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GeoloGy, ecoloGy, and landscapes, 2017 Vol . 1, no . 3, 205– 212 https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2017.1363972 INWASCON OPEN ACCESS Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of JHAL flyover and underpass project in Faisalabad a a a a a b Hafsa Yasin , Muhammad Usman , Haroon Rashid , Abdul Nasir , Asma Sarwar and Ijaz Ahmad Randhawa a b d epartment of s tructures and environmental engineering, University of a griculture, Faisalabad, pakistan; civil engineering, University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, pakistan ABSTRACT KEYWORDS eIa; respondents; In order to facilitate the study and estimate the environmental impacts of any developmental questionnaire; project, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a compulsory component for implementation environmental parameters of the project. EIA is the basic requirement for environmental assessment of any project. The EIA structure of Pakistan is functioning under a convincingly powerful legal envelop supplemented with a complete parcel of EIA guidelines. In Faisalabad city, a mega project of flyover and underpass is under construction with the purpose to overcome the heavy traffic load from different areas of the city. This research is based on defining the parameters for conducting project to minimize the adverse effects of the project. Based on the objective of research, the most appropriate methodology was finalized and further research procedures were adopted in order to find out the basic parameters required for this running project. This research covers a wide area which has been investigated for the potential environmental impacts of the project identifies significant parameters regarding environmental degradation and proposed plan for mitigation of these compliances. 1. Introduction its potential and possible effects, and the study of data collected from all sources (Aslam, 2006). Here, is no exact Rapid increase in population and economy is the major definition of EIA as a particular perception. It’s a com- challenge facing by Pakistan. Road projects are planned posite term embodying plans/thoughts and techniques to improve the economic and social prosperity of the that have been developed over many years of growing, people. Along with the positive aspects, it also has some concern among the terrible results of man’s intrusion negative impacts on the nearby communities and also on with environment (Fortlage, 1990). It is helpful in relat- environment (Imran, 2009). Construction of new roads ing the environmental situation to think and arranging provides a pathway for the development of undeveloped different factors into the following categories: physical/ areas, which can significantly ae ff ct the natural environ - chemical, ecological/biological, aesthetics/cultural and ment and also the life of the people (Imran & Low, 2007). social/socio-economic (Canter, 1977). Particular EIA Roads can be responsible for benefits and also damages procedures differ among countries but there exist some to the presented balance among the people and the envi- definite core fundamentals from which general issues ronment (Imran, 2009). Roads allow smooth movement happen. These contain screening, scoping, construction of local people and goods from one place to another. of an EIS, baseline Studies, review and decision (Glasson, Because of the rapidly increasing population, roads have er Th ivel, & Chadwick, 2002). also been expanding day by day (Imran, 2010). EIA is required to be submitted to the Environmental Motorized transportation is considered as the neces- Protection Agency (EPA) before the starting of develop- sary part of life that is contributing to economic develop- mental project. To save the environment, EIA for differ - ment and quality of life (Imran & Low, 2007). Objectives ent developmental projects is necessary so to maintain of a highway or road development may include improve long-lasting project goals, but it is hardly fulfilled in the trade actions in the state, provide secure, high pace developing countries as Pakistan (Aslam, 2006). This and time reduction passage to the passers or travel- EIA report has arranged according to the World Bank lers, improve the effectiveness of road association; and Optional Policies OP-4.01. Along with the World Bank lessen the amount of accidents (Japan International strategy for Road project the major environmental issues Cooperation Agency et al., 2004). Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a whole relate to crash on precious ecology, historical, cultural, is a procedure of collecting data about a plan or a project, monuments areas, fisheries and aquatic ecosystem, CONTACT Hafsa yasin email@example.com © 2017 The a uthor(s). published by Informa UK limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an open a ccess article distributed under the terms of the creative c ommons a ttribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 206 H. YASIN ET AL. siltation, aesthetics, noise and shaking, air effluence, run are to define basic parameters for conducting project, off toxic waste and spills of dangerous materials (Ziai, to propose mitigation procedures for minimizing the 1995). Pakistan has followed the environmental legisla- adverse effects of developmental project and to select tion in the form of EIA (Pakistan Government, 2000). most appropriate method for developing guidelines. In most of the research works two main methods could Figure 1 illustrates Solid Waste at Project Site. be useful in assembling of facts and figures (Fielding & Fielding, 1986).The methods can be either by ques- 2. Materials and methods tionnaire approaches or interviews. The main aim of the 2.1. Description of study area questionnaire survey was to authenticate the informa- tion, which were found in the literature study and to dis- Faisalabad is located in undulating levelled surface of cover out different proponents opinions (MacRae, 1966). the north-east Punjab, having longitude 73°74 east and Considering the need of conducting EIA, it is important latitude 30°31.5 north, with a height of 184 m or 604 ft. to define the basic parameters which may be significant beyond the main sea level (Wikipedia, 2017). Main regarding their impact on environment and further- Jhal Chowk is the intersection of Samundri Road and more to develop guidelines for this purpose (Nadeem Satyana Road. Figure 2a depicts the map of study area & Hameed, 2006). The mega project of Jhal flyover and in Faisalabad. underpass in Faisalabad city is expected to have very sig- Jhal Khanuana Chowk was a signalized intersection nificant impact on environment. These impacts will be not between Satiana Road and Road along canal leading to only due to air and noise pollution but also due to mass Lahore on north-west side and Samundari on south- mobilization and hydrological conditions variation in the east side. Long Traffic queues at the signal are observed area. Therefore in order to study all these basic parameters causing traffic delays at the junction. This traffic jams and development of guidelines for EIA, this research work not only increases the travel time but at the same time is planned considering the following objects as described. causes environmental and noise pollution. In particular, er Th e are a lot of environmental problems in the the commuters travelling from GTS Chowk to residen- urban centres of the country such as water pollution, air tial areas like Peoples Colony on Satiana road face delays pollution and noise pollution. The purpose is to reduce at the intersection (Maps, 2016). Figure 2b depicts the the effect on environment. It is unlucky that programmes study area (Jhal project) in Faisalabad Therefore, a two to manage the environmental contamination have estab- lane Underpass along either side of canal and a flyover lished the lowest precedence in other countries of the (From GTS Chowk to Samundri side) to give signal free world. An elongated planning is consequently very facility to Lahore and Samundri bound through traffic. essential for the removal of the waste in the construc- This will provide a relief to the Traffic crossing the junc- tion of any project. Proper site assortment criteria may tion. This will reduce travel time, environmental and be employed for the assortment of the proper sites and noise pollution (Maps, 2016). ecological control procedures should be adopted to look aer t ft he environment and the individual aspects. The 2.2. Research design main purpose of this learning is to classify diverse factors and EIA of those factors. A complete check list was pre- It refers to the approach that is used to incorporate pared to be used under confined conditions beside with the different elements of study in rational and logical the mitigation procedures with taking into account the method. It was a quantitative study in nature (Cohen, EIA aspects. The main objectives of this research work Manion, & Morrison, 2005). Figure 1. s olid waste at project site. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 207 Figure 2a. s tudy area in Faisalabad. Figure 2b. s tudy area (Jhal project) in Faisalabad. process and are ae ff cted by the developmental project 2.2.1. Sampling and its environmental outcomes, are categorized in four e p Th opulation of sample for the study was 200 respond - groups, namely workers of the project (both administra- ents of project area and its surrounding i.e. Jhal under- tors and labour), local shopkeepers and local residents. pass and flyover project Faisalabad but 170 samples were in proper form so the results were made based on those 170 samples in which 110 were the local people 2.3. Methodology (i.e. residents, shopkeepers, rickshaw drivers, etc.) and 2.3.1. Baseline surveys remaining 60 were the working staff (i.e. surveyor, site e fir Th st step to start the research on Jhal flyover and engineer, labour, etc.). underpass project Faisalabad was followed the baseline survey. The site was visited to carry out baseline sur - 2.2.2. Sampling procedure vey with view to its location, size or area, topography Random sampling technique was used for sampling pro- closeness, noise level, traffic load, etc., to arise with an cess. The population of sample for the study was 170 accurate environmental record. respondents of nearby area of Jhal Faisalabad. 2.2.3. Target stakeholders 2.3.2. Site identification and selection e t Th arget stakeholders who were the recipients of e det Th ection of possible sites for any new project must the questionnaire were primarily the people directly be undertaken with the view of developmental crite- and indirectly involve in the Jhal project development ria which distinguish the different sitting constraints: 208 H. YASIN ET AL. substantial, security, ecological, public, financial, political participation in EIA processes. The survey was aimed at and technological. As the site was already selected means highlighting the constraints and challenges faced by var- the existed Jhal Bridge had to be converted into a flyover ious stakeholders. Questionnaire used mainly consisted and underpass to connect three different main roads i.e. on two types of questions i.e. open-ended questions and Samundri Road, Canal Road and Satyana Road to con- rating scale questions. vert the traffic load and to provide ease to the travellers. 3.1. Analysis of data 2.3.3. Socio-economic survey 3.1.1. The respondents (local people) data A Questionnaire (Performa) was developed with out- Local people mean the people either residing or working look for looking for views whether people distinguish in the surrounding area of Jhal y fl over and underpass any environmental issues and illustrated impacts to per- project up to the radius of 2 km. These people were the form socio-economic survey of the people residing in residents, shopkeepers and the rickshaw drivers. the proximity of the site. This questionnaire included different questions about the Jhal flyover and underpass 3.1.2. The respondents (workers) data project which might indicate the problems faced by the Respondent (worker) means the people working on the people. project either labour, surveyor, site engineers and project 2.3.4. Screening manager. who belong to the different areas even some Screening is mainly the process of selection of site by were from different cities. So, some selected questions which the most probable impacts are to be noticed. were asked by them which they answered totally differ - As the research was on Jhal flyover underpass project ent from the local peoples. Faisalabad so in the screening process the most suita- Question 1 “For how long you are residing/working ble sites were Samundri Road, Canal Road and Satyana here?” Road up to the radius of 2 km. Figure 3a illustrates the Duration of Local People Figure 3b illustrates the Duration of Working Staff 2.3.5. Impact identification and prediction Question 2 “What is your highest level of formal educa- Most signic fi ant impacts examined at the site were based tion (please state highest academic qualic fi ation)?” on their impact on environment. So it was supposed Figure 4a depicts Level of Education of Local People that the following were generally the major fields. Air Figure 4b depicts Level of Education of Working Staff Pollution, noise Pollution, water Pollution, soil Erosion Question 3 “Distance of the residence/shop from site?” and deforestation. Figure 5 depicts Distance of Residence from Site Question 3a “How impact on air (Dust) you feel caused 2.3.6. Impact evaluation by the project?” For impact assessment checklist method might be used. Figure 5a illustrates Air Impacts (Dust) on Local Different notations/signs were used for this purpose People which showed the level of impacts i.e. low impacts, Figure 5b illustrates Air Impacts (Dust) on Working moderate impacts, high impacts and significant impacts. Staff Question 3b “Which level of noise impacts you feel 2.3.7. Mitigation plan caused by the project?” A mitigation procedure means reduction of unfavoura- Figure 6a depicts Noise Impacts on Local People ble effects of any act which may be harmful or have bad Figure 6b depicts Noise Impacts on Working Staff effects on the environment. First of all, the significant Question 3c “Which extent of impacts on water quality impacts are noticed on site of the project area which you feel caused by the project?” was jhal flyover and underpass project and then their Figure 7a depicts Impacts of Water Quality on Local mitigation plan is prepared e.g. for air quality, to reduce People the dust level in the air during excavation etc. Figure 7b depicts Impacts of Water Quality on Working Staff 2.3.8. Monitoring plan Upon finishing point and conclusion of site, the options will be made per the effect evaluation and these will be a monitoring plan. Then the evaluation of these impacts and at the end recommending the mitigation measures and monitoring plan according to the results. 3. Results and discussion This tells the participation of the four categories of respondent in the research work on Jhal flyover and Figure 3a. d uration of local people. underpass project Faisalabad, and also the levels of their GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 209 Question 3d “Which impacts on temperature you feel caused by the project?” Figure 8a depicts Impacts of Temperature on Local People Figure 8b depicts Impacts of Temperature on Working Staff Question 4 “Which type of health impacts you felt/ observed caused by the project?” On asking the question about the health impacts the respondents answer was, they were suffering Figure 3b. d uration of working staff. from different health issue like coughing, sneezing, throat aching, eye aching, dust allergy, infection and dengue. Respondents mentioned some major diseases like asthma, T.B, skin disease and heart problem. Question 5 “Which type of social impacts you observed caused by the project?” On asking the question about the social impacts they felt/observed caused by the Jhal developmental project they answered that their social circle become limited due to other different impacts people avoid to visit them also due to blockage of the roads people must adopt a large route and traffic jam problem they get irritated so they avoid travelling. The shopkeepers replied that their customers must face difficulties in coming to their shops so they avoid and purchase their things from other markets. Figure 4a. l evel of education of local people. Question 6 “Are you familiar with the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment – EIA?” Figure 9a depicts Local People Familiar with EIA Figure 9b depicts Working Staff Familiar with EIA Question 7 “Is EIA an effective tool to evaluate envi- ronmental impacts of new projects?” Figure 10a depicts EIA an Effective Tool Figure 10b depicts EIA an Effective Tool 3.2. Discussion Most of the people who were living or working there are most probably of more than 50 years having ratio 24% that means those people have permanently lived there for many years thus they know much about the environ- mental changes and impacts of the different projects on Figure 4b. l evel of education of working staff. environment and also on their lives. Most of the people were not highly qualified, 49.1% people were merely middle pass in other words it could be said that they are not of much familiar mega projects. Aer t ft aking all this main part of the questionnaire started, people were asked about the quality of air and 49.1% people said that the quality of air is intensively effected due to dust or wind storm. Mega projects just passed their implications have no rules, the government even do not compensate the public, do not follow the rules of EIA or even they not realized that on the one side if they are trying to facilitate their people, on the other hand they are also playing part of global warming Figure 5. distance of residence from site. which is now-a-days highest threat. 32.72% people are 210 H. YASIN ET AL. Figure 5a. air impacts (dust) on local people. Figure 7a. Impacts of water quality on local people. Figure 5b. air impacts (dust) on working staff. Figure 7b. Impacts of water quality on working staff. Figure 6a. noise impacts on local people. Figure 8a. Impacts of temperature on local people. Figure 6b. noise impacts on working staff. Figure 8b. Impacts of temperature on working staff. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 211 Figure 10b. eIa as an effective tool. Figure 9a. l ocal people familiar with eIa. they even do not know about their rights about their welfare and there can also be seen the dual policy of government who is not taking their people under confidence. And then in comparison of workers data with local people data it’s totally different it seems in their answers that there is no problem but it can must say as they got benefited by this Jhal project. All the problems which were significant for the local people were not a big issue for workers of the project. 4. Conclusion Figure 9b. Working staff familiar with eIa. Many projects have been approved in Faisalabad for civilizing its transport communications. In all EIA was only held once the building work had begun. This pro- ject despite giving facilitation to people it creates a lot of problems including bad air quality, noise pollution, bad water quality and diseases. In the view of people and on analysis of this research, findings are totally different from the findings of a well-developed country where a lot of these types of mega projects are passed. About 23.64% people were living there for more than 50 years, 49.1% respondents were middle pass and 49.1% having view that due to this project the problem of dust becomes intense. Smoke pollution became low due to diversion of the traffic to alternative paths, 32.72% respondents have view that noise problem become Figure 10a. eIa an effective tool. intense. People are facing problems in their social life. in view that noise become intense when there is heavy es Th e all were the results so the conclusion is that EIA machinery. But the shocking effect which observed is parameters should followed. A complete EIA report that people said that there is no change in water level. should published before implementing any mega project. The main problem which people of that area were Also monitoring and mitigation plans should be followed. facing are health problems which includes coughing, er Th e should be a small tenure aer t ft hat all param- sneezing, throat infection, dust allergy, infection, den- eters should be checked again if it is according to the gue, asthma, T.B, skin diseases and heart problem. And presented level of EIA then project will further proceed if the more disastrous situation is that in our country it is not according to that before moving on they should people even do not know about the EIA which means take satisfactory measures. 212 H. YASIN ET AL. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2005). Research 5. Recommendations and mitigation methods in education (5th ed., pp. 73–90, 105–132, 172– measures 190, 245–298). London: Routledge. Fielding, N. 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jul 3, 2017
Keywords: EIA; respondents; questionnaire; environmental parameters
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