Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.
JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2023.2228858 URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN Ecological Wisdom and Inheritance Thinking of the Traditional Village’s Water Resources Management in Taihang Mountains a a a b Zurui Lin , Yuan Liang , Kaiyi Chen and Shuangshuang Li a b School of Architecture and Design, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China; Guizhou Natural Resources Survey and Planning Institute, Guiyang, Guizhou, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 10 February 2023 In the context of China’s rapid urbanization, the landscape texture and ecosystem of traditional Accepted 19 June 2023 villages are being constructively damaged, especially the water ecosystem responsible for maintaining the sustainable development of villages. It is urgent to explore the green con- KEYWORDS struction technology of traditional villages. However, some traditional villages in Taihang Taihang Mountains; Mountain area exist and develop in the environment of drought and flood, which contains Traditional village; Water rich ecological water resources management wisdom. Therefore, in this paper, Taihang resources management; Mountain is selected as the research area to collect data through literature analysis, field Inheritence research, and in-depth interviews. This study uses ArcGIS spatial analysis and statistical func- tions to analyze the acquired data and explore the water resources management practices of traditional villages based on three aspects: safety, function, and spirit. Then it summarizes four key inspirations for contemporary water resources management: “adapt to local conditions, pay equal attention to water use and prevention”; “division of labor and cooperation comple- ment each other”, “low cost, low technology, low maintenance” and “make the best use of materials and compound functions”. These advantageous insights can be offered for the preservation of traditional villages, the enhancement of the living environment, and the management and growth of urban stormwater. 1. Introduction village site selection, and spatial layout. Villages in The water resources environment is one of the key the Huanghe River Delta, for instance, are widely selection factors for traditional villages, according to spaced along the river’s path or its tributaries as a studies on traditional villages that China has been result of the Huanghe River’s diversion. In order to conducting since 2012 (Li et al. 2021). Early research better understand, preserve, and develop traditional on ancient water resources ecosystems was primarily villages in the Huanghe River Delta basin and other concerned with protecting ancient cities from flood - basin villages, Liu investigated this area from the per- ing. In “Ancient Cities of China in Flood Control Research spectives of village spatial position, spatial structure, of Ancient Cities of China”, for instance, Wu proposed and village water pattern (Liu 2021). Liukeng Village in the idea of a flood control strategy that includes “high, Jiangxi Province, which is by the bank of the Wujiang prevention, strengthening, storage, guiding, protec- River and surrounded by green mountains, was tion, management, and relocation.” (Wu 1995)In addi- selected by Min et al. as the research object, and by tion, from the perspective of flood control and examining its location layout, water resources man- drainage, they systematically examined and summar- agement system, and waterfront space, they came to ized the water system of the ancient city of Ganzhou the conclusion that it possessed wisdom regarding (Wu et al. 2020). Living on high ground, constructing water resources management (Min, Huang, and Duan city walls and retaining dikes, and creating water sto- 2018). They all researched towns with an abundance of rage ponds are three major adaptive landscape heri- water and close proximity to rivers. In fact, several tages of flood prevention and control in ancient cities academics have studied the infrastructure for water that Yu and Zhang summarized in their discussion of resources in arid regions. For instance, Ezgi Akpinar the flood disaster experiences of cities and towns in Ferrand and Fatima Cecunjanin studied traditional the Huanghe River inundation area (Yu and Zhang rainwater collection systems and came to the conclu- 2007). However, more and more research has been sion that they are helpful for enhancing microclimate conducted on the water environment of traditional (Ferrand and Cecunjanin 2014). The meaning and con- villages. Most academics have focused on the connec- cepts of “water resources management” in traditional tions between the water resources environment, villages were clarified by Ou et al. They also CONTACT Zurui Lin Linzr@cumt.edu.cn School of Architecture and Design, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent. 2 Z. LIN ET AL. investigated the causes and effects of waterlogging area is re-examined, typical villages are analyzed, and and conducted a thorough analysis of its impact on regional characteristics of “low-impact development” humanistic education, ecological water resources man- are summarized. The enlightening ecological wisdom agement, and construction technology (Ou, Li, and Sun of water management in the Taihang Mountain area is 2022). In Rome, ancient people collected rainwater further extracted to provide a reference for the improve- from roofs and recycled it in central cisterns (Mays, ment of the human settlement environment and the Koutsoyiannis, and Angelakis 2006). These scholars construction of stormwater management. The contents have conducted studies on a certain kind of water and goals of this paper are to: (1) trace the systematic environment facility in different regions, reflecting presentation of traditional village water resources man- the wisdom of traditional village water environment agement and gradually analyze the practice system of facilities, but lacking a systematic compendium of traditional village water resources management from water environment facilities. At the same time, due to the aspects of safety, function, and spirit; (2) reveal the the regional differences that lead to different charac- ecological wisdom contained in water environment teristics of the construction of the village water envir- facilities in traditional villages; (3) reflect on contempor- onment, the above studies lack an exploration of ary water resources management construction; and (4) common problems. put forward ecological sustainable cultural inheritance In general, the research on ancient stormwater man- and translation ideas to adapt to the development of agement experience is relatively complete, and the The Times. importance of historical experience to modern construc- tion has been noted at the present stage, but there are still limitations to the research on this topic. First, many 2. Study area and methodology scholars only focus on the “storage” and “drainage” of a 2.1. Study area certain facility as an example; they ignore the inextric- ably linked between facilities, fail to consider the village The Taihang Mountain region is the focus of the water environment as an organic whole, and lack a research in this paper. Geographically, it is bounded systematic and comprehensive review of traditional vil- by the Sanggan River and Yongding River in the north, lage water environment facilities. Second, there is a lack reaches Qinhe Plain on the north bank of the Huanghe of specialized cultural inheritance and rejuvenation River in the south, reaches Xinding Basin, Taiyuan measures, and most experts only consider the influence Basin, and Linfen Basin in the north and south, and of material space form on communities and the aquatic borders the North China Plain in the east. Taihang environment, ignoring the influence of cultural and Mountain is a long strip from the northeast to the spiritual aspects. Third, while the Taihang Mountain southwest, with an average elevation of 864 m. It region is a semi-arid environment in the north that spans Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, and Henan provinces, should take into account both summer flood disasters with 665 traditional villages (Figure 1). Flooding when and winter drought disasters, most experts focus their it rains and drought when it doesn’t can be used to research on flood management measures in the south- describe the characteristics of the water environment. ern portions of China with dense water networks. On the one hand, the climate is a temperate semi- Therefore, Although the existing research results can humid continental monsoon climate with an irregular be learned and used for reference, regional differences spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, which is will produce different characteristics in the construction concentrated from July to September, accounting for of village water environment, which cannot be blindly about 50%–70% of the annual precipitation (Xing applied. China’s urban and rural construction pays 2008); however, the average soil layer is less than 15 attention to green, ecological, and sustainable develop- cm, the soil is relatively poor, and water retention is ment. However, more planners ignore the texture and poor, resulting in 66% of rainwater loss, coupled with a culture of villages and renew and transform traditional large number of hills (about 73%), which is very likely villages with a one-size-fits-all approach to “urbaniza- to cause flash floods; Secondly, a large concentration tion”, which leads to the continuous decline and even of rainwater confluence during the rainy season makes disappearance of traditional villages. Moreover, the eco- the flood level of the river system increase sharply and logical and energy-saving wisdom contained in tradi- is also very easy to cause flooding (Han 2020). On the tional villages has not been fully explored, so it is urgent other hand, rainfall is comparatively infrequent the rest to protect traditional villages and explore their ecologi- of the year, with the exception of July to September, cal wisdom. In this paper, traditional villages in the and there aren’t many surface water resources. Taihang Mountain area are taken as the research object. Although loose granitic fissures and limestone karst Based on literature and field research, GIS software is regions have enriched groundwater, these regions used to analyze the location of traditional villages in the are in the earth-rock mountains of northern China, research area according to elevation. The ancient con- where there is no comprehensive water storage sys- struction of traditional villages in the Taihang Mountain tem, making it difficult to access and extract these JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 Figure 1. Extent of the Taihang Mountains (From the author). scarce but precious groundwater resources. In addition seeking advantages and avoiding hazards to water”. to the rainy season, the other three seasons are Firstly, the ArcGIS10.8 software is used to analyze the often dry. buffer zone of the main river at 500 meters and 1000 meters to study the coordinate points of traditional villages, and then the elevation analysis diagram is 2.2. Data collection superposed. It is known that the traditional villages less than 500 meters away from the river system are In the form of main data and secondary data, respec- mostly located on the valley platform. Traditional tively, spatial data and other auxiliary data were gath- villages within the range of 500–1000 meters are ered. The field survey of this study was conducted from arranged on gentle slopes in combination with August 2022 to February 2023, and the dry season and mountain conditions, while traditional villages larger flood season were respectively investigated to make than 1000 meters are mostly located on higher ter- the data more comprehensive and accurate. The infor- rain. Since most villages are now facing the following mation required for this study was gathered from a problem, this paper mainly selects 58 typical tradi- variety of sources, including websites, books, relevant tional villages with rich cultural heritage, obvious government organizations, direct field observation, geographical advantages, and large permanent and field mapping. Satellite imagery, elevation data, populations according to the elevation section village locations, regional boundaries, the locations of (Figure 2); secondly, as the foundation for its research water environmental facilities (such as wells, waterlog- and for its argument, this study collected and com- ging, springs, and drains), meteorological information, piled ancient and contemporary Chinese and foreign and river data are all needed for this study. works on low-impact development and historic stormwater management experiences, as well as 2.3. Researchmethods information on physical geography, human history, village records, family trees, and other topics in the The foundation of this research is a review of the Taihang Mountain region; thirdly, we conducted literature, a field investigation, a case analysis and three field surveys in typical villages selected for summary, and a software analysis. This study used 10–15 consecutive days each time, conducted in- 665 villages in the Taihang Mountain region as its depth interviews with villagers, took photos, mapped research subject. And these villages are among the and recorded them, understood the construction five batches of traditional Chinese villages listed in process and functions of water environmental facil- the paper. This paper uses Baidu map API to pick up ities, obtained real and effective basic data and rele- the coordinate system to obtain the geographical vant information, and had a more intuitive and coordinates of each village and visualize them in practical cognition of the research object, laying a ArcGIS to get their general distribution characteris- solid foundation for the research (Figure 3). Fourth, tics. Then, typical villages are selected according to the case study and induction method are used to the research focus of this paper “traditional villages’ 4 Z. LIN ET AL. Figure 2. The village of choice (From the author). study the research villages, summarize the ancient 3. Analysis of a multidimensional system of camping characteristics and problems in develop- water environment management practices ment, and extract the universal characteristics, The characteristics of the water environment in the which can provide a reference for the conservation Taihang Mountain area determine the water resources and renewal of traditional villages; at last, the satel- management objectives: to address seasonal floods and lite images and vector data of the villages are down- droughts, which differ significantly from those in south- loaded by using WeMap, and the acquired data are ern China (Wang, Han, Wang, & Wang 2021) (Table 2). added to ArcGIS 10.8 for hydrological analysis and Compared with the national disaster situation, on the one spatial analysis (Table 1). Figure 3. Field research process (From the author). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 Figure 4. Location of Taihang Mountains in the National flood disaster distribution map. hand, the Taihang Mountain area is in the serious area 3.1. Safety dimension: water environment management practices based on flood control and (east) and heavy area (west) of rainstorm flood disasters; drainage On the other hand, it is basically in the medium-high frequency area of drought, and the disasters are more 3.1.1. Blocking external water: avoidance and serious in general (Figures 4 and 5) Therefore, water interception The external floods faced by the traditional villages in resources management plays an important role in the the Taihang mountain area are mainly the external development of villages. The internal and external multi- mountain torrents and river floods in the period of dimensional water resources management ecosystem the rainstorm, which have the characteristics of sud- constructed by the ancestors in response to nature is den rise and fall and short duration. both ecological practice wisdom and ecological philoso- phy wisdom (Figure 6). 22.214.171.124. Avoidance. Avoidance is to follow the laws The subject of water resources management is people, of nature to cleverly choose the layout of the site to and the object of service is also people. According to avoid external flooding of the water resources man- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, human needs are hierarch- agement ideas. The traditional villages in the hillside ical, so water resources management should also be are mostly located in the watershed area of the ridge based on the corresponding hierarchy: Ensuring village zone under the contour lines, avoiding the invasion of safety is to meet the lowest demand for survival; meeting mountain floods with the natural law of “Valleys gather the water function of production and life and even eco- water and ridges divide it”, such as Guangou village, logical aspects is the basic demand of serving life and Hougou village, Xiaodianhe village, Liuliqu village, and development. Spiritual identity, such as culture and sys- Wangnao village (Figure 7), etc. The layout of the tem, is a higher level of demand to maintain a sustainable traditional villages in the valley area not only avoids operation. Based on this, this paper analyzes the multi- the rain and flood catchment area but also is on a dimensional water resources management practice sys- gentle slope to avoid flooding, such as Xiamen village, tem of traditional villages from the three levels of security, Duan village, Lingshui village, etc. While traditional function, and spirit, and reveals its ecological wisdom. villages near the main rivers are generally located in a 6 Z. LIN ET AL. Figure 5. Location of Taihang Mountains in the National drought hazard distribution map. Table 1. Research methods, survey contents. Research methods Survey contents Survey period Literature analysis method Natural geography, history and humanities, village history and genealogy, various plans, etc. 2022.8.1–2022.8.10 Field survey method and Data acquisition, distribution, quantity and quality of water environment facilities; residents’ 2022.8.15–2022.8.30 interview method satisfaction; construction time and function of water environment facilities in villages 2022.10.3–2022.10.13 2022.12.7–2022.12.22 Case study and General characteristics of water environment facilities in each region 2022.8.15–2023.2.10 summarization method Software Analysis Method Traditional village distribution location; hydrological analysis; spatial analysis 2022.8.1–2023.2.10 Table 2. Comparison of characteristics of water environment, types of water disasters, and internal needs of water resources management between traditional villages in the South and the North. Objectives of water resources Traditional village Characteristics of the water environment Types of water hazard management Traditional villages in southern River network Floods Flood Control and Drainage, Moisture- China wet and rainy proof Traditional villages in northern Fewer river systems, Lack of rain and Alternation of droughts and Water storage, water use and water China Drought floods drainage straight line or bend inside the convex bank of the river In addition, some traditional villages, especially section on the terrace. As the Qing Dynasty feng shui gully villages, are not only concentrated on one side scholar Xiong Qifan said in “The Secret of Geomancy” in of the gentle slope but also distributed on both the discussion: “Inside the river curve is an auspicious sides. The main street is made in accordance with place, outside the river curve is a vicious place”, they the flow law of the water, and the residential build- tend to be located in “the river bend of the high ings are distributed along the slope on both sides ground”, which has the advantage of natural defense of the channel (gully), so that the river and the against floods (Figure 8), such as Chian village and street can jointly divert the transit flash floods, Douzhuang village. such as in the villages of Xisuohuang and JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 6. Water resources management system in traditional villages (From the author). Figure 7. Illustration of the siting layout of Wangnao Village (From the author). Shangzhuang. Shangzhuang ancient village is discharge channels. Due to the ancient warfare in the divided into two parts: north and south. There is a Taihang Mountains, most traditional villages set up seasonal river in the valley: Zhuanghe, which is a fortress walls, and fortress gates to enhance their road when it is sunny, and a river when it is raining, defense. The wise ancestors combined them with “taking the road instead of the ditch” to receive the flood control, who used the walls to block the flood floods in transit and flow out of the village quickly water and then combined it with the flood drains out- (Figure 9). side the walls to divert the flow, and the fort gates 126.96.36.199. Block and Intercept. Some studies have were set up with water gates to act as gates to regulate shown that walls, retaining walls, and flood control the water entering the villages by opening and closing walls could be used as barricades in the path of rain- them, typical of which are the mainstay cities, water catchment to avoid external flooding, which was Diqicheng, Tuncheng, and Guoyu village in the Qin an artificial means of flood control in ancient times River basin. Flood control walls are mainly built in (Figure 10) (Wang 2021). Walls and retaining walls low-lying areas and are often found in villages with often intercept water at higher elevations to prevent river systems in the outer valleys to prevent the flood - excessive floods from flowing into the village, and ing of river systems from flooding the village during drainage is carried out in combination with flood heavy rainstorms, such as in Cuandixia village. 8 Z. LIN ET AL. Figure 8. Site se lection of villages to avoid seasonal river floods in water resources management (From the author). Figure 9. Quantitative study on main street of Shangzhuang Ancient village Based on ArcGIS (From the author). 3.1.2. Drainage of waterlogging: system synergy to the rainfall and pavement materials, 2% to 6% of the The drainage and flood discharge in traditional villages whole slope is processed, and in the courtyard around the is coordinated with the functional nodes of decentra- building, set up drainage recesses (also set up the dark lized storage, stagnation, infiltration, and drainage ditch, but not common), and the roof drainage and court- “according to the potential”, forming an efficient and yard rainwater with a weak slope gathered in the recesses coordinated systematic drainage level with courtyards after the drainage outlet to the street (Figure 12). as the unit, streets as the thread, and the river system as the endpoint, rapidly removing surface runoff and 188.8.131.52. Street drainage. The total amount and preventing waterlogging (Figure 11). duration of seasonal flooding faced by Taihang Mountains are relatively small, and streets and 184.108.40.206. Building and courtyard drainage. Buildings alleys generally serve the function of organizing and courtyards are the most basic structural units of rainwater transmission and diverting surface runoff internal drainage organization. The flat roof of the cave (S. M. Wang 2021). Based on field investigation, dwelling and the hard-slope roof of the building both use most of the traditional villages have a certain topo- the slope to exclude rainwater. The yard is generally of the graphic elevation difference. The ancestors used courtyard type; the overall slope is not flat, but according the natural terrain to lay out the main streets and JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 Figure 10. Schematic diagram of two ways of intercepting flood in traditional villages (From the author). Figure 11. Systematic collaborative operation system of drainageC organizations in traditional villages [Source (Zhou et al. 2022),: revised by the authors]. Figure 12. Courtyard with high middle and low sides and drainage grooves [Source (S. M. Wang 2021),: revised by the authors]. 10 Z. LIN ET AL. Figure 13. Diagram of drainage subdivision in Cuandixia village (From the author). Figure 14. Central concave-arc street cross-section (From the author). alleys and determine the main “waterway” from pavement is mostly made of local materials such as high to low. When the slope was large, they also green stone slabs and sandstone, which are porous set the streets and alleys into “Z” or “S” shapes to and have good water absorption and permeability, slow down the slope and reduce the water speed, combined with drainage and permeability after spli- such as in Yingtan village, Hougou village, and cing with the inverted trapezoidal practice (Han 2020). Daqian village. The secondary alley is connected to the main alley according to local conditions, 220.127.116.11. Ditch drainage. Some traditional villages dividing the building into various groups and also incorporate ditches for drainage, which are divided draining rainwater from the courtyards of the resi- into natural ditches and artificial ditches. Natural ditch dential houses into the main alley. This is similar to drainage is usually organized by using the existing modern partition drainage, such as in Cuandixia water system and flood drains in the village, such as in village (Figure 13). Yingtangu and Weizishui village, etc.; artificial ditch In addition, the width of traditional streets and drainage is usually organized by man-made culvert alleys is generally narrower, and most alleys, especially drainage. Although there are certain construction costs sub-alleys, are of the central concave arc type. and difficulties, the culverts can prevent stormwater Drainage is made from low-lying areas in the middle, from washing away the road and intensive land use and open ditches or culverts are selected only when (Figure 15), such as in Jiuguan, Wangnao, Daliangjiang, the slope is large or conditions permit (Wei Nan Zhou Xiangyu village, etc., especially in Daliangjiang village. 2018). Compared with the modern central convex road Because the village is located on the slope, the ances- surface, the central concave arc pavement can save tors’ attached importance to drainage and designed land and avoid erosion of the wall foundation without and built a stone drainage hole with a height of 1.5 affecting traffic (Figure 14). What’s more, the street meters and a width of 1 meter through the village at the JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 11 (a). The culvert is under the building (b). The culvert is located between buildings Figure 15. Schematic diagram of land saving in drainage culverts (From the author). beginning of the village construction to drain rainwater 3.2.2. Facilities construction, storage and use to the river under the mountain, leaving drainage space integrated below and creating space above, which is an example of According to the characteristics of the natural environ- modern urban construction. ment, the ancestors designed and built a series of wells, cellars, ponds, and other storage facilities to develop and utilize the potential water resources to 3.2. Functional dimension: water resources cope with drought. Especially in the utilization of rain- management practice based on water conservancy water, the collection and storage of rainwater during 3.2.1. Digging channels for water diversion and the rainy season from July to September, transformed water utilization. Drought in the spring and autumn into water resources in times of drought, which solved occurred frequently in the Taihang Mountain area. the problem of uneven distribution of rainfall in space Traditional villages show the characteristics of living and time, adjusted peaks and valleys and made a by the water, and a certain safe distance is maintained positive transformation between disasters and to avoid flooding, but the distance is often too large resources. due to the lack of scientific calculations, making it In the utilization of surface water, the ancestors more difficult for the ancestors to fetch water for usually built simple, and varying sizes of the Gutuo use. The central part of the Taihang Mountain area (in the riverbed flowing side of digging a pit, and has relatively more rainfall, and the loss of a large surrounded by a circle of stones, forming a clean amount of rain not only increases the disaster risk water pit) to accumulate river water and set up fixed but also wastes resources. The southeastern section points to carry water, and the bottom of the riverbed and the western middle section have a greater dis- will also seep out of the dew, so the water in the Gutuo tribution of large and clear springs, but the springs is relatively clean (Figure 16). For example, the tradi- are generally point-like and partly far from the vil- tional villages along the Taohe River, such as Yanhui lages, which makes it inconvenient for villagers to use water. Consequently, the wise ancestors built village, Shangpanshi village, and Xiabanshi village, all canals and other water channels to bring springs or have Gutuo. In ancient times, Shangpanshi village has external secondary, non-flood-threatening rivers and four big Gutuo to draw from the Taohe River. The rainwater into the villages by taking advantage of the whole village only uses dry wells in winter, and the natural terrain to facilitate the water demand for pro- rest of the time uses Gutuo. duction, living, and ecology. When there is a certain In the utilization of groundwater, especially in the height difference between the village and a tributary eastern and westernmost regions where the terrain is near a river with a relatively stable volume of water, low, the river system is abundant, and the geology is the village usually builds a ditch to bring the river dominated by loose rocks, it is usually used by drilling water into the village for use by taking advantage of wells, but they are similar to those in the whole coun- the height difference. For some villages where there is try, so it is not mentioned here. In the utilization of a catchment path for rainwater outside the village rainwater, water cellars, waterlogging ponds, and cis- that is not threatened by flooding, the village will terns were the most commonly built facilities by the generally use roads to bring the rainwater into the ancestors. It is very difficult to obtain groundwater and village for domestic use. Of course, there are also surface water in the central Taihang Mountain area, some villages where there are springs inside or out- and villages mostly use rainwater as their water source. side the village, and then the village will build flumes, Water cellars (also called dry wells in some villages) are etc., to allow water to flow through the villagers’ facilities for collecting, storing, and taking rainwater. households in a linear manner. Table 3 lists the They are the most numerous, widely distributed, and three types of open channel diversions (Table 3). common facilities with low technical difficulty, less 12 Z. LIN ET AL. Table 3. Three types of channel diversions and diversions for water use (From the author). Types Dig of channels to divert river water for use Dig of channels to divert rainwater for use Dig of channels to divert spring water for use Distinction The river flows slowly from the outside or inside of the Rainwater is introduced into the village for collection and utilization through The spring water flows through each house in the linear form of a sink and village parallel to the main street, which is “channels” under natural conditions. waterway, which is convenient for access. convenient for access. Main functions Production, Livelihood Livelihood Livelihood, Ecology Representative Tuncheng, Huaiyin, Douyu, Shijata, and Huangshuyan Shangpanshi, Malan, and Xijiao village Niangziguan, Dayangquan, and Shangzhuang village village village Specific illustration The transportation water channel used by Shangzhuang village in cooperation with the rolling water spring (the canal built in the village will flow spring water into the village, similar to modern “tap water”) Water diversion channel in Tuncheng village (the Water diversion channel of Shangpanshi village (the village uses the road as a village uses the terrain difference to divert the “diversion channel” to divert the rainwater separated from the ridge to the south Zhengcun River with a channel made of sand and and east of the village, which can solve the problem of water source access.) stone) JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 13 Figure 16. Profile of the Gutuo [Source (Zhou et al. 2022): revised by the authors]. Figure 17. Schematic diagram of the collection-storage-taking of the water cellar inside the courtyard (From the author). evaporation and leakage, and less pollution of water and solve water problems. Flood ponds and cisterns quality. In addition, most of them are built in yards or are often distributed in a planar form in the lowest part at the nodes of streets and alleys for convenient and of the village terrain or near the location of farmland, efficient access (Figure 17). Almost every family in using the natural terrain to achieve the collection and Jinzhong, Shanxi Province, has built water cellars. In storage of rainwater, with sedimentation ponds at the the Qing Dynasty, there were nearly 100 wells in inlet to remove impurities and garbage for natural Duanhe village. In Yujia ancient village, more than purification for daily drinking, laundry, washing dishes, 1000 stone wells and pits were dug to store water and other miscellaneous uses and firefighting use. The Figure 18. Section view of waterlogging pool (From the author). 14 Z. LIN ET AL. drainage outlet is directed to farmland or ditches to pool is combined with public buildings such as the meet farm irrigation, etc. (Figure 18). At the same time, viewing tower, Guanyin Pavilion and Bodhisattva the flood ponds can also stagnate rainwater, reduce Temple to form a large spatial landscape for public the total amount of runoff, reduce the peak runoff, activities, which improves the microclimate of the vil- delay the peak present time, etc., and they have the lage and also reflects life atmosphere. In the village of advantages of preventing flooding in the rainy season Niangziguan, linear springs and streamlet flow through and fetching in the drought, typical of such villages as the streets and residential buildings, where villagers Wangnao village, Ding village, Jiaquan village, and fetch water, do laundry and wash vegetables, and rest, Zhangbi village, etc. which improves the microclimate of the village and forms a lively and cheerful street landscape. 3.2.3. Environment construction and ecological harmony 3.3. Spiritual dimension: water resources Different from the widely constructed gardens in the management practice based on cultural beliefs south, there are few construction activities of “land- 3.3.1. The worship of gods and spirits in building scape for scenery” in Taihang Mountains, and more shrines and temples villages are “creating landscape according to local con- Influenced by traditional culture, the ancestors feared and ditions” to construct environmental space for leisure, worshipped nature, which is the inherent root of living in entertainment, culture, and microclimate improve- harmony with nature. Facing the problem of frequent ment. Along with the water extraction activities, peo- floods and droughts, the ancestors built many shrines ple gradually gathered in the places where wells, and temples to worship gods, such as the dragon king, public water cellars, waterlogging pools, canals, etc. water officials, and water gods, and they regularly held a were located. The ancestors set stone mills, stone series of sacrificial activities to pray for good weather mills, laundry, vegetable washing and other living (Table 4). From the perspective of water resources man- appliances near the facilities in combination with the agement, this cultural belief in god worship is not only a site conditions to form square space, which is both connection between village construction and spiritual water extraction space and public activity center for support for blessings but also a source of ecological communication and leisure, promoting the stability orientation for water resources management to respect and harmony of villages, such as Lingshui village, nature, practice the law of nature, and integrate nature Dayangquan village, Dijicheng village, etc. In addition, and humans, which is conducive to the inheritance of in summer, water of different sizes can absorb and belief, cognition, and treatment methods of water. accumulate heat, so that the temperature will not be too high; In winter, water can slowly release heat, so that the temperature does not get too low. Water 3.3.2. The belief of animism and pictographic systems, like “air conditioners”, regulate the microcli- simulacrum mate of villages and improve the quality of the ecolo- The ancestors believed in animism. The dragon and gical environment of village settlements, especially the turtle were auspicious and were believed to protect large surface water systems and linear water systems the village. In the process of water resources man- (Figure 19). In Ding village, the planar waterlogging agement, they used their image patterns to pray for Figure 19. Principle of water improvement on village microclimate and example landscape (From the author). Table 4. Gods worshipped and their wishes (From the author). Gods Dragon King River God Well God Pray Pray for the elimination of heat anddrought, and Pray for peace when the river is in Pray to make the well water sufficient and pure favorable weather. flood. and sweet. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 15 Table 5. Schematic diagram of the bionomic forms of some traditional villages that complement the natural environment (From the author). Bionic Form Dragon Boat Map of the village Shangfu village Tuncheng village Bionic Form Turtle Fish Map of the village Diqicheng village Dianshang village the village to exist in nature with a bionic form and form of water volumes and monuments, which are inte- vitality, which was a metaphor for the natural ecolo- grated into the villagers’ daily life behavior and conscious- gical value of “imitating nature and integrating nat- ness in the form of precepts and rules to deal with various ure and humans”. In traditional villages in the problems arising from water (Lin et al. 2015). For example, Taihang Mountain area, there are many bionic Yujiagu village formulated the “Liuchi Prohibition” to shapes, such as “dragon, turtle, and ship” (Table 5). ensure the conservation and reasonable distribution of “Dragon”, a symbol of good luck, can turn disasters water resources; In the village of Dahushu, the Forbidden into blessings. And it is also given the image of a Stele of Dahushu village was carved, which prohibited all deity in charge of rainfall in all seasons. Building kinds of acts of water pollution in wells. Mapaoquan villages by imitating the shape of dragons, implying village has made regulations on the use of the three smooth winds and rain and a healthy life, such as pools of water in the village. These simple systems Shangfu and Baizhongbao village. “Turtle”, is capable guide the maintenance of water resources and the use of longevity, has strong vitality, and can predict good of water, and the entire village participates in water fortune. It adjusts the layout of villages in the form of resourses management, thus ensuring the sustainability a turtle, implying that the golden turtle is seeking of water resources. water and hitting the water, such as Lingshui, Diqicheng, Xiaodianhe, Ding village, and so on. “Boat”, which means to ride the wind and waves, is 4. Concise ecology wisdom of water resources safe, stable, and unsinkable. In addition, some vil- management in traditional villages lages imitate phoenixes, fish, and other forms accord- 4.1. Adaptation to local conditions, pay equal ing to the natural environment for good luck. attention to prevention and use Moreover, the site environment of the “Pictorial Mimicry” village was deeply investigated, and its bio- Water resources management analyzes, judges, and nic form was not only the psychological comfort of responds to the characteristics of the village site, praying for the harmony of the village water driven by the pressure of survival and the constraints resources but also the result of clever adaptation to of the natural environment, complies with and makes the environment. use of the objective laws of nature, reduces the dis- turbance to nature, and integrates water resources management demands into nature through the con- 3.3.3. Plain water resources management and cept of adaptation rather than confrontation with as utilization system little artificial construction as possible to achieve har- Based on cultural beliefs, production, and life experience, mony between village and water. In addition, the some traditional villages have also formulated strict water management of water resources in villages pays resources management and utilization systems in the 16 Z. LIN ET AL. Figure 20. Division of labour between the various components of water environment management (From the author). attention to the dual character of rainwater. It not rainwater runoff, reduce peak flows, recycle rainwater, only pays attention to flood control and drainage and maintain the natural hydrological cycle (Figure 20). but also focuses on water storage and diversion, stor- ing flood water when flooded and supplying water 4.3. Low cost, low technology, low maintenance when drought strikes, turning flood water in the flood season into a resources in the arid season, and turning The ancestors had a clear awareness of their limited harm into benefit (Li et al. 2021; Xu, Wang, and Wang capacity, and at the beginning of the construction, 2017). they tried to make the village in a less disaster-prone position as much as possible, using mostly local mate- rials and simple traditional techniques to build the 4.2. Division of labour and cooperation, facilities. In addition, the water environment facilities complement each other are integrated into nature, participate in the villagers’ production and life, and are closely related to the Kongyawei takes four typical villages located in arid, villagers’ behavioral activities. As an important part of semi-arid, semi-humid, and humid areas of China as the village space, it can be consciously maintained by examples. Water facilities are divided into four subsys- the villagers every day. What’s more, the process is tems: supply, collection, transmission, and treatment. simple, and the maintenance cost is low. He analyzes the wisdom of water management in tra- ditional villages, such as water intake and supply, water transmission and drainage, waterproofing and water 4.4. Make the best use of things and compound collection, and wastewater reuse (Kong, Cao, and Jiang functions 2022). Therefore, water resources management is an internal and external organic system, regardless of the Traditional water environment facilities meet the type of village. The various links and processes are not requirements of water consumption but are also segmented and isolated, but closely coordinated and important nodes of the village’s open space. For exam- synergistic. Buildings, courtyards, streets, water envir- ple, during the heavy rainfall season, the waterlogged onment facilities, farmland, rivers, or even roof tiles pond can store water to prevent flooding and at the and street paving are all involved in the system opera- same time assume the functions of water for livestock, tion of water environment management. Infiltration, irrigation, women’s laundry, and children’s play. In storage, purification, utilization, and drainage comple- addition, the roads in most traditional villages not ment each other to jointly reduce the total amount of only meet the traffic demand but also serve as flood JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 17 Figure 21. Relationship between traditional water ecological wisdom and the sponge city concept (From the author). passages, and the walls are both defense facilities and longer have significance in contemporary times. also have the function of intercepting floods (Zhao et Therefore, we need to carry out a comprehensive al. 2018). They all reflect the wisdom of making the assessment of traditional water resources manage- best use of things and making the functions multiple. ment wisdom and then pass it on. In particular, the organic combination of the water Contemporary stormwater management meets environment facilities creates a leisure and cultural development needs but relies too much on technology landscape space that is real and natural, and the func- for active control, which mainly uses stormwater pipe tional and cultural landscapes are integrated with each networks and other drainage facilities to reduce flood - other, improving the microclimate and enhancing the ing (Zhou and Zhu 2022), but if applied to traditional quality of the human living environment. villages, it may cause damage to the ecological envir- onment and historic preservation buildings. Traditional water resources management is mostly adapted to nature, but there are limitations of the times that 5. Discussion on contemporary inheritance need our dialectical cognition and reference. We The ecological wisdom of water resources manage- should extract the essence of traditional water ecolo- ment in traditional villages in the Taihang gical wisdom, such as concepts, technical measures, Mountains is adapted to the regional environment and systems, and summarize their classic “original and integrated into the village, which is a combina- form”, Let them complement and learn from each tion of respect for nature, the summation of pro- other with new concepts and technological systems duction and life experience, and the observance of to create the “new form” of the development of the customs and institutions. It has been tested over times, which not only has the modern “form” but also time in flood prevention, drainage, and coping with the traditional “spirit”, and makes clear the develop- drought and still has great ecological, economic, ment direction and thinking according to local condi- and social value for modern development. tions (Figure 21). Specifically, firstly, it can be However, traditional water resources management complemented and improved with modern concepts still has some disadvantages: First, traditional water and management systems to adapt to the develop- resources management is to serve the low produc- ment of the times and possess traditional wisdom at tivity level of farming society, lack of professional the same time; secondly, it can be adapted to modern and scientific support, and mostly favoring experi- technical measures, which are highly targeted but ence; second, village development, changes in pro- have a single function and are less flexible. In addition, duction, and lifestyle make the modern habitat applying the wisdom of traditional water resources environment have changed greatly; traditional management to village renewal, combining tradition water resources management has differences in and modernity, activating and continuing village cul- the times; third, the construction of ecological civi- ture in development, and triggering villagers’ recogni- lization has put forward higher requirements for tion and humanistic perception of local culture is also village development; Fourth, each village is equiva- the most dynamic way to protect and inherit. lent to a small internal self-digesting circulation system, there is a lack of unified planning within the town and city boundaries, and the pressure of 6. Conclusion ecological protection in the watershed is greater (Huang et al. 2023); Finally, some of the water The encroachment of ecological space such as farm- resources management measures are produced by land and woodland, the disorderly expansion of con- the influence of the ancient environment and no struction, the gray infrastructure cutting the original 18 Z. LIN ET AL. ecological texture, the excessive hardening of the sub- the Symbiosis of Human and Water.“ Master‘s Thesis. China University of Mining and Technology. strate, the original flooding space occupied by con- Huang, M., J. Qiao, Y. Yu, and D. G. Duan. 2023. “Water struction, etc. have disrupted the natural hydrological Management Wisdom of Dong Villages and Its cycle of villages, weakened the storage capacity and Enlightenment on Ecological Governance Under the elasticity, and increased the potential risk of flooding. Practical View of Nature.” City Planning Review 47 (1): Moreover, the problems of water pollution and short- 75–85. age are becoming increasingly serious, and scientific Kong, Y., S. Cao, and K. Jiang 2022. “Research on Water Management Wisdom of Traditional Villages in Typical concepts and methods are urgently needed for gui- Areas of China.“ Paper presented at the 2022 Industrial dance. The traditional ecological wisdom of water Architecture Academic Exchange Conference, Beijing, resources management in the Taihang Mountains is China. explored, summarized, and combined with modern Li, X. H., T. T. Fang, M. Zhang, and C. Q. Li. 2021. “Research on concepts for an inheritance that can effectively provide Construction Wisdom and Revival Strategy of Water inspiration and reference for the improvement of vil- Environment in Traditional Chinese Villages ——Taking lage habitat in the future. Dahezhuang Village in Hebei Province as an Example.” Traditional Chinese Architecture and Gardens 2021 (4): 73–77. Lin, Z. R., T. Ma, J. Chang, and Y. Yu. 2015. “Research on Evaluation System of Infrastructure Coordinated Acknowledgements Development in Traditional Villages.” Industrial The research was supported by the National Natural Science Construction 45 (10): 53–60. https://doi.org/10.13204/j. Foundation of China “Study on Characteristics and regenera- gyjz201510010 . tion of the traditional water-environment facilities of ancient Liu, Y. 2021. “Study on the Spatial Morphologic Type villages in Taihang Mountain Area (51778610)”. In addition, Characteristics and Water Adaptability Strategies of we would like to thank the leaders of the planning manage- Typical Villages in Huanghe River Delta.“ Master‘s Thesis. ment department, village leaders and local residents in Shandong Jianzhu University. Taihang Mountain area for their support of our project Mays, L. W., D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. N. Angelakis 2006, Oct 28-30). “A Brief History of Urban Water Supply in Antiquity.“ Paper presented at the 1st IWA International Disclosure statement Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilization, Iraklio, GREECE. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Min, Z. R., P. Huang, and Y. P. Duan. 2018. “Analysis the Wisdom of the Traditional Village’s Drainage System: Taking Liukeng Village in Jiangxi Province as an Notes on contributors Example.” Urban Development Studies 25 (1): 7–11. Ou, Y. P., X. L. Li, and J. Y. Sun. 2022. “Green Human Zurui Lin is Professor of Architecture and Head of the Settlement Construction Based on Water Management in Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Traditional Villages in Semi-Arid Areas: Taking Laochi in Design, China University of Mining and Technology Guanzhong Region as an Example.” City Planning Review (Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China). He obtained the certificate of 46 (11): 116–124. China's first-class construction engineer. He is also a member Wang, D. 2021. “Research on Flood Control and Relates of the Architectural Society of China. His main research areas Countermeasures of Historic City.“ Master‘s Thesis. China are rural planning and traditional village protection. Academy of Urban Planning & Design. Yuan Liang is a master's student in urban and rural planning Wang, S. M. 2021. “Study on the Construction Technique and at the China University of Mining and Technology. Her Adaptability of Traditional Water Environment Facilities in research focuses on urban and rural planning. Ancient Villages in Taihang Mountain Area.“ Master‘s Thesis. China University of Mining and Technology. Kaiyi Chen is a master's candidate at the China University of Wang, K. X., J. Y. Han, Z. R. Wang, and X. R. Wang 2021. Mining and Technology for urban and rural planning. He “Research on the Wisdom of Water Management in the specializes in studies on both urban and rural planning. Construction of Traditional Settlements in Songyang.“ Shuangshuang Li works at the National spatial planning Paper presented at the Chinese Society of Landscape office of the Guizhou Provincial Institute of Natural Architecture 2021, Changsha, Hunan, China. https://doi. Resources Investigation and Planning. The main contents of org/10.26914/c.cnkihy.2021.068257 the work are territorial space planning, village planning, Wu, Q. Z. 1995. “Research on Flood Control in Ancient cultivated land, and permanent basic farmland verification Chinese Cities.“ China Architecture & Building Press.” and rezoning. Wu, Q. Z., Y. Li, Y. J. Wu, C. H. Yu, and X. G. Liu. 2020. “Enlightenment of the Ancient Urban Canal System in Ganzhou to the Construction of Sponge City.” City References Planning Review 44 (3): 84–92+101. Xing, L. 2008. “A Probe into the Origin of the Social History of Ferrand, E. A., and F. Cecunjanin. 2014. “Potential of Water Conservancy-Concurrent Discussion on the Water- Rainwater Harvesting in a Thirsty World: A Survey of Centered Shanxi Society.” Journal of Shanxi University(phi- Ancient and Traditional Rainwater Harvesting losophy and Social Science Edition) 133 (1): 33–38. https:// Applications.” Geography Compass 8 (6): 395–413. https:// doi.org/10.13451/j.cnki.shanxi.univ(phil.soc.).2008.01.019 doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12135 . Han, L. W. 2020. “Study on the Construction Characteristics of Xu, D. M., M. M. Wang, and Y. C. Wang. 2017. “Link Between Traditional Villages in Taihang Mountain Area Based on Man-Made System and Nature: Inspired by the JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 19 Ecophronesis of Meipei Ancient Village in Jiangxi Villages in Yangquan.“ Master‘s Thesis. China University Province.” South Architecture 182 (6): 111–115. of Mining and Technology. Yu, K. J., and L. Zhang. 2007. “The Flood and Waterlog Zhou, W. N., K. Matsumoto, Z. R. Lin, and M. Sawaki. 2022. Adaptive Landscapes in Ancient Chinese Cities in the “Regional Characteristics of the Point-Like Historical Water Yellow River Basin.” Urban Planning 171 (5): 85–91. Supply Facilities of Traditional Villages in Semi-Arid China.” Zhao, H. Y., W. L. Xie, D. F. Lu, and B. Yang. 2018. “Ancient Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 21 (2): Ecological Practice Wisdom in Traditional Villages in North 634–644. https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2020.1838908 . China and Its Contemporary Enlightenment.” Modern Zhou, W. Q., and J. L. Zhu. 2022. “Review on Nature-Based Urban Research 2018 (07): 20–24. Solutions and Applications on Urban Waterlogging Zhou, W. N. 2018. “Research on Construction Characteristic of Mitigation.” Acta Ecologica Sinica 42 (13): 5137–5151. Traditional Water Environmental Facilities of Ancient https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb202106021454.
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jun 28, 2023
Keywords: Taihang Mountains; Traditional village; Water resources management; Inheritence
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.