JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 2021, VOL. 20, NO. 5, 512–519 https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2020.1800476 ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING AND DESIGN Evaluation of daylight distribution and space visual quality at medical centers through spatial layout a b Seyede Rahime Mousavi Asl and Hossein Safari a b Architecture Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran; Department of Architecture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 15 January 2020 This research investigates the impact of the layout of the interior spaces, as an independent Accepted 16 July 2020 variable, on the distribution of daylight factor, uniformity rate, drift magnitude, maximum radial line of sight and visual mean depth as dependent variables in medical centers. KEYWORDS A quantitative-qualitative research methodology was adopted, including library studies and Daylight; visual comfort and computer-assisted simulations using Relux software. Also, Depthmap software was utilized to quality; Relux; Depthmap; study the indices of space visual quality through Isovist analyses under some scenarios. Results Isovist analysis indicated that the appropriate and utilization-oriented layout of interior elements takes a significant part in improving the space visual quality experienced by the users. In this study, an L-type layout with openings oriented toward the light source and vertical partitions along the path through which the daylight got into space was presented as a suitable plan for medical centers as far as optimal and appropriate distribution of daylight within standard ranges were concerned. This layout provided a uniformity rate of 0.5 and a daylight factor close to 5%, with the indicators of space visual quality being more favorable, as compared to the other layouts considered in this study. Goal Mothodology Results investigates the impact an L-type layout with op A quantitative-qualitative research of the layout of the in enings oriented toward methodology was adopted, includi terior spaces, as an ind the light source and ver -ng library studies and computer ependent variable, on tical partitions along th assisted simulations using Relux the distribution of day e path through which software. Also, Depthmap software light factor, uniformity the daylight got into space was utilized to study the indices provided a uniformity rate ,rate, drift magnitude of space visual quality through and a daylight fa of 0.5 maximum radial line of Isovist analyses under some scen ctor close to sight and visual mean %5 .arios depth as dependent 1. Introduction with vision and a rhythm of life. The motion of the sun determines our perception of the world. Therefore, the Utilization of natural light and heat from the sun sun is an essential element to enhance the quality of through appropriate solutions during the day can lar- life. Solar radiation is an important component of the gely address the users' demands for lighting applica- climate and human comfort in both indoor and out- tions while preserving the balance in the environment door spaces, so that failure to account for the sunlight (Kurian et al. 2008; Doulos, Tsangrassoulis, and Topalis in buildings or outdoor spaces can end up with a sense 2008; Loutzenhiser, Maxwell, and Manz 2007). Daylight of discomfort (Van Esch, Looman, and de Bruin-hordijk is an important and much-regarded element for those 2012). A lot of researchers around the world have who are looking to obtain a standard certificate for performed numerous studies on the daylight adminis- Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) tration. A summary of such studies has been men- (Sharp et al. 2014). Appropriate lighting of spaces tioned in the following. Cotegen, Veitch, and represents an always-concerned topic for designers in Newsham (2008) presented research based on ques- both qualitative and quantitative aspects. As such, they tionnaires and computer-assisted simulations to eval- have been continuously attempting to take advantage uate the effect of daylight intensity and duration on of daylight to bring about visual, mental, and physical the employees’ satisfaction in-office plans. The results comfort for the users (Altomonte 2008). As a resource, showed that the variation of the daylight intensity the sun is a necessary element for providing humans during the day imposed positive impacts on the CONTACT Hossein Safari firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Architecture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran This article has been republished with minor changes. These changes do not impact the academic content of the article. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 513 qualitative range of vision, visual comfort, and the to mental fatigue. Based on a series of research by employees’ satisfaction. They further suggested that Kaplan, however, the mental fatigue can be improved the appropriate window size depends on the user’s provided the reconstructive environment offers the distance to the window, the window height, the line following four features: departing from the ring of of sight, and the type of sight. Users tend to capture focus, extending the field of view, fascination and a full vision of the object; that is, why they tend to go attraction, customization of the environment to the for wider windows if they are relatively close to the individuals’ demands (Kaplan and Kaplan 2003). In exterior objects and rather opt for narrower windows another piece of research, solitude has been referred when they are relatively far from the exterior scene to as a factor contributing to the subjective reconstruc- (Cotegen, Veitch, and Newsham 2008). In 2014, Yu tion. Humans need minimum degrees of mental tur- et al. published research where they stipulated that bulence along with solitude before they can perform the efficiency of the daylight and visual comfort activities appropriately; in the design stage, these are depends on such important factors as the geometry usually provided by creating privacies and sanctuaries of the room, window-to-wall ratio, surface reflections, for solitude (Evans and McCoy 1998). and exterior obstacles. The research has studied the According to research background, it can be con- annual sunlight of a training building in Nottingham cluded that few researches so far have studied the (England) using field measurements and Relux soft- function of daylight, energy consumption and Layout ware (Yu, Su, and Chen 2014). In another work, of internal spaces (architectural plan) in medical Rahman Jorder investigated the effect of daylight in spaces. Actually, all these three variations have not medical spaces on the patient treatment process been investigated simultaneously in recent studies so (Joarder and Rahman 2011). Aripin presented a study far, but they are investigated in this paper. Therefore, it where the impact of daylight at hospitals was investi- contributes to the novelty of the present research gated (Aripin 2007). Richard reported extensive whose results can help to the codification of related research on the evolution of the plan of future medical national codes and publications. Moreover, since that centers (Wolper 2012). Also, the following studies have the daylight contributes to the users’ efficiency, satis- focused on Isovist analysis around the world. The term faction and patients’ treatment directly, the provision Isovist (visual context) was coined by Tady (Tandy and of adequate sunlight should be a priority when design- Murray 1967). Benedikt (1979) worked on the Isovist ing a medical space. It leads to higher visual and properties to describe the environment with quantita- mental satisfaction levels among different groups of tive dimensions. He believed that the Isovist contexts individuals, thanks to the appropriate distribution of could measure some fundamental spatial qualities of the daylight. On the other hand, most of the researches the environment, whose conscious or unconscious on lighting have used the daylight factor and unifor- perception established a more complete basic descrip- mity rate as dependent variables to evaluate visual tive understanding of the environment (Benedikt comfort and daylight distribution. Therefore, the pre- 1979). In the post-Benedikt and Davis research works, sent research considers the role of architectural plan or the Isovist analysis served as an exact methodology for interior space layout in medical centers, as an indepen- producing the Isovist polygons, the foundation of dent variable, on the evolution of the dependent vari- deterministic mathematics evaluations, developed gra- ables of the research such as daylight factor, uniformity phical presentation of data, and true concept of the rate and indicators of space visual quality to achieve Isovist (Davis and Benedikt 1979). Looking to establish visual optimal conditions for users. For this purpose, relationships among experienced qualities at architec- basic studies were performed and computer-assisted tural spaces considering the spatial form and visual simulations were run by Relux and Depthmap soft- contexts (Isovist), Frenz and Winer used the environ- ware. Also, the Isovist software was further used to mental preference theory and suggested that there is study the visual quality indicators under the studied a significant relationship between the spatial charac- scenarios. Finally, based on the obtained results, the teristics and the perceptual response to the physical optimal scenario in terms of daylight and visual quality space (Franz, von der Heyde, and Bülthoff 2004)., Winer of the space was presented. et al. showed that Isovist analysis methodology pro- vides a promising tool for visioning the experienced 2. Material and methods architectural quality and motion in the space. Following the sanctuary landscape criteria, they asked This research includes three steps. First: library studies the participants to move through a virtual art gallery about daylighting, visual comfort and research back- and select the best location to hide and make observa- ground. Second, computer-assisted simulations by tions (Wiener and Franz 2005). An important theory for Relux software to evaluate the daylight indicators investigating the visual quality of the space is the such as daylight factor (DF) and uniformity rate (Uo). subjective focus reconstruction theory proposed by Third: analyze by Depthmap software to investigate Kaplan. According to this theory, arbitrary focus leads the space visual quality indicators through the Isovist 514 S. R. MOUSAVI ASL AND H. SAFARI methodology. In this way, the various proposed mod- els of internal space layout for medical centers were simulated and analyzed, using the mentioned software tools, in terms of the daylight distribution, visual com- fort and quality. Finally, the results were analyzed to present an optimal layout of daylighting and maxi- mum visual comfort and quality for medical spaces. Focusing on visual quality, Isovist analyses were con- ducted using Depthmap software to investigate var- ious scenarios and introduce the optimal one. In this regard, considering the objectives of the present Figure 1. Flowchart of the present research (Source: authors). research and closeness and overlapping of particular Isovist characteristics (to avoid possible reworks while a north-south direction, the room had its walls painted respecting the type of spatial experience associated in white and its floor finished with cement. The bright- with each Isovist characteristic), among others, three ness intensity was measured using a lux meter in Isovist characteristics, namely the drift angle, the max- absence of any artificial light at 40 points across the imum radial line of sight, and visual mean depth, were th room at 11 a.m., May 21 , 2020. After that, the real directly derived from the Depthmap software. To mea- model was simulated in Relux software. In the mea- sure these three indicators, the models have meshed surement and modeling stages, efforts were made to with 0.5 × 0.5 m grids and the values of all indicators keep the model free of any factor that might introduce were evaluated at the center of each grid. After that, error into the final results. Ultimately, the measured statistical analysis using SPSS software was done. The data were compared to the simulation results, with the Relux software was utilized as it serves as outcomes presented in Figure 2. The results indicated a computational tool for investigating the daylight in similar trends of behaviors in both the measured data interior rooms under clear/cloudy sky. As output, Relux and the simulation results with only minor difference gives 3D information of the room, 3D and 2D informa- between the corresponding values. It confirms the tion on the distribution of brightness on all walls, simulation results in this paper. Also, the visual quality minimum, maximum and mean values of the daylight indicators utilized in this paper and the experiential factor and brightness intensity, light color distribution properties that are conventionally associated with across interior spaces under different sky conditions, them are listed in Table 1. The correlation between room geometries, and room configuration (Bhavani experiential and measured properties proposed is con- and Khan 2011). Moreover, a wide spectrum of reflec - firmed based on the findings of past research. tions from and transmittances through the actual sur- faces and 3D demonstrations of the spaces, isolux, and brightness distribution curves, output sheets, the 3D 3. Daylight and visual comfort graph of the brightness and the sun height, and the list The source of sunlight is the sky outside of the build- of results were investigated at all points. The computa- ing. The presence of windows and skylights is neces- tional engine of this software works based on Radiance sary for the receipt of adequate daylight to address software where the ray tracing process is performed to spatial needs for light from the sky. Since the sky is, simulate high-quality images. The software further indeed, an always-varying source of light depending uses radiosity techniques for handling the data on the weather conditions and the time along the day, (Ruggiero, Florensa, and Dimundo 2009). Relux has been validated by comparing its results to those of SPOT and Daysim software packages, indicating the superior processing speed of Relux over the SPOT and Daysim, which were somehow time-intensive and costly (Iversen et al. 2013). Figure 1 presents the flowchart of the research. 2.1. Validation The Relux software used in this research was validated by measuring the brightness intensity on a real model. For this purpose, a room with the dimensions of 4 × 4 × 3.2 m (width × length × height) with a south- Figure 2. A comparison between the measured facing opening of 1.5 × 1.5 m at a height of 1.2 cm Illuminance(Lux) and that obtained from the simulation in above the floor was considered. Oriented along real model (Source: authors). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 515 Table 1. Visual quality indicators related to spatial experience there should be a graded spectrum of light from the (Ostwald and Dawes 2013; Meilinger, Franz, and Bulthoff outdoor space to the indoor space with moderate 2012). brightness intensity. Therefore, visual comfort is inves- Spatial tigated via uniformity rate (Uo) variable (Ruggiero, Indicator Description experience Florensa, and Dimundo 2009). Drift magnitude Distance from observation point to Visual pull (DM) center of mass of Isovist polygon strength Maximum radial Length of the longest single radial line Prospect line (RL(L)) used to generate the Isovist Visual mean Separating the observer point from the Separated 4. Result depth whole configuration space 4.1. Daylight factor and uniformity rate This section describes and analyzes the various model- it is relatively difficult to formulate a single design for ing of internal space layout under the considered sce- a specific level of brightness based on the daylight narios. For this purpose, the effects of different plans only. Therefore, instead of calculating exact levels of and layouts of interior spaces at medical centers on the light (in foot-candle or lux) in the space, a daylight distribution of daylight factor and uniformity rate were factor has been introduced to measure the relative studied by Relux software. Figure 3 presents the 10 level of light (Kilic and Hasirci 2011). According to the different scenarios, in terms of the layout of interior following equation (Tagliabue, Buzzetti, and Arosio spaces, considered in this study. Figures 4 and 5 pre- 2012), the daylight factor is the ratio of the brightness sent the results for; daylight factor and uniformity rate; at a specific point in the space to the brightness in an the dependent variables of this research. outdoor space with identical sky conditions, which is As mentioned, daylight factors in the range of expressed in percentage. Appropriate daylight for 2–5% indicate the suitable condition for a bright human activities corresponds to daylight factor (DF) space. In Figures 4 and 5, this implies that internal in the range of 2–6%. Accordingly, daylight factors space layout for scenarios 2, 6, 8, and 10 has pro- below 2% deem as inadequate while those beyond vided more balanced lighting conditions, as com- 6% lead to dazing (da Fonseca, Didoné, and Pereira pared to the other scenarios. Hence, in these 2013). A mean daylight factor of 4–5% is appropriate scenarios, daylight factor value is more close to for reading spaces (Alrubaih et al. 2013). Therefore, in standard range, and they have made a better visual the analyses performed in this research, the daylight space. While scenarios 1, 3, 4, 7, and 9 have led to factor was used as the dependent variable to evaluate too low values of daylight factor. Also, in scenario 5, the impact of the plan and layout of interior spaces on this value is out of the standard range for the day- the input daylight to space. On the other hand, the light factor (too bright). On the other hand, the continuously varying nature of daylight provides the value of the uniformity rate closer to 1 is more space with brightness and contrast, letting the eye get favorable in terms of daylight distribution. This continuously adapted to high intensities of light with- means the standard range for uniformity rate is out causing visual discomfort. This spontaneous between 0 and 1 and closer to 1 is more favorable. adjustment mitigates eye fatigue (Yu, Su, and Chen In this respect, among the considered scenarios, 2014). The general sense of comfort is a result of scenario 9 is out of the standard range, while sce- assessments made by the human senses. Visual com- narios 2 and 6 produced the closest rates to 1 as fort across an environment depends on the sense of compared to the other scenarios. Therefore, among sight, perception, space geometry, and its compatibil- the 10 scenarios considered in this study, scenarios ity with different activities undertaken by the occu- 2 and 6 led to the best responses for both of the pants. In total, the optimization of visual daylight factor (DF) and the uniformity rate (Uo). characteristics of interior spaces is the primary step Going into more detail, it can be figured out that toward achieving visual comfort. Visual comfort is scenario 2 has provided superior results in terms of improved when the visual messages are received daylight distribution in various interior layouts and from the visual environment. The design of the build- established further lighting balance for the users in ing must help achieve the visual comfort. The condi- different directions of internal space. Indeed, neither tions of visual comfort can be met by providing the space of too high nor too low brightness is obser- required brightness and uniform light distribution vable across the plan, and a rather balanced distri- while preventing possible glare. If these values are bution of the daylight is dominant in most of the not provided by the daylight, artificial light sources spaces. Besides, the very small deprived areas of the are needed. The visual comfort refers to the provision daylight could also be improved utilizing appropri- of comfort for the sense of sight at all positions and ate artificial light. Ultimately, this optimal distribu- mitigation of eye fatigue. Visual comfort of a space is tion of daylight across space in scenario 2 layout directly linked to the contrast and variability of the could improve visual comfort in internal spaces for brightness across space. To achieve visual comfort, users and satisfy the research goals. 516 S. R. MOUSAVI ASL AND H. SAFARI Figure 4. Brightness distribution (daylight factor) under differ - ent scenarios (Source: authors). Figure 3. Details of plans and layouts of interior spaces of a typical medical center under various scenarios considered in the simulation stage states, 2005)). 4.2. Visual quality indexes in the Isovist and Depthmap software Figure 5. Results of daylight factor distribution and uniformity In this section, the analyzation of three Isovist indica- rate under the 10 scenarios studied in this research (Source: tors and their correlation to two other variables are authors). discussed. According to Table 1, three indicators of drift magnitude, maximum radial line and Visual Mean depth have analyzed by Depthmap software index offers the visual tension and orientation at the through Isovist methodology for various layouts of point where spectator is supposed there. Based on medical centers in Figure 6. Also, the correlation of Figure 7, scenario 5 shows the highest value of this the daylight factor and uniformity rate with these index. Higher values of this index indicate the diver- three Isovist indicators was performed in the SPSS soft- gence of the interior design from the center of space ware. Figure 6 presents the results for the three Isovist and getting farther from congestion, which presents indicators and compares them for the 10 scenarios a more scattered spatial division to space Centre. Also, considered in this paper. it is one of the favorite spatial properties due to mental The Isovist drift angle index (drift magnitude (DM)) focus reconstruction theory. describes the distance from the spectator point to the The maximum radial line (RL(L)) of sight index refers center of mass of the Isovist polygon. Actually, this to the longest possible line of sight, which is about the JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 517 The visual mean depth index offers separation of spectator point from the whole of configuration. This index is connected with the spatial experience of iso- lated space. The highest value of this index was encountered under scenario2. Pearson’s test in the SPSS software was used to identify the correlation between different research variables due to data. In Table 2, the correlation or decorrelation coefficients have investigated at a significance level of α = 0.05. When the correlation coefficient (ρ) is closer to 1, the correlation between two variables in straight direction is more. Also, when the correlation coefficient (ρ) is closer to −1, the corre- lation between two variables in inverse direction is more. As well as, when the correlation coefficient is equal to 0(ρ = 0), there is not any correlation between the two variables. Table 2 shows the output of Pearson’s test. It indicates correlation coefficient (ρ) between the three Isovist indicators and the two day- light indexes at a significance level of 0.01. Therefore, the maximum radial line of sight index has an inversely related and negative correlation coefficient to the day- light factor and uniformity rate. On the other hand, the visual mean depth index exhibits a positive correlation to the daylight factor and uniformity rate. Also, the drift angle was found in a positive correlation to the daylight factor and a negative correlation to the uni- formity rate. Therefore, the visual mean depth has a positive and direct correlation to the daylight factor and uniformity rate. Ultimately, it figures out that sce- nario 2 is more balanced to various research variables. Indeed, it can be inferred that the layout of interior spaces under this scenario provides superior spatial division in terms of preserving privacy and territories. Figure 6. Demonstration of the maximum radial line of sight under different scenarios (Source: authors). 5. Conclusion In this paper, an analytic-descriptive approach was followed, and computer-assisted simulations were run by Relux and Depthmap software to investigate the effect of plan and layout of interior spaces on daylight distribution and space visual quality in medi- cal centers. Various types of architectural plan (layout Table 2. Demonstration of the correlations between different variables of the research (Source: authors). Visual Daylight Drift mag- Maximum mean factor Uniformity natude radial line depth (DF)% (Uo) Drift 1 .350 .180 .553 −.039 Figure 7. Results of the three Isovist indices under the 10 magnatude scenarios studied in this research (Source: authors). Maximum .350 1 .139 −.183 −.289 radial line Visual mean .180 .139 1 .405 .423 depth experience of the scene. According to Figure 7, sce- Daylight .553 −.183 .405 1 −.028 factor (DF) nario 3 provides the maximum radius of sight across Uniformity −.039 −.289 .423 −.028 1 space which makes a more utility space due to the rate (Uo) mental focus reconstruction theory. 518 S. R. MOUSAVI ASL AND H. SAFARI of the interior spaces), as an independent variable, and two fields of anesthesia and architecture. He have always been looking for a way to use these two fields together. daylight factor (DF), uniformity rate (Uo), drift magni- tude, maximum radial line and visual mean depth as Hossein Safari is an Iranian Architect, born in 1976. He has dependent variables were considered. Due to 10 var- obtained his Ph.D. degree from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Faculty of Built Environment in 2014. He is currently ious layouts in two stages of the research, the follow- an Assistant Professor at Islamic Azad University of Rasht ing conclusions were obtained. The minimum standard Branch. He joined faculty of School of Graduate Studies and range for uniformity rate (Uo) and daylight factor (DF) Technical Complex Since 2014. His current research interests is 0.6% and 2%. Besides, for medical space, the average include Wayfinding, Cognitive Map, Legibility, Geometry, and daylight factor should be 4% to 5% and any value Space Syntax. Along his career, he has been also a technical reviewer at some international journals. beyond 6% would be unacceptable. Hence, in terms of natural daylight distribution, scenarios 2 and 6 were found that return more balanced amounts of daylight References (daylight factor index (DF)) and provide better visual qualities (uniformity rate (Uo)). Also, it was evident that Alrubaih, M., M. F. M. Zain, M. Alghoul, N. L. N. Ibrahim, scenario 2 provides a better balance between different M. Shameri, and O. Elayeb. 2013. “Research and variables and is the optimal layout of interior spaces in Development on Aspects of Daylighting Fundamentals.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 21: 494–505. terms of Daylight factor and uniformity rate. Based on doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.057. the obtained values of visual quality by Isovist analysis Altomonte, S. 2008. “Daylight for Energy Savings and in the Depthmap software, it was found that scenario 3 Psycho-physiological Well-being in Sustainable Built returns the highest value of the radial line of sight. Environments.” Journal of Sustainable Development 1 (3): According to the subjective focus reconstruction the- 3–16. Aripin, S. 2007. “Healing Architecture: Daylight in Hospital ory, this leads to the higher utility of such spaces. The Design.” Paper Presented at the Conference on visual mean depth index was the highest under sce- Sustainable Building South East Asia, Malaysia, nario 2. Also, scenario 5 showed the highest value of November 5–7. the Isovist drift angle index. Ultimately, due to Benedikt, M. L. 1979. “To Take Hold of Space: Isovists and Pearson’s correlation test in the SPSS software, it Isovist Fields.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and founded that scenario 2 is the optimal interior layout Design 6 (1): 47–65. doi:10.1068/b060047. Bhavani, R., and M. Khan. 2011. “Advanced Lighting in medical centers. Indeed, it can be inferred that Simulation Tools for Daylighting Purpose: Powerful a change to the layout of architectural space can pro- Features and Related Issues.” Trends in Applied Sciences vide superior spatial division in terms of preserving the Research 6 (4): 345–363. doi:10.3923/tasr.2011.345.363. privacy and territories, and appropriate distribution of Cotegen, D., J. Veitch, and G. Newsham. 2008. “View Size and daylight led to enhanced daylight distribution and Office Illuminance Effects on Employee Satisfaction.” Proceedings of Balkan Light: NRCC-50852: 243–252. visual quality across space. The results of this research da Fonseca, R. W., E. L. Didoné, and F. O. R. Pereira. 2013. indicate that the interior layout type of architectural “Using Artificial Neural Networks to Predict the Impact of plans makes a significant impact on the distribution of Daylighting on Building Final Electric Energy daylight and space visual quality indicators in medical Requirements.” Energy and Buildings 61: 31–38. centers. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.02.009. Davis, L. S., and M. L. Benedikt. 1979. “Computational Models of Space: Isovists and Isovist Fields.” Computer Graphics and Image Processing 11 (1): 49–72. doi:10.1016/0146- Acknowledgments 664X(79)90076-5. Doulos, L., A. Tsangrassoulis, and F. Topalis. 2008. Thanks to authors for providing relevant technical “Quantifying Energy Savings in Daylight Responsive information. Systems: The Role of Dimming Electronic Ballasts.” Energy and Buildings 40 (1): 36–50. doi:10.1016/j. enbuild.2007.01.019. Disclosure statement Evans, G. W., and J. M. McCoy. 1998. “When Buildings Don’t Work: The Role of Architecture in Human Health.” Journal The authors declare that they have no known competing of Environmental Psychology 18 (1): 85–94. doi:10.1006/ financial interests or personal relationships that could jevp.1998.0089. have appeared to influence the work reported in this Franz, G., M. von der Heyde, and H. H. Bülthoff. 2004. paper. “Predicting Experiential Qualities of Architecture by Its The authors declare the following financial interests/per- Spatial Properties.” Paper Presented at the Proceedings sonal relationships which may be considered as potential of 18th IAPS-Conference, Vienna, Austria, January. competing interests. Iversen, A., N. Roy, M. Hvass, M. Jørgensen, J. Christoffersen, W. Osterhaus, and K. Johnsen. 2013. Daylight Calculations in Practice: An Investigation of the Ability of Nine Daylight Notes on contributors Simulation Programs to Calculate the Daylight Factor in Five Typical Rooms. Copenhagen: SBI forlagI; Danish Building Seyedeh Rahimeh Mousavi Asl lives in Giulan (from the Research Institute Aalborg University. northern cities of Iran). He have an academic education in JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 519 Joarder, M., and A. Rahman. 2011. Incorporation of Ruggiero, F., R. S. Florensa, and A. Dimundo. 2009. “Re- Therapeutic Effect of Daylight in the Architectural Design of interpretation of Traditional Architecture for Visual In-patient Rooms to Reduce Patient Length of Stay (Los) in Comfort.” Building and Environment 44 (9): 1886–1891. Hospitals. Bangladesh University of Engineering and doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.01.006. Technology, Central Library. http://lib.buet.ac.bd:8080/ Sharp, F., D. Lindsey, J. Dols, and J. Coker. 2014. “The Use and xmlui/handle/123456789/3528 Environmental Impact of Daylighting.” Journal of Cleaner Kaplan, S., and R. Kaplan. 2003. “Health, Supportive Production 85: 462–471. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.03.092. Environments, and the Reasonable Person Model.” Tagliabue, L. C., M. Buzzetti, and B. Arosio. 2012. “Energy American Journal of Public Health 93 (9): 1484–1489. Saving through the Sun: Analysis of Visual Comfort and doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1484. Energy Consumption in Office Space.” Energy Procedia 30: Kilic, D. K., and D. Hasirci. 2011. “Daylighting Concepts for 693–703. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.11.079. University Libraries and Their Influences on Users’ Tandy, C. R., and A. C. Murray. 1967. “The Isovist Method of Satisfaction.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 37 (6): Landscape Survey. Methods of Landscape 471–479. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2011.07.003. Analysis.” Landscape Research Group, London 9–10. Kurian, C. P., R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. George. 2008. “Robust Van Esch, M., R. Looman, and G. de Bruin-hordijk. 2012. “The Control and Optimisation of Energy Consumption in Daylight Effects of Urban and Building Design Parameters on Solar —Artificial Light Integrated Schemes.” Lighting Research & Access to the Urban Canyon and the Potential for Direct Technology 40 (1): 7–24. doi:10.1177/1477153507079511. Passive Solar Heating Strategies.” Energy and Buildings 47: Loutzenhiser, P. G., G. M. Maxwell, and H. Manz. 2007. “An 189–200. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.11.042. Empirical Validation of the Daylighting Algorithms and Wiener, J. M., and G. Franz. 2005. “Isovists as a Means to Associated Interactions in Building Energy Simulation Predict Spatial Experience and Behavior.” In International Programs Using Various Shading Devices and Windows.” Conference on Spatial Cognition. Spatial Cognition IV, LNAI, Energy 32 (10): 1855–1870. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2007.02.005. 42–57. Vol. 3343. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Meilinger, T., G. Franz, and H. Bulthoff. 2012. “From Isovists https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32255-9_3 via Mental Representations to Behavior: First Steps toward Wolper, L. F. 2012. Physician Practice Management. 2nd ed. Closing the Causal Chain.” Environment and Planning B: Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Planning and Design 39 (1): 48–62. doi:10.1068/b34048t. Yu, X., Y. Su, and X. Chen. 2014. “Application of RELUX Ostwald, M., and M. Dawes. 2013. “Prospect-refuge Patterns Simulation to Investigate Energy Saving Potential from in Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie Houses: Using Isovist Fields Daylighting in a New Educational Building in UK.” Energy to Examine the Evidence.” The Journal of Space Syntax 4 and Buildings 74: 191–202. doi:10.1016/j. (1): 136–159. enbuild.2014.01.024.
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
– Taylor & Francis
Published: Sep 3, 2021
Keywords: Daylight; visual comfort and quality; Relux; Depthmap; Isovist analysis