Open Advanced Search
Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day.
Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.
Learn More →
Guidelines for the industrial development of historic villages in China based on resource potential evaluation: 14 cases in the Guangzhou and Foshan Area, Guangdong Province
Guidelines for the industrial development of historic villages in China based on resource...
Deng, Yuqing; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Juan; Zhao, Weiqi
JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2022.2064476 Guidelines for the industrial development of historic villages in China based on resource potential evaluation: 14 cases in the Guangzhou and Foshan Area, Guangdong Province a b b b b Yuqing Deng , Yi Huang , Chen Zhang , Juan Cheng and Weiqi Zhao a b Guangdong Urban & Rural Planning and Design Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; School of Architecture, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 12 November 2021 Villages around the world are gradually disappearing. Their cultural heritage needs to be not Accepted 3 April 2022 only protected but also transformed into an opportunity to develop historic villages. With the support of national policies, the conservation and development of historic villages have KEYWORDS improved in China. In this study, a resource potential evaluation system and the associated Historic village; industrial criteria for the conservation of historic villages are established. Fourteen historic villages with development; guideline; different rates of development in the Guangzhou and Foshan Area, Guangdong province, evaluation China, are quantitatively evaluated, and the resource advantages and deficiencies of each village are analyzed. Furthermore, to identify a suitable development direction for historic villages, the various types of historic villages and their resource potentials are summarized, and corresponding development guidelines are posited. 1. Introduction Historic villages are a manifestation of the wisdom of historic villages are part of the cultural heritage and farming civilizations; they form the historical founda- need to be not only protected but also developed tion of various nationalities and contain rich historical (Ryberg-Webster 2016; Cao, Hu, and Cao 2013). and cultural marks and natural ecological landscapes. “Adaptive re-use” of heritage buildings have paved However, villages around the world are gradually dis- the way for conversion of private residences into appearing (Vaishar et al. 2021), with common problems shops or other services (Jones, Bui, and Ando 2020). being high rental vacancy rates, deferred infrastructure The cataloguing and promotion of rural architecture maintenance, vandalism, and low property market have contributed to creating jobs by stimulating new value (Ryberg-Webster 2016). Historic villages in economic activity (Cano, Garzon, and Sanchez-Soto China form the world’s largest village cultural heritage. 2013). Researchers have examined considering new, A series of national policies, such as Beautiful Villages, creative, and even radical approaches that respond to Urban–Rural Coordination, and Rural Revitalisation, has the challenges of urban shrinkage (Ryberg-Webster improved the conservation of historic villages. These 2016), shifting focus from the materiality of heritage CONTACT Yi Huang email@example.com School of Architecture, State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 Y. DENG ET AL. to its role in sustainable development, thereby focus- a key factor in the sustainable development of village ing the attention on the role of civic engagement tourism (Guo and Sun 2016; Weng and Peng 2014; (Verdini, Frassoldati, and Nolf 2017). Dewi 2014). Extensive and in-depth studies on the development The resource potential of villages refers to the total of historic villages have been reported in the literature, energy transformed from potential influencing factors generally from such perspectives of rural revitalisation to practical competitiveness in the process of conser- as cultural connotations (Zheng 2019; Chen, Huang, vation and utilization and development of historic vil- and Wang 2018), the integration of urban and rural lages. The evaluation of the potential for rural relations (Peng and Lu 2009), regional functions (Liu, Li, development has received academic attention. For and Lu 2008), the development of rural tourism indus- example, Yang Xiu analyzed five factors potentially try (Guo and Sun 2016; Jung et al. 2020; Zhang 2019; affecting rural development, namely industry, ecology, Burns and Sancho, 2003), as well as the construction humanities, public service development and external and conservation of the villages themselves (Zeng connections, and constructed a multilevel rural devel- et al. 2019). opment potential evaluation system (Yang et al. 2019). Village development and conservation are often Studies on historic village evaluation have mainly difficult to balance and are affected by many factors. focused on conservation efforts (Huang, Li, and Xiao Therefore, the process of village development cannot 2021), tourism development potential (Wang 2020; be driven solely by its own internal forces but requires Akın et al. 2015), and the identification of historic a comprehensive role of the government, market, and villages (Ni et al. 2015). Few studies have examined society (Shan, Tian, and Gao 2015). For example, har- the development potential evaluation of historic vil- mony between the people and their environment, the lages. For example, Songul Akin (2015) used question- coordinated operation of various elements and the naires to interview villagers when studying the tourism active participation of local residents are reported to development potential of Cayonu village in Turkey, be the principles of village development in Slovenia and concluded that historical heritage, agricultural (Koscak 1998). The dynamic development model of production, food culture and local characteristics are “new city metabolism” combined with a real-time important evaluation factors for tourism development model to dynamically evaluate the development status potential (Akın et al. 2015). In a study of the sustainable of a village has also been applied to identify factors development potential of historical towns in Thailand, that can drive the sustainable development of a village Doosadee Thaitakoo (2006) constructed a table of fac- (Xu, Yang, and Hou 2020; Levine et al. 2008). tors that contribute to development potential, includ- Tourism development is as an opportunity to stimu- ing 24 factors such as location, accessibility, facilities, late the economic development of villages (Kim and cultural heritage, market environment, and develop- Lee 2020; Gavrilă-Paven 2015); this, in turn, is condu- ment space (Thaitakoo 2006). cive to the spread and development of traditional In summary, most studies on the development of settlement culture and helps to achieve the sustain- historic villages have examined development factors in able development of historic villages (De Azeredo the context of individual villages and have discussed Grünewald 2002; Tucker 2001). Li developed the roles of cultural tourism, administrative policies, a conceptual model to examine the associations and public participation in promoting village develop- between quality-based factors (e.g., perceived value, ment. However, evaluations of the development status historical authenticity, experience quality, and admin- of historic villages thus far have paid scant attention to istrative quality) and either intention to travel or atti- the correlation between the different types of resource tude toward preservation (Li et al. 2019). Zhang potentials and the direction of industrial development. identified the relationships among the following fac- This study first establishes a resource potential evalua- tors: cross-cultural awareness, tourist experience, tion system and associated evaluation criteria and authenticity, tourist satisfaction, and acculturation applies them to 14 villages with different development (Zhang et al. 2018). Fois explored a historic rural craft levels in the Guangzhou and Foshan (Guangfo) area of tradition as the focus of economic development in Guangdong province, China. Thereafter, the resource a historic rural village (Fois et al. 2019). Jacobsen devel- advantages and drawbacks of each village are ana- oped a unique model capturing antecedents of place lyzed, and the various types of historic villages and attractiveness in tourism hotspot crowding contexts their resource potentials are summarized. On the (Jacobsen, Iversen, and Hem 2019). However, if the basis of these analyses, development guidelines for roles of the multiple involved parties are not clearly the industries are presented. These guidelines, defined, it may lead to adverse effects such as conflicts a major contribution of this paper to the literature, of interest and the disappearance of traditional char- can be used to identify a suitable development direc- acteristics (Schiller 2001). Rural life should co-exist with tion for historic villages through the quantitative eva- tourism activities (Zhao et al. 2011). The joint participa- luation of resource potentials, according to which tion of the government, enterprises and the public is industrial planning can be undertaken. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 “change,” were excluded. The final 60 words were 2. Methods classified based on a theoretical analysis and the eva- 2.1. Evaluation system luators’ subjective experience; for example, “ecology,” “environment,” “nature,” “disaster,” “geography,” 2.1.1. Establishing evaluation factors through the “transportation,” “space,” “land use,” “style,” and “land- big data mining of relevant papers scape” were placed in the “environment” category. A system for evaluating the resource potential of his- This approach resulted in 4 first-level, 8 second-level toric villages was developed using the big data analysis and 26 third-level evaluation factors. method described in (Huang, Li, and Xiao 2021). The software independently developed by the research group has been used to collect and clean the network 2.1.2. Prioritising the evaluation factors knowledge big data, by which the approximate full The first-, second- and third-level factors are denoted sample can be obtained in a very short time. Then by k, i and p, respectively, and the sequence, word the data has been analyzed by Chinese segmentation frequency and priority of the etymology are denoted and intelligent semantic analysis to realize automatic by j, N and T, respectively. That is, Nj represents the data collection, cleaning and denoising, and profes- word frequency of j in the total number of documents. sional words valuable for the evaluation of factors has The frequency of a second-level evaluation factor is been selected. This is a big data analysis method based calculated as the sum of the frequencies of all related on the views of the experts group, which can improve words (Formula 1). The priority of an evaluation factor the reliability and validity of the evaluation factor is determined as the ratio of the frequency of a second- studies. level factor to the sum total frequency of all factors at For the present analysis, two keywords, namely that level (Formula 2). The priority of third-level factors “traditional village development” and “historical and is calculated similarly (Formula 3). Accordingly, the cultural village and town development” were queried priority of a first-level factor is obtained as the sum on 3 March 2020 via the Tansi Thinktank website total of the priorities of the encompassed second-level (http://tstktk.arch.scut.edu.cn/). The resulting search factors (Formula 4). Table 1 presents the resulting eva- of the full text of the literature published in all aca- luation system. demic fields yielded 14,388 related papers. Word seg- mentation of the titles of these papers, extracted by Ni ¼ Nij (Formula 1) i 0 the software, yielded 5,594 words. After excluding words occurring less than 50 times and those with Ti ¼ Ni= Ni (Formula 2) low relevance, 136 words remained. Further, 76 com- i 0 mon words, such as “construction,” “city,” “planning,” “reform,” “design,” “innovation,” “development,” and Tp ¼ Np= Npj (Formula 3) i 0 Table 1. System for evaluating the resource potential of historic villages. First-level factor Second-level factor Third-level factor Factor Priority (Tk) Factor Priority (Ti) Factor Priority (Tp) B1 0.345 C1 Natural environment 0.104 D1 Ecosystem 0.057 Environment D2 Water environment 0.037 D3 Natural disaster 0.010 C2 Built environment 0.242 D4 Geographic location 0.007 D5 Traffic accessibility 0.004 D6 Planning authenticity 0.086 D7 Built style 0.005 D8 Elements of landscape environment 0.052 D9 Settlement pattern 0.045 D10 Infrastructure 0.014 D11 Educational facility 0.028 B2 0.182 C3 Tangible heritage 0.107 D12 Tangible cultural heritage 0.071 Culture D13 Historical architectural art value 0.036 C4 Intangible continuity 0.075 D14 Intangible cultural heritage 0.060 D15 Traditional customs continuity 0.015 B3 0.232 C5 Income 0.148 D16 Tourism development benefit 0.060 Economy D17 Rural productivity 0.044 D18 Common prosperity 0.030 D19 Per capita income of rural residents 0.014 C6 Industrial development 0.084 D20 Agricultural industrialisation level 0.061 D21 Economic and industrial diversification 0.023 B4 0.240 C7 Rural governance 0.196 D22 Village social order 0.095 Society D23 Management mechanism 0.043 D24 Public participation 0.046 D25 Informatisation 0.013 C8 Population 0.044 D26 Population density 0.044 4 Y. DENG ET AL. Table 2. A part of the basic data of the 14 villages. Cultural relics protection units at all levels Village Area Resident Year of Per capita income Province City County Number Name (Km2) population establishment (Yuan/ year) Major industries level level level Others 1 Gualing 0.62 720 1480 6000 Agriculture, house rental 1 18 2 Langtou 6.25 2400 1367 10,856 Plantation, land lease 2 25 3 Gangtou 2.83 1860 1358 14,000 Agriculture, land lease 6 4 Daling 3.74 5092 1522 12,976 Agriculture, industry 4 19 23 5 Shawanbei 2.42 3810 1275 13,388 Tourism, industry, 1 2 39 agriculture 6 Songtang 0.11 1800 1273 15,386 Tourism, industry, 13 agriculture 7 Chaji 0.1 1671 1414 10,230 Business, catering 3 8 Huangxi 7.69 600 1255 17,680 Land and property rental 1 9 Yanqiao 0.8 165 1450 7000 Agriculture, tourism 2 10 Libian 0.56 1071 1274 19,400 Agriculture, house rental 1 11 Bijiang 8.9 14,376 1127 28,110 Industry, agriculture, 8 9 service industry 12 Shajiao 5.31 7877 1157 41,500 Furniture industry 1 13 Fengjian 5.26 9418 900 9000 Tourism, agriculture 2 3 4 14 Madong 3.23 4100 900 8500 Planting and 1 4 aquaculture Note: “Others” refers to immovable cultural relics newly discovered in the third national cultural relics census. Figure 1. Radar chart of the resource potential of the 14 villages. Tk ¼ Nkj (Formula 4) k 0 these villages are Guangfu cultural villages, which had been strongly invested by the governments in recent years. The basic data on the 14 historic villages were 2.2. Criteria for scoring the evaluation system collated through field investigations, sourcing historic village archives and searching government reports and Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the relevant literature. Table 2 presents a part of this data. factors are scored on a 10-point scale and categorized into one of five levels: excellent (10–9), good (8–7), medium (6–5), worse (4–3), and poor (2–0). 3. Results Quantitative indicators were obtained first-hand by 2.3. Cases collecting information about the villages from plan- ning and government documents, interviews with vil- The data of 35 state-level historic villages in the Guangfo lage committees and villagers and field surveys. area, Guangdong Province has been analyzed. Qualitative indicators were obtained from the litera- Combined with the preliminary evaluation after field ture. Figure 1 presents the resource potential of the 14 investigation, the development degree of historic vil- villages as evaluated by the proposed approach. lages has been divided into three levels, such as rapid, The resource potential scores of the 14 historic balanced and backward. Fourteen representative his- villages vary from 3.7 to 6.9. The scores are used to toric villages covering the three levels were selected classify the villages into one of five categories: 3 vil- for evaluation in this study: Gualing, Gangtou, Daling, lages are classified as excellent (6.5+), 3 as good (6.5– Langtou and Shawanbei Village in Guangzhou, 6.0), 3 as average (6.0–5.0), 2 as below average (5.0– Songtang, Chaji, Huangxi, Yanqiao, Libian, Bijiang, 4.5), and 3 as poor (4.5 and lower) (Figure 2). Shajiao, Fengjian and Madong Village in Foshan. All of JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 Figure 2. Classification of the resource potential of historic villages. Figure 3. Evaluation scores of the 14 villages for environment factors. The radar chart indicates that the scores of society, 3.1. Environment culture and environment factors are relatively similar Regarding the environment factors, Daling, Langtou and slightly higher than the total score; in contrast, eco- and Fengjian had the highest score, while Chaj and nomic factors are lower than the total score, indicating Shajiao had the lowest(Figure 3). that the historic villages in the Guangfo area are lagging behind in economic development. 6 Y. DENG ET AL. Figure 7. Ancient College of Langtou (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). Figure 4. River channel in Fengjian. (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). Figure 5. Aerial view of Yanqiao. (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). Figure 8. Laying sewage pipes in an ancient lane in Songtang. (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). 3.1.2. Built environment In terms of the built environment, Langtou and Daling have the highest scores, and the overall built environment is good. Daling (Figure 6), nested beside mountains and rivers, is built in a half-moon shape; this village is well preserved and has high historical and cultural value. Langtou (Figure 7), Figure 6. Dakuige Tower of Daling (Photo source: Taken by the known as the hometown of the imperial examina- authors.). tion, is surrounded by ancient trees and ponds and has a strong cultural atmosphere. It has a Lingnan comb layout typical in the Ming and Qing dynasties. 3.1.1. Natural environment Most villages have low scores for built style, as the The natural environments of Fengjian and Yanqiao new dwellings have low-quality decorations that are (Figures 4 and 5) are famous, as these two villages inconsistent with the aesthetics of the older build- are typical net-like water villages in the Pearl River ings. In Songtang, the hillside terrain of the ancient Delta water network. The villages are situated on flat village was originally used to discharge rainwater; plains, surrounded by farmlands and ponds, and are currently, a sewage pipe network is buried in the relatively distant from the town center. The ecological ancient infrastructure to divert rain and sewage, environment is well preserved, the greening rate is thereby ensuring minimal damage to the ancient high, and natural disasters are relatively rare. stone-paved alleys (Figure 8). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 9. Evaluation scores of the 14 villages for cultural factors. Figure 10. Mingyuan Bridge in Fengjian. (Photo source: Taken Figure 12. Liugeng Hall of Shawanbei. (Photo source: Taken by by the authors.). the authors.). Figure 13. Wood carving decoration in Bijiang Golden House Figure 11. Brick carving at the Chen Ancestral Hall in Shajiao (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). cultural protection units, respectively (Figure 10). The Chen Ancestral Hall in Shajiao (Figure 11) is one of the 3.2. Culture two largest ancestral halls in Guangdong. It houses The scores for cultural potential vary widely among the numerous works showcasing excellent skills, such as villages, with Qantou and Fengjian showing the high- murals, stone sculptures, pottery sculptures, and gray est and Huangxi and Libian the lowest (Figure 9). sculptures, and won the National Excellent Cultural Relics Maintenance Project Award. Shawanbei has a large number of historical buildings from the Ming 3.2.1. Tangible heritage and Qing eras, such as Liugeng Hall, Zhiguang Hall, Shawanbei, Bijiang, and Fengjian have the highest and Yanqing Hall. Liugeng Hall (Figure 12). Wood car- scores for material heritage. Fengjian has 2, 3, and 4 ving is an art form that integrates multiple art styles to provincial-level, municipal-level, and county-level 8 Y. DENG ET AL. include lanterns, the southern lion, the farming and reading culture, and other cultural customs, all of which the villagers participate in to a relatively high degree. Shawanbei village, home to folk art and famous and diverse cultural activities such as a fish lantern culture festival, sacrificial festival, and activities asso- ciated with wedding customs, has the second highest score. Shawanbei also hosts the Shawan Floating Color Festival (Figure 15) on the third month of the lunar calendar, a festival popular both in and outside China. This village has earned the titles of “Hometown of Chinese Folk Art,” “Hometown of Guangdong Music,” and “Hometown of the Dragon and Lion in China.” Figure 14. Grey plastic of Langtou. (Photo source: Taken by the authors.). 3.3. Economy Economic potential varied somewhat, with Bijiang and Shawanbei scoring the highest and Gangtou and Huangxi the lowest (Figure 16). 3.3.1. Income In terms of economic income, the villages differ drastically in their overall scores, with Shawanbei and Bijiang having the highest. Shawanbei has been identified as a 4A-level tourist scenic spot, making it superior to other villages in terms of history, culture, traditional architecture and tradi- tional landscape. Income in the village is mainly through the economic benefits of cultural resource tourism. The Figure 15. Shawan Floating Color Festival. (Photo source: village adopts the community governance mode of “com- Archives of Chinese Historic Villages-Shawanbei Village, 2015). munity,” “social organization,” “social work,” “community enterprise,” and “community fund.” create a variety of wooden crafts. An exquisite example 3.3.2. Industrial development of such art is the golden wood carving (Figure 13) in In terms of industrial development, Yanqiao has the Bijiang Golden House, which is covered by gold foil highest score due to its high agricultural industrializa- stickers. tion level. Yanqiao has a total area of 800,000 square meters, with river and bamboo forests accounting for 3.2.2. Intangible continuity approximately 58,000 square meters. Fish ponds and Langtou has the highest score for intangible cultural farmlands account for approximately 650,000 square heritage. Langtou is home to two national intangible meters, which is 81.3% of the total area. The main cultural heritages, namely couplet culture and cultivated crops are rice and corn, walnut (~247,000 Guangzhou gray plastic (Figure 14), earning the village square meters), and other economic forest fruits. This the title of “Famous Chinese Couplet Culture Village.” village has a large planting area, high modernization Provincial intangible cultural heritages in Langtou level, and efficient production capabilities. Regarding Figure 16. Evaluation scores of the 14 villages for economic factors. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 Figure 17. Evaluation scores of the 14 villages for social factors. animal husbandry, the main activities are large-scale 3.4. Society breeding of pond fish and the rearing of pigs; the use Social potential varied little, with Songtang scoring the of modern technology is relatively high, and the pri- highest and Qantou and Huangxi the lowest mary and secondary industries are well-developed. (Figure 17). 3.4.1. Rural governance Songtang and Fengjian are prominent in terms of rural governance. Songtang, the “Hanlin Village,” has a long history of respecting Confucianism and emphasizing literature and education. The villagers have fine folk customs. The rules and regulations of the village have always been recognized and supported by all villagers. From the construction of the village, many rich gentry independently protected the rural and ancestral tem- ples. In 2009, Songtang formulated a plan to strengthen the protection and management of its his- tory and culture. Subsequently, a series of protection planning documents has been continually formulated, such as the “Hanlin Cultural Village Tourism Development Plan in Songtang,” “Rules and Regulations of Historical and Cultural Protection in Songtang,” and “Beautiful Village Planning of Songtang.” 3.4.2. Population The villages differ widely in their population aggrega- tion scores, with Songtang and Chaji having the high- Figure 18. Mapping of the industrial development types of the est. Songtang has only one surname; 28 generations historic villages. 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 B1 Environment B2 Culture B3 Economy B4 Society Total score Figure 19. Histogram of the scores of the first-level factors for the 14 villages’ resource potential. 10 Y. DENG ET AL. experience, opinions and suggestions, the historic vil- lage development guidelines with their own potential types were obtained as following: (1) Guiding environmentally prominent villages into ecological resorts We recommend planning a series of rural agricultural projects with natural ecological environment charac- teristics, such as pastoral complexes, rural health resorts, organic farms, ecological and agricultural park projects, ecological and circular agricultural projects, and ecological and agricultural tourism. New media avenues, such as live streaming, can be used to pro- Figure 20. Classification of the industrial development type of mote, from multiple perspectives, a number of fine the historic villages. leisure tourism routes with regional characteristics. after its founding, its permanent population is less For example, centers such as ecological recuperation than 2000, and the village area is 0.11 square kilo- bases, ecological amusement centers, rural photogra- meters. The population outflow is relatively small, phy expo parks, and folk ecological experience parks, and the population density is high. The villagers of can conduct and promote activities with seasonal Chaji are harmonious and the village atmosphere is themes such as “spring flowers,” “cool summer,” stable; the village is small (only 0.1 square kilometers), “autumn picking,” and “winter agriculture.” with a registered population of 1,124 and a high popu- lation density. (2) Guiding culturally prominent villages into cul- tural experience centers 4. Discussion The suggested planning projects include home stay experience parks, folk culture festivals, traditional cul- The evaluation of the resource potential of historic ture museums, characteristic culture and education villages reflects the current level of various factors bases, Zen meditation halls, and leisure farms. (Figure 18). Figure 19 presents the sub-item scores of Entertainment and accommodation facilities can be the first-level factors of the resource potential for the improved to build cultural and rural tourist attractions, 14 historic villages, and Figure 20 presents the classifi - thereby driving rural tourism. Industrial projects can be cation of the industrial development type of these used to develop facilities such as traditional handicraft villages. studios, handicraft inns, handicraft fairs, and commer- After the in-depth interviews with 5 managers of cial cultural experience streets. Examples of spiritual government departments, 4 managers of tourism com- and cultural projects include those centered on calli- panies, 13 managers of village committees, 16 villagers graphy, sculpturing, and musical instrument casting. and merchants (Figure 21), combining their Figure 21. (a) Interview with a manager of village committee (b) Interview with a villager. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 11 Productive and life experience projects include making According to the local situation, economic functional agricultural appliances, weaving textiles, and making areas can be built, such as efficient agricultural orch- spice jewelry. ards, intelligent integrated ornamental farmland areas, and a new digital agriculture platform. Along with tra- (3) Guiding economically prominent villages into ditional industrial methods, it is suggested to vigorously characteristic industries develop intelligent and modern agriculture, inherit agri- cultural characteristics, pursue reasonable and creative We suggest building a leading industrial economic transformation with various kinds of agricultural center with core market competitiveness, strengthen objects, and expand the infrastructure surrounding and improve the overall quality of the village infrastruc- agricultural products, such as drying and storage, cold ture, implement the development strategy of integrat- chain logistics, and comprehensive utilization of by- ing digital rural areas and traditional characteristic products. Garden planting can be used to create a sea industries, and promote the construction and explora- of flowers, forming a romantic and colorful landscape tion of big data from the whole industrial chain. We that offers numerous leisure spots. Agricultural eco- further suggest promoting “Internet + characteristic nomic projects with local characteristics can be formed industries,” the demonstration and application of agri- by showing agriculture-related photos and paintings. cultural Internet of Things in the creation of character- istic industries, and the construction of regional modern 5. Conclusions industrial markets. We also suggest the creation of a diversified industrial market that supports online and This paper adopts the quantitative evaluation mobile phone transactions, such as WeChat Pay. method to evaluate the resource potential of 14 historic villages in China; the method includes 4 (4) Guiding socially prominent villages into logistic secondary evaluation factors, environmental, cul- services tural, economic, and social, and 26 tertiary evalua- tion factors (Huang, Li, and Xiao 2021). By collecting Considering the surrounding core scenic spots for application data, relevant planning, government supporting health recuperation, art parks, rural educa- work reports, and other data, as well as in-depth tion and training centers, catering facilities, rural home interviews with village cadres and villagers, the data stays, and other such high-quality service-based facil- of various factors are obtained and scored accord- ities could be constructed, making full use of the local ing to the evaluation criteria. The overall evaluation atmosphere. Moreover, family handcraft production results show that Fengyuan, Shawanbei, and Bijiang workshops, rural expanded expo parks, and rural work- have excellent resource potential and that shops could be built to encourage rural natives and Songtang, Langtou and Daling have good resource outsiders to open environmentally friendly and social- potential. In terms of the environment, Daling, driven enterprises in rural areas. More jobs can be Langtou, and Fengjian have the highest compre- created by retaining traditional agricultural practices, hensive potential scores; Fengjian has the highest which could prompt a return of the rural population. score for natural environment, and Langtou and Daling villages score the highest for the built envir- (5) Guiding comprehensively prominent villages onment. The villages differ widely in their cultural toward comprehensive development potential, with Langtou and Fengjian having the highest scores. The villages differ to a moderate Idle agricultural houses could be repaired to create extent in terms of their economic resource poten- high-end vacation brands and experiences, such as tial, with Bijiang and Shawanbei having the highest boutique vacation experiences, entertainment depart- scores. The gap in the social potential scores is ments, agricultural activity experiences and demon- moderate, with Songtang having the highest scores. stration areas, planting and processing of fine On the basis of the comprehensive score and agricultural products, and characteristic traditional cul- scores for the primary, secondary, and tertiary fac- ture experience places. By following the principle of tors of each examined village, the 14 historic vil- “focusing on the farmers and ensuring their prosper- lages can be divided into 5 categories in terms of ity,” the comprehensive development mode of “com- their comprehensive resource potential: excellent, pany + project + villagers to invest” will be explored. good, general, weak, and poor. According to the Every villager will be a shareholder, and the leisure resource advantages associated with secondary agriculture and rural tourism will be integrated and tertiary factors, the villages can be divided developed. into six types: ecological resorts, cultural experience centers, characteristic industries, logistic services, (6) Guiding villages with lagging development into comprehensive development, and agricultural agricultural expansion expansion. Ecological resorts are positioned as the 12 Y. DENG ET AL. “back garden” of the town; that is, ecological resort- Author contributions style historic villages can be developed by integrat- D.YQ. (Yuqing Deng) performed the investigation and data ing sightseeing, vacation, and recuperation activ- analysis and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. H.Y. (Yi ities. Cultural experience centers should be built Huang) proposed the original concept and methods and around folk custom participation, cultural relic view- revised the manuscript. Z.C. (Chen Zhang), C.J. (Juan Cheng)and Z.WQ. (Weiqi Zhao) participated in the discussion. ing, and guest house experience, which can improve support service industries. Villages with a characteristic industry can be developed through References the economic development of the industry itself. Villages of the logistics service type are suitable to Akın, S., M. K. Altan, F. O. Kara, and T. Atsan. 2015. “The Potential become transit nodes, serving as tourism transfer of Rural Tourism in Turkey: The Case Study of Cayonu[J].” stations. Villages of the comprehensive develop- Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 52 (3): 853–859. Burns, P. M., and M. M. Sancho. 2003. “Local Perceptions of ment type can realize the organic and coordinated Tourism Planning: The Case of Cuellar, Spain[J].” Tourism development of various elements and resources, Management 24 (3): 331–339. doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(02) with a focus on the development of advantageous 00069-9. projects. Finally, villages of the agricultural expan- Cano, M., E. Garzon, and P. J. Sanchez-Soto. 2013. “Historic sion type should develop modern agricultural indus- Preservation, GIS, & Rural Development: The Case of Almería Province, Spain[J].” Applied Geography 42: 34–47. tries, ecological, and green industries; improve the doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.04.014. level of modern agriculture; and accelerate the pro- Cao, W., Y. Hu, and C. Z. Cao. 2013. “The Urbanization Process motion of smart agriculture. Should Promote the Conservation and Development of Traditional Villages[J].” Urban Development Studies 21 (8): 34–36. (In Chinese). Disclosure statement Chen, Y. F., X. J. Huang, and L. J. Wang. 2018. “China’s Rural Revitalization and Evaluation from the Perspective of No potential conflict of interest was reported by the Multifunctional Theory[J].” Chinese Journal of Agricultural author(s). Resources and Regional Planning 39 (6): 201–209. (In Chinese). De Azeredo Grünewald, R. 2002. “Tourism and Cultural revival[J].” Annals of Tourism Research 29 (4): 1004–1021. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00005-1. Funding Vaishar, A., H. Vavrouchová, A. Lešková, et al. 2021. “Depopulation and Extinction of Villages in Moravia This study was sponsored by the National Key R&D Program and the Czech Part of Silesia since World War II[J].” of China (Monitoring System of Protective & Utilization and Land 10 (4): 333. DOI:10.3390/land10040333. Management System Apply to the Value System of Dewi, L. K. Y. 2014. “Modeling the Relationships between Traditional Villages; Grant No. 2019YFD1100903). Tourism Sustainable Factor in the Traditional Village of Recommendations expressed in this study are those of the Pancasari[J].” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 135: authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the spon- 57–63. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.325. soring committees. Fois, F., M. Woods, Y. Yang, and X. Zheng. 2019. “Recovering Tradition in Globalising Rural China: Handicraft Birdcages in Da’ou village[J].” Sociologia Ruralis 59 (4): 661–684. Notes on contributors doi:10.1111/soru.12266. Gavrilă-Paven, I. 2015. “Tourism Opportunities for Valorizing Yuqing Deng, assistant Planner, Guangdong Urban & Rural the Authentic Traditional Rural Space–study Case: Ampoi Planning and Design Institute, 483 Nanzhou, Guangzhou, and Mures Valleys Microregion, Alba County, Romania[J].” Guangdong Province, China Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 188: 111–115. Yi Huang, associate professor, School of Architecture, State doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.345. Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China Guo, Z., and L. Sun. 2016. “The Planning, Development and University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou, Management of Tourism: The Case of Dangjia, an Ancient Guangdong Province, China Village in China[J].” Tourism Management 56: 52–62. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2016.03.017. Chen Zhang, doctoral student, School of Architecture, State Huang, Y., E. W. Li, and D. W. Xiao. 2021. “Conservation Key Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China Points and Management Strategies of Historic Villages: 10 University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou, Cases in the Guangzhou and Foshan Area, Guangdong Guangdong Province, China Province, China[J].” Journal of Asian Architecture and Juan Cheng, doctoral student, School of Architecture, State Building Engineering 21: 1–12. Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China Jacobsen, J. K. S., N. M. Iversen, and L. E. Hem. 2019. “Hotspot University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou, Crowding and Over-tourism: Antecedents of Destination Guangdong Province, China attractiveness[J].” Annals of Tourism Research 76: 53–66. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2019.02.011. Weiqi Zhao, doctoral student, School of Architecture, State Jones, T. E., H. T. Bui, and K. Ando. 2020. “Zoning for World Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China Heritage Sites: Dual Dilemmas in Development and University of Technology, 381 Wushan, Guangzhou, demographics[J].” Tourism Geographies 24: 1–23. Guangdong Province, China JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 13 Jung, G., C. K. Lee, E. J. Lee, and H. J. Son. 2020. Tucker, H. 2001. “Tourists and Troglodytes: Negotiating “Understanding Community Responses to Tourism for sustainability[J].” Annals of Tourism Research 28 (4): Gentrification in Seochon Village in South Korea: The 868–891. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(00)00084-0. Significance of Parental, Social, and Cultural factors[J].” Verdini, G., F. Frassoldati, and C. Nolf. 2017. “Reframing Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 25 (3): China’s Heritage Conservation Discourse. Learning by 286–299. doi:10.1080/10941665.2019.1708757. Testing Civic Engagement Tools in a Historic Rural Kim, G. E., and J. R. Lee. 2020. “The Impact of Historic Building village[J].” International Journal of Heritage Studies Preservation in Urban Economics: Focusing on 23 (4): 317–334. doi:10.1080/13527258.2016.1269358. Accommodation Prices in Jeonju Hanok Village, South Wang, Y. (2020). “Research on Archives Database Korea[J].” Sustainability 12 (12): 5005. doi:10.3390/ Construction Based on Heritage Protection in Ancient su12125005. Towns of Yunnan[C]//2020.” International Conference on Koscak, M. 1998. “Integral Development of Rural Areas, Tourism Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS), and Village Renovation, Trebnje, Slovenia[J].” Tourism Vientiane, Laos. (pp. 595–599). IEEE. Management 19 (1): 81–85. doi:10.1016/S0261-5177(97) Weng, S., and H. Peng. 2014. “Tourism Development, 00096-4. Rights Consciousness and the Empowerment of Levine, R. S., M. T. Hughes, C. R. Mather, and E. J. Yanarella. Chinese Historical Village communities[J].” Tourism 2008. “Generating Sustainable Towns from Chinese Geographies 16 (5): 772–784. doi:10.1080/ Villages: A System Modeling approach[J].” Journal of 14616688.2014.955873. Environmental Management 87 (2): 305–316. doi:10.1016/ Xu, J., M. Yang, C. Hou, et al. 2020. “Distribution of Rural j.jenvman.2006.10.026. Tourism Development in Geographical Space: A Case Li, X., Z. H. Wang, B. Xia, S. C. Chen, and S. Chen. 2019. Study of 323 Traditional Villages in Shaanxi, China[J].” “Testing the Associations between Quality-based Factors European Journal of Remote Sensing 54: 1–16. and Their Impacts on Historic Village tourism[J].” Tourism Yang, X., L. M. Yu, X. F. Zhao, and L. Wang. 2019. Management Perspectives 32: 100573. doi:10.1016/j. “Evaluation, Classification, and Planning Guidance of tmp.2019.100573. Rural Development Potential in Rural Revitalization[J].” Liu, Z. Q., J. Li, and Q. Lu. 2008. “Functions Diversification of Planners 35 (19): 62–67. (In Chinese). Rural Spatial Region System and New Rural Development Model[J].” Research of Agricultural Modernization 05: Zeng, Z. Z., J. Zhang, B. Zhang, and Y. Q. Chen. 2019. 532–538. (In Chinese). “Research Progress on Evaluation System of Rural Ni, X. Y., Y. G. Zhan, L. S. Sun, Y. Y. Zhai, and B. L. Liu. 2015. Construction[J].” The Architect 05: 78–84. (In “Research on Traditional Village Types and Value Chinese). Cognizance: Shijiazhang, Hebei Province Example[J].” Zhang, H., T. Cho, H. Wang, and Q. Ge. 2018. “The Influence of Planners 31 (S2): 198–202. (In Chinese). Cross-cultural Awareness and Tourist Experience on Peng, Z. W., and J. Lu. 2009. “Development of Human Authenticity, Tourist Satisfaction and Acculturation in Settlement Environment in Countryside Based on World Cultural Heritage Sites of Korea[J].” Sustainability Urban-Rural Integrated Development[J].” City Planning 10 (4): 927. doi:10.3390/su10040927. Review 05: 66–68. (In Chinese). Zhang, J. 2019. “Tourism and Environmental Ryberg-Webster, S. 2016. “Heritage amid an Urban Crisis: Historic Subjectivities in the Anthropocene: Observations Preservation in Cleveland, Ohio’s Slavic Village from Niru Village, Southwest China[J].” Journal of neighborhood[J].” Cities 58: 10–25. doi:10.1016/j. Sustainable Tourism 27 (4): 488–502. doi:10.1080/ cities.2016.05.005. 09669582.2018.1435671. Schiller, A. 2001. “Pampang Culture Village and International Zhao, M., L. Wang, Q. Fu, D. Zhang, and D. Zhang. 2011. Tourism in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo[J].” Human “Promoting Living Space Protection while Ensuring Organization 60 (4): 414–422. doi:10.17730/humo.60.4. Sustainable Tourism in Yuhu Village, Lijiang City[J].” e130h8lerhtqdpk4. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Shan, Y. M., J. X. Tian, and C. X. Gao. 2015. “The Conservation Ecology 18 (6): 553–558. doi:10.1080/ and Development Research of Traditional Villages Based on 13504509.2011.604683. “Humanism”—a Case Study of Tangdong Village, Jinjiang in Fujian[J].” South Architecture 04: 52–57. (In Chinese). Zheng, X. M. 2019. “Research on the Evaluation Index System Thaitakoo, D. 2006. “Toward a Way to Balance Conservation of Rural Revitalization Potential Based on Classification and Development in the Ayutthaya Historic Town Promotion—Survey Data from 6 Villages in 3 Counties Centres[J].” Manusya: Journal of Humanities 9 (4): 16–34. and Cities of Fujian Province[J].” Journal of Social Sciences doi:10.1163/26659077-00904002. 06: 36–47. (In Chinese).
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
Taylor & Francis
Guidelines for the industrial development of historic villages in China based on resource potential evaluation: 14 cases in the Guangzhou and Foshan Area, Guangdong Province
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
, Volume 22 (2): 13 –
Mar 4, 2023
Share Full Text for Free
Add to Folder
Web of Science