment in Urban Environments: in China) Project of Humanities and Social Sciences under A Confirmation Study on the City of Rome.” Landscape Grant [number 20YJAZH024], and National Key R&D Program and Urban Planning 65 (1–2): 41–52. doi:10.1016/S0169- of China under Grant [number 2018YFC0704603]. 2046(02)00236-0. Broudehoux, A. 2004. The Making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing. London: Routledge. Notes on contributors Burtenshaw, D., M. Bateman, and G. J. Ashworth. 1991. The European City: A Western Perspective. London: David Fulton Zhaohua Deng, Associate Professor, State Key Laboratory of Publishers. Subtropical Building Science, School of Architecture, South Campbell, C. D. 2002. “Place Making in Los Angeles: China University of Technology, China. He obtained a PhD Constructing a Sense of Place Out of Ordinary Urban degree and a Masters degree in urban planning from the Space through Symbolic and Social Means (California).” School of Urban and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los UK. His research interest focuses on urban design aspect of Angeles. https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=5919919 planning, comparative planning study, smart city, collabora- Canter, D. 1977. The Psychology of Place. London: St Martin’s tive planning and public space studies. Press. Dantong Chen, Postgraduate Student, South China Carp, F. M., and A. Carp. 1982. “Perceived Environmental University of Technology, China. Her research interest is in Quality of Neighborhoods: Development of Assessment urban design strategy. Scales and Their Relation to Age and Gender.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 2 (4): 295–312. doi:10.1016/ Xiaoling Qin, PhD. Candidate, School of Architecture, South S0272-4944(82)80029-7. China University of Technology, China. Her research interest Cheng, S., Y. Yu, and K. Li. 2017. “Historic Conservation in is in the application of GIS in urban planning research. Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of the Hankow Historic Shifu Wang, Professor, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Concession Area.” Journal of Urban Design 22 (4): 433–454. Building Science, School of Architecture, South China doi:10.1080/13574809.2017.1289064. University of Technology, China. Dr. Shifu Wang is also a Couch, C., and A. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
– Taylor & Francis
Published: Sep 3, 2021
Keywords: Urban image perception; cognitive map; affective map; historic urban center; urban design