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GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 2020, VOL. 4, NO. 1, 52–58 INWASCON https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2019.1585507 RESEARCH ARTICLE Distribution of nickel in diﬀerent agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand, India a b c Kishan Singh Rawat , Rakesh Kumar and Sudhir Kumar Singh a b Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India; Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, India; K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric Ocean Studies, IIDS, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 22 July 2018 Nickel is a micronutrient and contributes to nitrogen ﬁxation and metabolism of urea and is −1 Accepted 18 February 2019 important for seed germination. For productive soil, the concentration of 1–20 mg kg is recommended. The objective of the work was to investigate the distribution of nickel in diﬀerent KEYWORDS agro-climatic zones and identiﬁcation of diﬀerent factors that control the distribution. Surface soil Agroclimatic; nickel; soil; samples were collected from diﬀerent locations and topo-sequences covering three agro-climatic total nickel; Jharkhand zones of Jharkhand, viz. zone-IV (Baliapur, Jharia, and Dhanbad), zone-V (Bagru, Pakharpat, Kisko, and Lohardaga), and zone-VI (Moshabani, Jadugonda, and Chandil). Total number (n =225) of soil samples were collected from the surface and examined for nickel. Diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) extractable nickel in zones IV, V, and VI were 0.06–2.5, 0.06–2.2, and −1 0.06–4.46 mg kg , respectively, whereas total content of nickel in zones IV, V, and VI were −1 147–472, 122–486, and 93–630 mg kg , respectively. A higher amount of DTPA-extractable and the total content of nickel were observed in lowland against the diﬀerent topo-sequences. The study of stepwise multiple regression equations showed more impact of soil pH and electrical conductivity on extractable nickel than other soil parameters whereas, in case of total nickel content, organic matter was an important determining factor. 1. Introduction Same metal concentration in two soils has diﬀerent availability. Hence, the determinants of metal bioa- Soil is a natural resource (Paudel, Thakur, Singh, & vailability must be understood if one is to predict the Srivastava, 2015) and consists of minerals. Naturally, eﬀect of a metal. Soil quality criteria must consider nickel occurs widely in the environment, being the bioavailability of metals (Peijnenburg, Posthuma, released through both natural and anthropogenic Eijsackers, & Allen, 1997). Such criteria can then be sources, but seldom in its elemental form (Cempel used to establish maximum tolerable levels of metals & Nikel, 2006; DEPA, 2005). Nickel’s natural source that can be accommodated in soil and as remediation to the environment include forest ﬁres and vegeta- standards. The phytoavailability of nickel has been tion, volcanic emissions, and wind-blown dust, while correlated with free nickel ion activity in soil solution; the anthropogenic activities resulted in atmospheric hence, plant uptake is also dependent on soil pH, accumulation of nickel from combustion of coal, organic matter content, and iron-manganese oxide diesel oil, and fuel oil, the incineration of waste and (Ge, Murray, & Hendershot, 2000; Massoura et al., sludge as well as from miscellaneous sources (Clayton 2006; Rooney, Zhao, & McGrath, 2007). & Clayton, 1994; McGrath, 1995). In 1751, Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt In a natural environment, the distribution of heavy was the ﬁrst person to realize that nickel was a new metals has no adverse impact on the plant and human element. In nature, nickel was found mostly in the life. But due to pedogenic and biogeochemical process 2+ form of nickelous (Ni ), although trivalent Ni had and anthropogenic inputs, the concentration of heavy 2+ been detected in some enzymes. However, Ni had metals rises to such a level that it becomes phytotoxic been found to be present abundantly in soils. The (Kirkham, 1983). From a biological point of view, heavy 2+ 2+ hydrated Ni ions, Ni(H O) was the major source 2 6 metals can be divided into two categories: essential and of nickel in soil solution which was taken up by plants non-essential (Reddy & Prasad, 1990). However, essen- and microorganisms. Nickel is a micronutrient required tial heavy metals have even been reported to be toxic at at a very low concentration by plants. The critical con- high concentrations, e.g., some heavy metals, viz. copper, centration of nickel in plant ranges from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg zinc, nickel, and chromium, are essential for growth at and nickel in normal soil varied from 0.4 to 1000 mg/kg very low concentrations but toxic at slightly elevated (Brown,Welch,&Cary, 1987). Nickel toxicity in plants levels (Gadd & Griﬃths, 1978; Reed & Gadd, 1989). aﬀects various physiological and biochemical processes, CONTACT Kishan Singh Rawat email@example.com Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 53 viz. decrease in chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, 2.2. Geology, soils, agriculture, land use, and transpiration activities, impairing membrane permeabil- climate ity and disturbing (Bingham et al., 1980). In human, Dhanbad, Jharia, and Baliapur (zone-IV, Figure 1)were a high concentration of nickel causes both cancerous geologically comprised with Archean granites and (nasal, lungs) and non-cancerous (kidney, lung, asthma, gneisses. Three soil orders, namely Entisols, placenta, spermatogenesis) problems. Inceptisols, and Alﬁsols, were observed in these areas. Normally insoluble nickel compound become soluble Important trees were sal, sisam, tendu, mahua, bhelwa, in the soil of low pH, which caused nickel to accumulate imali, etc. The major cereal crops of the area were in plants (Vanselow, 1952), but adding lime to nickel- paddy, maize, and wheat. Farmers of the area were treated soils counteract the toxic eﬀect on plant growth. interested in vegetable and fruit growing and dairy to Nickel could replace cobalt and other heavy metals fulﬁll the demand of the city areas. The district is in the located at active sites in metalloenzymes and disrupt east of the state and nearer to the Bay of Bengal and also their functioning (Chang & Sherman, 1953). The present has less elevation. The area provides climatic conditions investigation was carried out on soils of diﬀerent agro- slightly diﬀerent from the higher plateau area of the climatic zones of the state with a view to study the state. During the winter season, temperature ranges topographical distribution of available and total content from 8.4°C to 34°C and during summer season tem- of nickel and to identify the inﬂuence of important soil perature ranges from 13.3°C to 45.5°C. During the rainy characteristics on their availability. season, the temperature ranges from 15°C to 36°C. The average annual rainfall is 1270 mm. 2. Material and methods Bagru, Kisko, Pakharpat, and Lohardaga (zone-V, Figure 1) were geologically comprised with Archean 2.1. Study area granites and gneisses. In the uplands, considerable thick- Soils of Jharkhand, having three agro-climatic zones ness of laterite of Pleistocene age was found in the granite (Figure 1), viz. Central and north-eastern plateau, and gneisses tracts. Alluvium of the recent to sub-recent Western plateau, and south-eastern plateau, are classiﬁed age was found in the river valley. Three soil orders, into major soil orders of Entisol, Inceptisol, and Alﬁsol. namely Entisols, Inceptisols, and Alﬁsols, were observed The state is popularly known for its coal mines, indus- in these areas. The most important mineral was bauxite. tries, and metalliferous ores. Out of the several sources, Other minerals were feldspar, ﬁre clay, and china clay, industrial eﬄuents, sewage, and mines are major sources and had less economic importance. The main crops were of heavy metals. In the rapid pace of development, we rice followed by millets (marua, gondli, and maize), have inﬂicted serious damage to the natural resources. pulses, wheat, oilseed (sarguja and groundnut), and Figure 1. Study area location map. 54 K. S. RAWAT ET AL. vegetables. Forest areas covered majority of sal, mahua, SimplexNumerica software (as Rawat, Kumar, & Singh, jamun, and neem vegetation. The district enjoy healthy, 2018; Rawat, Mishra, & Singh, 2017a;Rawat, Tripathi, & pleasant climate throughout the year. The annual average Singh, 2017b). Co-ordinates of each sampling point were temperature is 23°C, the highest temperature goes to 36° loggedwithahand-heldGlobalPositioningSystem C in summer and lowest of 10°C in winter. The district (GPS) device (Garmin (eTrexH)), with ±15 m horizontal receives annual rainfall of 1000 to 1600 mm and it locational accuracy (Rawat, Kumar & Singh, 2018). increases from west to east. Mosabani, Jandugonda, and Chandil (zone-VI) were geologically comprised with granites, gneiss and schist. 3. Results and discussions Formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic 3.1. Distribution of nickel in soil rocks of Dharwarian period was found at places. Three soil orders, namely Entisols, Inceptisols, and Alﬁsols, The systematic survey for delineation of Ni from soil were observed in these areas. Due to varied landscape, was conducted and analyzed in 225 surface soil sam- thecoverageofforestwas found indiﬀerent proportion ples collected from diﬀerent topo-sequence, i.e., in diﬀerent areas. The sal trees were dominant in this upland, midland, and lowland from Central and area. Other trees were gamhar, mango, jamun, jack fruit, north-eastern plateau, western plateau, and South karanj,palas,etc.Plain areaswerequite productive for eastern plateau of Jharkhand. These soil samples agriculture and farmers cultivated vegetables and seaso- belong to soil order Entisols, Inceptisols, and Alﬁsols. nal fruits apart from paddy. The district receives DTPA-extractable nickel in upland soils of areas −1 an annual rainfall of 1500 mm and most of it occurs under zones IV, V, and VI ranged 0.06–2.08 mg kg , −1 −1 during the rainy season. Mean annual temperature is 0.06–0.68 mg kg , and 0.76–3.1 mg kg with a mean −1 −1 −1 above 26°C. The temperature ranges from 16°C in winter value of 0.83 mg kg ,0.2 mg kg , and 1.58 mg kg , month to 44°C in summer months. respectively (Table 1). In midland soils, it ranged 0.06– −1 −1 −1 2.5 mg kg ,0.06–1.48 mg kg , and 0.06–3.42 mg kg −1 −1 with a mean value of 1.08 mg kg ,0.64mgkg ,and 2.3. Soil analysis −1 1.52 mg kg , respectively, whereas in lowland soils, −1 extractable nickel varied 0.38–1.54 mg kg , With a view to achieve the objective of the research, −1 −1 0.52–2.2 mg kg , and 0.84–4.46 mg kg with a mean a survey was conducted and 225 surface (0–20 cm −1 −1 −1 value of 0.59 mg kg ,0.87mgkg ,and 1.35 mg kg , depth) soil samples were collected from diﬀerent topo- respectively. Overall, DTPA-extractable nickel in areas of sequence, i.e., upland, midland, and lowland, from three zones IV, V, and VI ranged 0.06–2.5, 0.06–2.2, and agro-climatic zones, namely (i) Central and north- −1 0.06–4.46 mg kg , respectively. The magnitude of eastern plateau, i.e., zone-IV (Baliapur), (ii) Western DTPA-extractable nickel in lowland soils was higher plateau, i.e., zone-V (Bagru), and (iii) South eastern than midland followed by upland due to soil drainage plateau, i.e., zone-VI (Moshabani) of Jharkhand. The and clay content which aﬀect their status (Anderson & soil samples were analyzed for various physico- Christensen, 1988). chemical properties, viz. organic carbon, pH, EC (1:2.5: Barman et al. (2015) suggested that the low pro- soil:water), CEC, CaCO , clay, and silt content, by using portion of residual Ni fraction may be related to the standard laboratory procedures. The available content of unusually high organic carbon content in soil, where Ni in soil samples was extracted with a solution of Ni might have been associated with recalcitrant frac- 0.005 M DTPA – 0.01 M CaCl −0.1 M tri-ethanol tion of organic matter. They explained that lower amine (adjusted to pH 7.3) as outlined by Lindsay and SOC and clay contents might be responsible for Norvell (1978). The total content was determined after lower CEC in these soils, which might have been digestion of soil with perchloric-hydroﬂuoric acids responsible for poor retention of Ni as cation. (Hesse, 1994). The concentrations of nickel were mea- In upland soils of zones IV, V, and VI, the total sured with the help of atomic absorption spectrophot- content of nickel varied 147–297, 122–156, and ometer. Regression analysis is a statistical tool of investigation of relationships between variables (Sharma, Kumar, Denis, & Singh, 2018; Patle, Rawat, & −1 Table 1. DTPA-extractable Ni contents (mg kg ) in soils of Singh, 2019). Multiple linear regression equations were diﬀerent topo-sequences (agro-climatic zones) of Jharkhand. computed between diﬀerent forms (available and total) Agro-climatic zone Topography Range Mean S.D of metals and soil properties. Stepwise multiple regres- IV Zone, i.e., Central and Upland 147–297 200.84 43.88 north-eastern plateau Medium 291–371 307.16 26.16 sion analysis was computed by adopting standard statis- Lowland 351–472 419.12 38.35 tical procedures (Panse & Sukhatme, 1961). V Zone, i.e., Western plateau Upland 122–156 141.32 9.95 Medium 167–347 263.56 60.50 Lowland 253–486 348.88 62.93 2.4. 3D nickel distribution map/contour generation VI Zone, i.e., South eastern Upland 93–297 173.12 56.21 For generation of 3D nickel distribution map (or special plateau Medium 219–367 275.2 41.26 Lowland 421–630 528.92 66.89 distribution map)/contour, we used trial version of GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 55 −1 93–297 mg kg with a mean value of 200.84, 141.32, content of nickel in the soils. In the process of regres- −1 and 173.12 mg kg , respectively (Table 2). Soil sam- sion analysis, the dependent variables were categor- ples of zones IV, V, and VI under midland condition ized as available Ni and total Ni. The independent −1 ranged 291–371, 167–347, and 219–367 mg kg with variables or the explanatory variables were recognized −1 a mean value of 307.16, 263.56, and 275.2 mg kg , as X (pH), X (EC), X (Organic carbon), X 1 2 3 4 respectively, whereas in lowland soils, they ranged (CaCO ), X (Silt), X (Clay), and X (CEC). 3 5 6 7 −1 351–472, 253–486, and 421–630 mg kg with The results presented in Table 3 using stepwise −1 a mean value of 419.12, 348.88, and 528.92 mg kg , method had enabled us to choose the statistically respectively. The mean values of total nickel in low- most relevant equation stating the relationship land soils were higher than in midland followed by between the nickel (extractable and total) and the upland because of clay percentage and organic matter factors determining their concentration. Stepwise content that inﬂuenced their status. The observation method had yielded a number of alternative equa- was inconformity with the ﬁnding of Mitsimbonas, tions for each form of nickel in the diﬀerent soil Karyotis, Haroulis, and Argyropoulos (1998). proﬁle analyzed here. However, the equations which In upland soils, according to Ewetola, Oyediran, had statistically signiﬁcant coeﬃcients in them at Owoade, and Ojo (2010) and Rawat et al. (2018), least at the 5% levels of signiﬁcance were ﬁnally a relationship between slope position and soil proper- selected for the discussion. Using this statistically ties where middle slope showed the highest clay con- supported process of selection of predicting equa- tent and the major pedogenic processes inﬂuenced tions, the following regression equations were the relationship between slope position and mineral selected at 5% level of signiﬁcance for diﬀerent soil weathering, erosion and eluvation-illuvation pro- proﬁles for heavy metal in the soils analyzed cesses. The parent rocks as a lithogenic control (Table 3). (higher correlation with soil properties), chemical Size of the coeﬃcient of the multiple determina- industries, mineral fertilizers, untreated industrial tions (R ) indicated that 45.09% of the available eﬄuents, sewage, and mine wastewater are the nickel was determined by pH and EC. In case of the major sources of cobalt and other minerals in soil total content of nickel, they were determined by and water (Gautam et al., 2015). organic carbon up to 20.6%. In a quantitative way, The 3D representation and contour plots (Figure 2) it could be said that one unit increase in EC increased of available Ni and total Ni in IV evidently identify, available nickel by 0.003 unit whereas one unit categorize, and quantify the speciﬁc areas where the increase in pH reduced the available nickel by 0.255 enrichment of Ni is higher. The available Ni was units. The prediction equation for the total content of −1 observed low in the center as 30 mg kg (Figure 2 Ni had indicated that they were determined by (a)). Similarly, the total Ni concentration was observed organic carbon which has a positive impact on the very low in those regions. Similarly, in zone-V, it was total content of Ni. Again in a quantitative way, it observed that soils have low availability of Ni in the could be inferred that one unit increase in organic majority of area whereas the total Ni has slightly fewer carbon increased the total Ni by a greater proportion values as compared to zone IV (Figure 2(b)). In the of 31.78 units. agro-climatic zone VI, the total and available Ni content The metal concentration and soil properties are is illustrated in Figure 2(c), which shows similar pat- known to inﬂuence metal bioavailability (pH, organic terns as zone V. carbon, clay content, and eﬀective CEC) in agricultural and grazing land soil in Europe (Reimann et al., 2009, Rawat et al., 2018; Reimann, Demetriades, Eggen, & 3.2. Multiple linear regression models Filzmoser, 2011). In urban areas, the soil is polluted by direct disposal of untreated waste on soil. The Multiple regression equations were estimated through crops and vegetables are grown on these soils and stepwise method to analyze the relative impacts of irrigated by untreated sewage wastewater having ele- diﬀerent factors responsible for determining the vated concentration of heavy metals (Bharose, Singh, & Srivastava, 2013; Gautam, Sharma, Tripathi, Ahirwar, & −1 Table 2. Total Ni contents (mg kg ) in soils of diﬀerent topo- Singh, 2013). sequences (agro-climatic zones) of Jharkhand. Agro-climatic zone Topography Range Mean S.D IV Zone, i.e., Central and north- Upland 0.06–2.08 0.83 0.58 4. Conclusion eastern plateau Medium 0.06–2.50 1.08 0.53 Lowland 0.38–1.54 1.10 0.29 −1 DTPA-extractable nickel was 0.06–2.5 mg kg in V Zone, i.e., Western plateau Upland 0.06–0.68 0.20 0.18 −1 Medium 0.06–1.48 0.64 0.32 zone-IV; 0.06–2.2 mg kg in zone-V whereas Lowland 0.52–2.20 1.58 0.42 −1 0.06–4.46 mg kg in zone-VI, respectively. The mag- VI Zone, i.e., South eastern Upland 0.76–3.10 1.58 0.70 nitude of DTPA-extractable nickel in lowland soils was plateau Medium 0.06–3.42 1.52 0.78 Lowland 0.84–4.46 2.38 1.13 higher than in midland followed by upland due to soil 56 K. S. RAWAT ET AL. Figure 2. (a) 3D representation of available and total Ni content in agro-climatic zone IV. (b) 3D representation of available and total Ni content in agro-climatic zone V. (c) 3D representation of available and total Ni content in agro-climatic zone VI. Table 3. Predictability of available and total content of Ni drainage and clay content which aﬀects its status. Total −1 with relation to soil characteristics Figure in parenthesis indi- content of Ni were 147–472 mg kg in zone-IV; cates S.E. of coeﬃcient. −1 −1 122–486 mg kg in zone-V whereas 93–630 mg kg Stepwise multiple regression equation R × 100 in zone-VI, respectively. However, a higher amount of Available Ni Y = 1.6916–0.255 X * + 0.00375X ** 45.09 1 2 the total content of Ni was noted in lowland topo- (0.0487) (0.0008) Y = 1.828–0.2322X ** 25.25 sequence with a mean value of 419.12 in zone-IV; (0.0559) −1 −1 348.88 mg kg in zone-V, and 528.92 mg kg in Total Ni Y = 241.06 + 31.78 X ** 20.63 (8.7294) zone-VI, respectively. 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 2, 2020
Keywords: Agroclimatic; nickel; soil; total nickel; Jharkhand
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