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GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 2020, VOL. 4, NO. 4, 298–305 INWASCON https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2019.1694131 RESEARCH ARTICLE Diversity and conservation status of tree species in Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS) of Chittagong, Bangladesh M.K. Hossain, Abdul Alim, Saddam Hossen , Md. Akhter Hossain and Anisur Rahman Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 1 July 2019 Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS), located in the Fatikchari upazila of Chittagong district, Accepted 14 August 2019 Bangladesh with a land area of 2,908.5 acres, is a Protected Area IUCN Category II. Once the forest was very rich in ﬂora and fauna but apparently, it seems that some lesser known species KEYWORDS may have been disappeared from the area due to changes in overall conditions. The study was Tree species; threatened; conducted through systematic quadrat method where the size of the plot was 20 m×20 m. A Hazarikhil; conservation; total of 162 tree species (having ≥5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh)) belonging to 50 Wildlife Sanctuary families were recorded where Euphorbiaceae family possess the highest number of species (18) followed by Moraceae (12 species). Conservation status of the plants indicated that 52% species (85 species) were Least Concern (LC) which was maximum among the conservation categories. However, the Vulnerable, Endangered, Near Threatened and Critically Endangered tree species were represented by 20% (32 species), 6% (9 species), 1% (1 species) and 2% (3 species) respectively. The study created a baseline of information on the tree species diversity of the protected area which is expected to be helpful to the future researchers as well as in taking managerial actions by the policy makers. Introduction illegal felling, encroachments due to population pres- sure resulted in the degradation of the natural tree cover The vegetation of Bangladesh is a part of the Indo- endangering many native tree species with restricted Myanmar region, which is one of the 10 global hot spot distribution (Khan, 1990). Conserving the remaining areas for biodiversity (Mittermeier, Myers, Thomsen, forest is important because they have the highest biodi- Defonseca, & Olivieri, 1998) and possess rich biological versity of all sequences. In Bangladesh, there is an diversity due to its unique geophysical location urgent need to eﬀectively protect and manage the exist- (Chowdhury, 2001; Hossain, 2001;Nishat, Huq, Barua, ing reserve forest areas (Hossen, Hossain, et al., 2019a; Reza, & Khan, 2002). The country has a rich biological Hossen, Hossain, et al., 2019b; Hossen, Hossain, et al., heritage containing about 3,611 ﬂowering plants 2019c). Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary stands a better (Ahmed et al., 2008), of which 2,260 species are reported chance for protection against loss of native tree species from Chittagong region alone (Khan, Nishat, & Haque, as well as biodiversity as it has been declared as Wildlife 2008). The diversity of trees is fundamental to total Sanctuary in 2010. tropical forest biodiversity, because tree provides Most plot and transect-based species counts in tropi- resources and habitats for almost all other forest species cal rain forests have dealt only with trees having >10 cm (Canon,Peart,&Leighton, 1998;Huston, 1994). But or > 5 cm dbh (Ahmed & Haque, 1993;Balslev,Luteyn, many areas of the country have been either poorly inves- Ollgaard, & Holm-Nielsen, 1987;Boom, 1986;Foster& tigated or remain unexplored to date. Floristic collections Hubbell, 1990;Gentry, 1988;Hossainet al., 1999;Nath, are essential for expanding the holdings from those Hossain, & Alam, 1998; Rahman, Hossain, & Karim, under-represented areas in order to conserve biodiversity 2000). Measuring biodiversity has not been easy and of the country. has remained a challenging task. The present study is Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary has been recognized an initiative to assess the status, composition, diversity, for its ecological, scientiﬁc, educational, aesthetic and and distribution of tree species in Hazarikhil Wildlife spiritual values. Hazarikhil natural forest is one of the Sanctuary. It was felt that such a survey would be useful most important forests which is composed of a number in taking up appropriate action plans for arresting of tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen tree species. genetic erosion in the forest as improved understanding The present Hazarikhil natural forest is a remnant of of successional factors and process may allow us to previous evergreen natural reserve forest with many develop forest management system that beneﬁt biodiver- important indigenous tree species Wrong management, sity conservation. CONTACT Saddam Hossen firstname.lastname@example.org Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the International Water, Air & Soil Conservation Society(INWASCON). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 299 Conserving biodiversity in an ecosystem is also located about 65 km north of Chittagong city and important since it is not always evident which species western side of Chittagong-Khagrachari road and what quantity of those species is necessary to (Figure 1). maintain the ecosystem functioning (Burton, Balisky, HWS experiences tropical monsoon climate, char- Coward, Cumming, & Kneeshaw, 1992). Information acterized by basically four seasons, e.g., winter on the composition of a forest is essential for its wise (December–February), summer (March–May), mon- management in terms of economic value and regen- soon (June–September) and autumn (October– eration potential (Wyatt-Smith, 1987), but very scanty November). During the monsoon, the area receives information is available on the composition of this an average annual rainfall of 3000 mm with a range forest. The lack of information hampers our ability of 1,611–3,878 mm. Temperature of the HWS varies to comprehend the magnitude of the loss of biodiver- from 12.5°C to 37°C whereas humidity from 67% to sity and to formulate sustainable alternative to 88% round the year. The forest valleys comprising resource depletion. Inventorying the trees is essential streams (chara), canals and lakes contain and carry for better understanding of the levels, distribution, the water to mainly the Feni River and some water is and dynamics of native tree species of a particular directly transmitted to the Sandwip channel of the Bay forest. Presence of systematic records of the ﬂora of of Bengal. A number of sandy-bedded streams passed a forest and its regeneration will help in any plan to through the HWS and aquatic habitats associated with preserve its biodiversity. To achieve good conservation forest cover and riparian (streamside) vegetation, and management of our natural resources, we should wildlife species are important part of the entire habitat. know the status and structure of biological resources, Some stream ﬂow continuously but some of them especially the native tree species. become dry in winter. Part of Hajarikhil WS is covered by the low hill ranges while the rest is in the Bengal ﬂood plain. The soils in this area range from clay to clayey loam on level ground and from sandy loam to Materials and methods coarse sand on hilly land. The wildlife sanctuary is Study area covered basically with tropical semi-evergreen natural vegetation and scatter block plantations along with Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary was a part of the few degraded hills in the periphery (Figure 2). reserved forest of Chittagong North Forest Division in Bangladesh. It was declared as Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary (2908.50 acres) on 6 April 2010 by the Reconnaissance survey Ministry of Environment and Forest by gazette noti- ﬁcation no. MoEF/For-Sec-02/02 Wildlife Sanctuary/ The research team visited the Hazarikhil Wildlife 11/2010/211 dated 06/04/2010 under the power given Sanctuary (HWS) to have an idea of species composi- under section 23(3) of Bangladesh Wildlife tion of the whole forest prior to selection of sampling (Preservation) (Amendment) Act 1974. The area is procedure for ﬂoristic composition and diversity of Figure 1. Location map of Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary. 300 SADDAM HOSSEN ET AL. ab c d Figure 2. a – Natural forest patch; b – Plantation; c – Deforested site; d – Few old trees in Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary. the tree species. A thorough ﬁeld visit was conducted Fertile materials the unknown trees were collected to in the whole forest at the onset of the ﬁeldwork. prepare herbarium specimen for identiﬁcation. The A formal discussion was held with the concerned herbarium specimen of the Bangladesh Forest forest oﬃcials and some experienced forest villagers. Research Institute (BFRI) were consulted along with A base map of the area was collected from the Forest Khan (1990), Rahman and Hossain (2002)and Department. Detail information about the geography, Ahmed et al. (2008)for identiﬁcation of the unknown land uses, plantations and present management sys- species. Conservation status of the plants were tems were also collected from respective authority. assessed based on the ﬁeld observations along the Two transact walks (one from North to South and consultation of Ahmed et al. (2008), Rahman the other from East to West) across the forest were (2013), Ara, Khan, and Uddin (2013) and Hossen made with the help of the ﬁeld assistants. The objec- and Hossain (2018). All the plants were compiled tives of the walk were to familiarizing with the vegeta- together and their number under respective families tion community, designing sampling design, planning and conservation status were counted. accessibility and ﬁeld works and to get an idea about the vegetation in the study area. Results Results of the study include tree (having dbh of ≥5 cm) Field data collection and processing species composition across the forest areas of HWS. The composition and diversity of thetreespecies in A total of 133 tree species belonging to 46 families HWS were assessed through systematic quadrat sur- were recorded from the quadrats. Including the tree vey with20m×20 m sizedsampleplots were con- species recorded from the transacts the study reveals ducted during January 2016 to December 2016 162 tree species belonging to 50 families (Table 1). (Rahman & Hossain, 2002;Roy,Singh,&Porwal, Euphorbiaceae family possess the highest number of 1993). The quadrat size was determined by applying tree species (18) followed by Moraceae (12) and species area curve method (Moore & Chapman, Anacardiaceae, Mimosaceae and Myrtaceae each 1986). Quadrats were placed systematically at 13″ with 9 tree species. The recorded tree species were (thirteen seconds) spatial interval which is approxi- found to be represented by 9 conservation categories, mately 530 m along both longitudes and latitudes. viz. Conservation Dependent (CD), Data Deﬁcient The sampling intensity of the survey was 0.25%. (DD), Least Concern (LC), Not Evaluated (NE), Not Besides the quadrats trees were recorded from the Evaluated but seems to be rare (NE but seems rare), walk ways (line transacts) whenever a new species Near Threatened (NT), Vulnerable (VU), Endangered occurred during the travel from one quadrat to (EN) and Critically Endangered (CR). A total of 52% another. All trees having ≥5cm dbhwere identiﬁed, species (85 species out of 162) were found as Least counted by individuals and measured in the quadrats. Concern (LC) which represents maximum tree species GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 301 Table 1. Tree species composition and conservation status in Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary. Family No. Species no. Local name Scientiﬁc name Conservation status Anacardiaceae 1 1 Barela Holigarna caustica (Dennst) Oken DD 2 Jail bhadi Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. LC 3 Chikki Buchnania lancifolia Roxb. NE 4 Civit Swintonia ﬂoribunda Griﬀ.VU 5 Nala amshi Drimycarpus racemosus (Roxb.) Hook. f. VU 6 Miriam Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb.) Meissn. EN 7 Desi amra Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz LC 8 Aam Mangifera indica L. LC 9 Uriam Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. CR Annonaceae 2 10 Kuchu kao Miliusa longiﬂora (Hook.f. and Thom.) Finet and Gagnep. EN 11 Aata Annona squamosa L. LC Apocynaceae 3 12 Chatim Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. LC 13 Chhatim Alstonia neriifolia D. Don EN 14 Dud kuruch Wrightia arborea (Dennst.) Mabb. VU 15 Kuruz Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. Ex Decne LC Araliaceae 4 16 Argoza Trevesia palmata (Roxb.) Vis. LC Arecaceae 5 17 Chau supari Caryota urens L. EN 18 Desi Khejur Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. LC 19 Narikel Cocos nucifera L. LC 20 Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. NE 21 Taal Borassus ﬂabellifer L. LC Bignoniaceae 6 22 Dharmara Stereospermum colais (Buch.-Ham. ex Dillw.) Mabb. NE but seems to rare 23 Barpatta Fernandoa adenophylla (Wall. ex G.Don) vn Steenis VU 24 Khona Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. ex Kurz LC Bombacaceae 7 25 Bonsimul Bombax insigne Wall. VU 26 Simul Bombax ceiba L. LC Boraginaceae 8 27 Bohal Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. VU Burseraceae 9 28 Silbhadi Garuga pinnata Roxb. LC 29 Dhup Canarium resiniferum Brace ex king. CR 30 Gutgutya Protium serratum (Wall. ex. Colebr.) Engl. VU Caesalpiniaceae 10 31 Asok Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Willd. VU 32 Bansonalu Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. LC 33 Minjiri Senna siamea (Lamk.) Irwin and Barneby LC 34 Sonalu Cassia ﬁstula L. LC 35 Tetul Tamarindus indica L. LC Capparaceae 11 36 Barun Crataeva magna (Lour.) DC. LC Celastraceae 12 37 Raktan Lophopetalum wightianum Arn. VU Clusiaceae 13 38 Nageshwar Mesua ferrea L. LC 39 Kau Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex DC. VU Combretaceae 14 40 Bahera Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. LC 41 Haritaki Terminalia chebula Retz. VU 42 Kat Badam Terminalia catappa L. LC 43 Sheori Anogeissus acuminata (Roxb. ex DC.) Guill. et Perr. VU Cycadaceae 15 44 Cycas Cycas pectinata Hamilton VU Datiscaceae 16 45 Chandul Tetrameles nudiﬂora R. Br. NE Dilleniaceae 17 46 Chalta Dillenia indica L. LC 47 Hargaza Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. VU Dipterocarpaceae 18 48 Baittya Garjan Dipterocarpus costatus Gaertn. CD 49 Boilam Anisoptera scaphula (Roxb.) Pierre CD 50 Dhullya garjan Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don VU 51 Teliaa garjan Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn. LC 52 Sal Shorea robusta Roxb. ex Gaertn. f. LC 53 Telsur Hopea odorata Roxb. LC Ebenaceae 19 54 Gab Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. LC Elaeocarpaceae 20 55 Jalpai Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir. EN 56 Belphoi Elaeocarpus ﬂoribundus Blume EN Euphorbiaceae 21 57 Amloki Phyllanthus emblica L. LC 58 Kechchua Glochidion lanceolarium (Roxb.) Voigt. LC 59 Ban-naranga, Moricha Suregada multiﬂora (A. Juss.) Bail. NE 60 Banshiyalbuka Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. LC 61 Bura Macaranga denticulata (Bl.) Muell.-Arg. LC 62 Chamfata Sapium baccatum Roxb. VU 63 Kanjail bhadi Bischoﬁa javanica Blume VU 64 Kaulla Aporosa wallichii Hook. f. NE 65 Patkhoi Bridelia tomentosa Bl. LC 66 Elena Antidesma ghaesambilla Gaertn. LC 67 Phata karoola Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Muell.-Arg. NE 68 Bura Mallotus tetracoccus (Roxb.) Kurz LC 69 Bhubi Baccaurea ramiﬂora Lour. VU 70 Chhota bura Mallotus roxburghianus Muell.-Arg. NE 71 Pannyaturi Glochidion multiloculare (Roxb. ex Willd.) Muell.-Arg. LC 72 Mera gota Trewia nudiﬂora L. LC 73 Rubber Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. LC 74 Sinduri Mallotus phillippensis (Lamk.).Muell.-Arg CD Fabaceae 22 75 Miringa Derris robusta (Roxb. ex DC) Benth. LC 76 Padak Pterocarpus indicus Willd. LC 77 Mandar Erythrina stricta Roxb. LC (Continued) 302 SADDAM HOSSEN ET AL. Table 1. (Continued). Family No. Species no. Local name Scientiﬁc name Conservation status Fagaceae 23 78 Batna Quercus oxydon Miq. EN 79 Bara batna Lithocarpus elegans var. brevipetiolata (A. DC.) Hook. f. EN 80 Khooisa batna Quercus gomeziana A. Camus DD Flacourtiaceae 24 81 Chalmugra Hydnocarpus kurzii (King) Warb. VU Juglandaceae 25 82 Jhumka bhadi Engelhardtia spicata Leschen ex Blume VU Lauraceae 26 83 Madanmasta Actinodaphne angustifolia Nees NE 84 Sutrong Cryptocarya amygdalina Nees EN 85 Manda Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. NE 86 Menda Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Robinson LC 87 Modon mosta Dehaasia kurzii King VU 88 Chibong Persea bombycina (King ex Hook.f.) Kosterm. NE 89 Tez matan Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume VU Leeaceae 27 90 Achilagach Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. LC Lythraceae 28 91 Jarul Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. LC Magnoliaceae 29 92 Champa Michelia champaca L. LC Meliaceae 30 93 Ban lichi Walsura robusta Roxb. VU 94 Bokain Melia azedarach L. LC 95 Chikrassi Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss. LC 96 Mahagony Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. LC 97 Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. LC 98 Pitraj Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker. VU 99 Rata Chisocheton cumingianus (C. DC) Harms. LC 100 Toon Toona ciliata Roem CD Mimosaceae 31 101 Akashmoni Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn ex Benth. et Hook. LC 102 Rain tree Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. LC 103 Chakua koroi Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. LC 104 Kala koroi Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. LC 105 Sil Koroi Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth LC 106 Tetua-koroi Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth. LC 107 Kuramara Pithecellobium angulatum Benth. NE 108 Mangium Acacia mangium Willd. LC 109 Lohakat Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub. LC 110 Rajkoroi Albizia richardiana (Voigt) King and prain LC Moraceae 32 111 Ashwathwa Ficus religiosa L. LC 112 Bara dumur Ficus auriculata Lour. LC 113 Jhiri bot Ficus benghalensis L. LC 114 Chapalish Artocarpus chama Buch.-Ham. NE but seems rare 115 Panidumur Ficus nervosa Heyne ex Roth LC 116 Dewa Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. LC 117 Dumur Ficus hispida L.f. LC 118 Joggya dumur Ficus racemosa L. var. miquelli LC 119 Kanthal Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. LC 120 Chokorgola Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Smith NE 121 Dumur Ficus ﬁstulosa Reinw. ex Bl. NE 122 Sheora Streblus asper Lour. LC Myristicaceae 33 123 Am barela Myristica linifolia Roxb. VU Myrsinaceae 34 124 Seea barela Ardisia colorata Roxb. VU 125 Moricha Maesa indica (Roxb.) A.DC. CD Myrtaceae 35 126 Painnya jam Cleistocalyx nervosum (DC.) Koterm. LC 127 Dhakijam Syzygium grande (Wit.) Walp. VU 128 Malaria gach Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnn. NE 129 Eucalyptus Eucalyptus citrodora Hook. LC 130 Hukuinna jam Syzygium sp. DD 131 Jam Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels LC 132 Chalta jam Syzygium megacarpum (Craib) Rathakr. et Nair NE 133 Pannya jam Syzygium formosum (Wall.) Masamune LC 134 Putijam Syzygium fruticosum DC. LC Podocarpaceae 36 135 Banspata Podocarpus nerrifolius D.Don CR Rhamnaceae 37 136 Boroi Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. LC 137 Bon boroi Zizyphus rugosa Lamk. NE Rhizophoraceae 38 138 Raskao Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. LC Rubiaceae 39 139 Kadam Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser LC 140 Kannyari Gardenia coronaria Buch.-Ham. VU 141 Harinarphul Morinda angustifolia Roxb. LC 142 Tulalodh Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. DD Rutaceae 40 143 Dulia morichaa Clausena excavata Burm. LC Sapindaceae 41 144 Chagaler leda Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenhouts LC 145 Lichu Litchi chinensis Sonn. LC Sapotaceae 42 146 Tali Palaquium polyanthum (Wall. ex DC.) Engler. NE but seems rare Sonneratiaceae 43 147 Bandarhula Duabunga grandiﬂora (Roxb. Ex DC.) Walp. VU Sterculiaceae 44 148 Fashya udal Sterculia villosa Roxb. ex Smith. LC 149 Lana assar Pterospermum semisagittatum Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. VU 150 Ulat kambal Abroma augusta (L.) L.f NT Theaceae 45 151 Ramjani Eurya acuminata DC. CD Thymeliaceae 46 152 Agar Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. LC Tiliaceae 47 153 Achar gulla Grewia nervosa (Lour.) Panigrahi LC 154 Moos Brownlowia elata Roxb. VU (Continued) GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 303 Table 1. (Continued). Family No. Species no. Local name Scientiﬁc name Conservation status Ulmaceae 48 155 Naricha Trema orientalis (L.) Blume LC Urticaceae 49 156 Sunnot gach Sarcochlamys pulcherrima Gaud. NE but seems rare Verbenaceae 50 157 Goda Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer VU 158 Baramala Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. NE 159 Gamari Gmelina arborea Roxb. LC 160 Harina Vitex glabrata R.Br. LC 161 Arsol Vitex pinnata L. NE but seems rare 162 Teak Tectona grandis L.f. LC Abbreviations:CD – Conservation Dependent; CR – Critically Endangered; DD – Data Deﬁcient; EN – Endangered; LC – Least Concern; NE – Not Evaluated; NE but seems rare – NotEvaluated but seems to be rare; NT – Near Threatened; VU – Vulnerable. Superscripts:1 – Ahmed et al. (2008); 2 – Rahman (2013); 3 – Ara et al. (2013); 4 – FieldObservation/Experience. among all the categories (Table 1). Whatsoever, the conservation of the existing ﬂora and fauna of the Vulnerable, Endangered, Near Threatened and area. Unfortunately, the population of few species is so Critically Endangered tree species were represented poor that natural regeneration seems to be impossible. by 20% (32 species), 6% (9 species), 1% (1 species) Most of the tree species recorded from the forest are and 2% (3 species) respectively (Figure 3). degraded one. Some keystone tree species, e.g., Boilam, Garjan, Civit, Champa are very rare in the forests. Exceptionally few individuals are only avail- Discussion able in the oﬃce compound. At present extraction of all kinds of forest products, The present study revealed HWS as a diverse and well trespass, etc., are that disturbs the natural habitat is stratiﬁed natural forest being represented by 162 tree strictly prohibited in Hazarikhil WS. Community is species. The tree composition of HWS (133 tree spe- involved in protecting the remnant natural resources cies under 104 genera and 45 families) is quite greater of this forest. The group works under a Co-manage- than 85 tree species reported from Bamu reserve forest ment Committee (CMC) is formed involving the local of Cox’s Bazar (Hossain, Hossain, & Alam, 1997); 92 leaders. As a result, the adjacent people who are gen- tree species from Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary erally used to cut and collect the timber, fuelwood, (Rahman & Hossain, 2003); 102 tree species from bamboos, fence posts and house posts from the forests Boroitoli forest (Rahman, Hossain, Hoque, & Alam, are not allowed to do the same. Local people became 2004); 62 tree species from Tankawati natural forest conscious and trying to protect their forests from (Motaleb & Hossain, 2011); 77 tree species from deforestation. The Forest Department also extended Dudhpukuria Natural forest (Hossain, Hossain, & their responsibilities to strengthen the conservation Hossain, 2012); 18 tree species from Satchari measures of the remnant forest resources. National Park (Hossain, Hossen, & Akhter, 2018). But, it is quite lower in comparison to the 153-tree species reported from tropical forests of Eastern Ghats Conclusion India (Reddy, Babar, Amarnath, & Pattanaik, 2011); 162 tree species from primary forests of Garo Hills, HWS is rich in tree composition and diversity as repre- India (Kumar, Marcot, & Saxena, 2006). sented with 162 tree species including some threatened Protected Areas (PAs) play a key role to reduce and rare plant species. Physical observation during the deforestation, habitat loss and biodiversity loss. The study indicated that the vegetative resources are degrad- primary aim of establishing HWS was to strengthen ing rapidly. The main issues in the loss of tree diversity Figure 3. 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Oct 1, 2020
Keywords: Tree species; threatened; Hazarikhil; conservation; Wildlife Sanctuary
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