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Housing design during COVID-19: effects of psychological states on Japanese architecture students
Housing design during COVID-19: effects of psychological states on Japanese architecture students
Yu, Hanui; Fujii, Risa
JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2022.2074022 Housing design during COVID-19: effects of psychological states on Japanese architecture students Hanui Yu and Risa Fujii Department of Architecture, Graduate school of Science and Technology for Future Life, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 2 March 2022 During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, people worldwide were psychologically Accepted 2 May 2022 affected by being limited to mostly indoor, at-home activities. This study sought to clarify how COVID-19-related psychological states and anxiety affect changes in designs and perceptions KEYWORDS of living environments. Hence, this study assigned a housing design task to architecture Architectural design; eco students – considerations included windows (window-to-wall ratio), lighting plan, color plan, design; architectural and floor area – and conducted a survey regarding the related deliverables. The results showed environment; perception; that anxiety about going out affected perceptions of openness and publicity, whereas fear of psychology of design COVID-19 infection affected impressions of space, brightness, and naturalness. These psycho- logical effects are reflected in the total floor area, window area, and color planning. These effects reveal how the psychological state of the designer affects the spatial elements in architectural design. Abbreviations: SD method - Semantic differential method SD - Standard deviation WWR - Window-to-wall ratio Df value – Degrees of freedom value 1. Introduction a significant psychological impact (Amerio et al. 2020; Motohashi and Matsuoka 2020; Rossi et al. 2020; The restrictions on going out due to the coronavirus Tsamakis et al. 2020). For example, for many, having to disease (COVID-19) pandemic have forced people in stay home all day has been reported to worsen family many countries to stay home and have had CONTACT Hanui Yu email@example.com Department of Architecture, Graduate school of Science and Technology for Future Life, Tokyo Denki University, 5 Senju Asahi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 H. YU AND R. FUJII relationships (the pandemic increased domestic vio- evidence to suggest that housing is important for psy- lence calls by 7.5% between March and May 2020 in chological health, particularly in children (Evans, Wells, Japan) (Leslie and Wilson 2020). Additionally, loneliness and Moch 2003). In addition, user preferences for hous- increased in people living by themselves who did not ing have become increasingly complex in recent years see anyone else (Berg-Weger and Morley 2020; Henry as the lifestyles of occupants have rapidly changed. In 2020). Furthermore, some people developed immense housing, especially in large houses that are not custom- anxiety about going out and now find it challenging to designed to meet the needs of individual occupants, leave their homes. Furthermore, the cramped housing discrepancies between occupants’ living needs and conditions in Japan’s major cities are commonly cited as design occur at various levels (Wong 2010). These stu- a major problem (Motohashi and Matsuoka 2020). dies show a profound link between housing and quality Previous studies have predicted that the coronavirus of life, and we need to understand the psychological outbreak will require changes in cities and construction consequences that people have experienced in the con- environments (Sharifi and Khavarian-Garmsir 2020) that text of the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors they look emphasize COVID-19 infection prevention (Megahed and for in the design of their living environment. Ghoneim 2020). Future housing designs are also pre- Prior research has emphasized the role of learning dicted to change after the COVID-19 pandemic in the design process for architecture students, the (Megahed and Ghoneim 2020), but there is a lack of target population of this study (Atman et al. 1999). clear evidence to support these predictions. Therefore, it Students who are beginning to learn design must is necessary to clarify which aspects of the COVID-19 also learn methods and develop thoughts on how to pandemic have affected housing designers. create designs, which largely reflects the students’ social context and psychological states. Thus far, no study has focused on the relationship between the social and psychological states of designers 1.1. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on and their designs. However, much research has been changes to housing requirements and the conducted on the psychological environmental effects psychological state of designers of windows, color planning, lighting, and color tempera- As mentioned above, throughout the COVID-19 pan- ture. Studies have investigated how spatial openings demic, people needed to reconsider how they live. affect people, including their psychological responses to Particularly significant changes in daily life include windowless environments (for instance, Hollister (1968) increased time spent at home and a new mix of private mentioned another investigator who examined employ- and public spaces due to teleworking (Okubo 2020). ees of factories in Thuringia and found a higher amount Going forward, these lifestyle transitions are expected of sick leave due to colds, stomach disorders, and nervous to result in significant changes in the functional disorders in windowless factories); whether general levels requirements for housing. In response to these social of lighting, sunlight transmission and visibility can miti- adjustments, changes in housing design are expected gate the negative effects of work stress; the direct and from developers and designers (Oxman 2004; Razzouk indirect effects of workplace windows on work satisfac- and Shute 2012). tion and general well-being (Leather et al. 1998); and There has been considerable research on housing children’s behavior and health in classrooms with and and health. To date, however, there is no general con- without windows (Küller and Lindsten 1992). sensus on the definition of a “healthy home,” and sig- Regarding the relationship between lighting, color nificant gaps remain in our knowledge of how housing temperature, and psychology, the effect of the color conditions affect health. Some studies have explored temperature of the light source on mental activity level the relationship between housing conditions and has been investigated; it was found that simple reaction health, focusing on mental health, sleep quality, indoor times were more active at a color temperature of 7500 K air quality, home safety, accessibility, obesity, mold than 3000 K (Deguchi and Sato 1992). Additionally, growth, damp heat conditions, energy consumption, regarding the relationship between student learning and perceptions of crime as important factors affecting and lighting, focus lighting led to a higher percentage housing quality. It is clear that housing is complex and of oral reading fluency performance (36%) than control housing design involves consideration of various fac- lighting (17%) (Mott et al. 2012). Regarding the effect of tors, including air quality, sound environment, safety, color on emotions, powerful and consistent effects of and neighborhood environment (Bonnefoy 2007). In saturation and brightness on emotions were demon- addition, a critical review of the existing research strated (Valdez and Mehrabian 1994). It has also been on housing and mental health, taking reported that color and colored environments affect into account housing type (e.g., single-family vs. multi- moods and emotions and produce negative or positive family housing), floor height, and housing quality (e.g., perceptions of a given environment or task (Jalil, Yunus, in terms of structural damage), presents sufficient and Said 2012). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 From July 8 to 29 July 2020, once a week, the 1.2. Hypotheses and purpose authors gave an introductory lecture to the partici- This study aimed to examine how changes in the living pants. The contents of the lecture were designed to environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic and fear convey only a basic knowledge of housing design. The related to infectious diseases have affected housing lecture described the concepts of space volume, win- designs. It aimed to determine the physical and psy- dow planning, natural light planning, lighting, color chological factors for analysis based on student temperature, interior (interior materials, coloring), fur- designs and survey results. Thus, the following four niture, and small items. On August 24, participants hypotheses were formulated. were asked to give a design presentation after attend- ●Hypothesis 1: Comparing the pre-pandemic and ing a tutorial. To mitigate the potential influence of pandemic periods, there is a difference in the impact a tutor, the tutorial was conducted with the sole pur- on people’s lives, such as increased living time at pose of preventing design mistakes due to the partici- home. pants being students. In other words, the authors ●Hypothesis 2: The COVID-19 pandemic has impli- respected the concept and design of the participants cations for current designs of housing, such as the size and carried out esquisses (preliminary sketches). of the space and the feeling of openness. The participants made their models from August 24 ●Hypothesis 3: The COVID-19 pandemic has influ - to 27 (S = 1:30) and submitted the final design propo- enced indoor color planning, lighting design, and color sals (A3, 1–2 pages). Between August 27 and 29, parti- temperature design. cipants completed a questionnaire (see later in this ●Hypothesis 4: The changes in lifestyles and work section) on their design proposals using an online caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the survey tool (Google Forms). The questionnaire took feeling of openness due to the number and design of about 40 minutes. For the statistical analysis, JMP13.0 windows and the overall size of rooms and spaces. (SAS Institute Inc.) software was used. The level of statistical significance (p) was set to 0.05 and 0.01. The influence of participants’ psychological states on 2. Materials and methods their designs was evaluated by analyzing the design 2.1. Participants proposals and survey results using t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation analysis, and χ tests. The participants of this study were 28 students (12 women, mean age = 18.5, SD = 0.74, aged 18– 21 years) of the Department of Architecture at a uni- 2.3. Housing design versity in Tokyo, Japan. Because 28 of the 40 students Housing planning and design had the following con- who participated in the class answered the question- ditions. Participants were asked to create a concept, naire (response rate of 70%), the data of 28 students drawn design, color design, lighting design, window were analyzed. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pan- design, furniture layout, and small items layout under demic, the university has conducted mostly online the theme of the house in which they would like to classes, although there are in-person classes for some live. The house volume was limited to 250–300 m . subjects. However, this study targeted students who The following contents were included in the final participated only in fully online classes. This study was design proposal submissions (A3, 1–2 pages): title, conducted according to a protocol approved by Tokyo concept of housing design, color scheme, material, Denki University. All participants provided informed lighting design, furniture layout, total floor area and consent before the study began. window area calculation, plan, cross-sectional view (S = 1:30), development view (including window area), 1–2 external model photos, and 4–5 interior 2.2. Procedure model photos that convey the concept well. Housing planning, design, and questionnaires were used to investigate the effects of changes in the living 2.4. Questionnaire environment and anxiety related to infection on hous- ing design associated with the spread of coronavirus The questionnaire items are shown in Table 1. The infection. As no housing designs before COVID-19 survey items were divided into seven categories: Q1. were available, it was impossible to directly compare Current situation related to COVID-19; Q2. Activity time the contents of housing designs during COVID-19 with and sleeping time in a house before and during COVID- prior examples. Therefore, self-reported information 19; Q3. Housing design title; Q4. Lighting equipment about the participants’ psychological states and life- and color temperature plan; Q5. Space evaluation in style patterns before and after the pandemic were design using the 7-level semantic differential (SD) investigated. All processes were conducted online method; Q6. Window area and total floor area; and using Zoom. Q7. Function of space. 4 H. YU AND R. FUJII Table 1. Questionnaire items, contents, and options. Survey items Survey contents and options Q1. Current situation related to COVID-19 1–1. I am fearful of COVID-19 infection 1–2. I am anxious about attending university 1–3. I am anxious about going out 1–4. I am anxious about meeting my friends in person 1–5. Anxiety disorder due to COVID-19 *The response options for items 1–1 to 1–5 were (1) disagree, (2) neither, and (3) agree. Q2. Activity time and sleeping time in a house How did your time staying at home (including sleep times) change before and during COVID-19? before and during COVID-19 2–1. Weekdays 2–2. Weekends How did your sleep time at home change before and during COVID-19? 2–3. Weekdays 2–4. Weekends *The options from 2–1 to 2–4 are as follows: (1) < 6 h, (2) 6–8 h, (3) 8–10 h, (4) 10–12 h, (5) 12–18 h, (6) 18 h or more. 2–5. Did your sleep quality change during COVID-19 compared with before COVID-19? ※ The response options for item 2–5 were (1) change, (2) neither, (3) no change. In the following examples, list the items in order of highest to lowest number of hours spent on each activity every day 2–6. Before COVID-19 2–7. After COVID-19 ※ The examples used in 2–5 and 2–6 are as follows: (1) Activities of daily living (rest, meals, etc.) (2) Sleep (3) Learning at school or cram school(face-to-face) (4) Personal learning (study, assignments, etc.) (5) Online learning (classes, studies, assignments, etc.) (6) Hobbies (dynamic: weight training, aerobic exercise, etc.) (7) Hobbies (static: reading, watching videos, etc.) (8) Interacting with others online Q3. Housing design title 3–1. Tell me the title of the housing design. Q4. Lighting equipment and color temperature 4–1. Select all the lighting fixtures used in each space. plan (1) Bracket light (2) Ceiling light (3) Chandelier (4) Downlight (5) Spotlight (6) Atrium light (7) Pendant light (8) Floor stand light (9) Task light (10) Footlight (11) Others 4–2. Select all the color temperatures of the lighting used in each space. (1) 3000 K (2) 3500 K (3) 4200 K (4) 5000 K (5) 6500 K Q5. Space evaluation in design using the 7-level 5–1. A feeling of being closed-in–A feeling of openness SD method 5–2. Narrow–Wide (Spacious) 5–3. Dark–Bright 5–4. Warm image–Cool image 5–5. Quiet–Lively 5–6. Cramped–Cozy and relaxed 5–7. Unnatural feeling–Natural feeling 5–8. Private–Public * A 7-point Likert scale was used for the first item of each pair of descriptions: (1) strong feeling (2) general feeling (3) some feeling (4) neutral or neither agree nor disagree, AND for the second item of each pair(5) some feeling (6) general feeling (7) strong feeling Q6. Window area and total floor area Tell me the area (m ) of the walls and windows close to each direction. 6–1. South 6–2. East 6–3. North 6–4. West 6–5. Ceiling wall. Q7. Function of space 7–1. Awareness of introducing daylight 7–2. Ventilation considerations 7–3. Awareness of the connection with the outside world *The options from 7–1 to 7–3 are (1) disagree or (2) agree All surveys were conducted during the COVID-19 (American Society of Heating 2004; Athalye et al. 2013; pandemic. Since Q2ʹs staying time and sleeping pat- O’Connor et al. 1997). Therefore, in this study, the WWR tern before COVID-19 are lifestyle-related, it was was used to investigate its relationship with psycholo- assumed that the measurement during COVID-19 was gical factors. The equation of the WWR is as fol- within a range of time that they could remember lows (Eq. 1): accurately and that effective results could be obtained. Total window area WWRð%Þ ¼ � 100% (1) Total wall area Six types of WWRs were used in this study: the East 2.5. Definition of terms WWR, West WWR, South WWR, North WWR, Ceiling WWR, and Total WWR (all five directions combined). 2.5.1. Window-to-wall ratio The window-to-wall ratio (WWR) was defined as the ratio of the total window area to the total exterior wall 2.5.2. CIE 1976 L*u*v* color space area. The WWR is mainly used as a reference formula The CIE defined the CIELUV uniform color space in for energy consumption accounting for daylighting 1976. Since the components are L*, u*, and v*, it is controls, visible transmittance and glazing reduction called CIE1976L*u*v* and it is used to indicate color JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 difference (International Organization for 3. Results Standardization 2009). Symbols and abbreviated 3.1. Hypothesis 1: impact of COVID-19 on terms are as follows: people’s lives X, Y, Z tristimulus values of a test stimulus calculated using the color- 3.1.1. Stay-at-home times and sleep times matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system (also known as the CIE 2° standard colorimetric The difference in participants’ stay-at-home times on system) 2 weekdays [χ = 33.07, df = 5, p< 0.01] and stay-at- Y tristimulus value, Y, of a specified white color stimulus calculated using the color-matching functions of the CIE 1931 home times on weekends [χ = 24.49, df = 5, p< 0.01] standard colorimetric system showed a significant difference before and during L* CIELUV lightness COVID-19. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the stay-at- u*, v* CIELUV u*, v* coordinates u′, v CIE 1976 chromaticity coordinates home period increased by more than six hours on week- 0 0 days and about five hours on weekends compared with CIE 1976 chromaticity coordinates of a specified white stimulus u ; v n n before COVID-19. However, there was no significant difference between sleep times on weekdays To analyze the psychological evaluation according [χ = 2.62, df = 3, p = 0.45] and sleep times on weekends to the color plan of the space, the base color, sub color, [χ = 4.22, df = 4, p = 0.38] before and during COVID-19. and accent color used in the housing design were used The ANOVA of changes in sleep times and sleep in the final design submitted. Using Photoshop CC quality before and during COVID-19 indicated that 2019 (Adobe), the RGB, V and C of the base color, sub there was no significant difference between before color, and accent color were extracted. By substituting COVID-19 on weekdays [χ = 8.05, df = 6, p = 0.23], RGB in Equation 2 (Fairman, Brill, and Hemmendinger during COVID-19 on weekdays [χ = 4.35, df = 6, 1997) to obtain X, Y, and Z and substituting X, Y, and p = 0.63], before COVID-19 on weekends [χ = 2.58, Z in Equations 3 and 4 (ISO, 2009) to obtain u and v, L*, df = 4, p = 0.63], and during COVID-19 on weekends u*, and v* were calculated using Equations 5, 6, and 7, [χ = 7.58, df = 8, p= 0.48]. These results confirm that respectively (Fairman, Brill, and Hemmendinger 1997). 0 sleep times and quality were not affected by COVID-19. Y, u′, and v′ describe the test color stimulus and Y , u , Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the differences in stay-at- and v describe a specified white stimulus in these home times and in activity contents before and during formulae: COVID-19. Figure 1 shows the differences in stay-at- 0 1 0 1 0 1 home times before and during COVID-19 on weekdays X 2:76883 1:75171 1:13014 R and weekends. The proportion of respondents who @ A @ A @ A Y ¼ 1:00000 4:59061 0:06007 � G stayed home longer than 18 hours during COVID-19 Z 0:00000 0:05651 5:59417 B on both weekdays and weekends was high. (2) Figure 2 shows the differences in activities before and during COVID-19. Participants were ranked from 4X the most time spent to the least time spent among the u ¼ (3) X þ 15Y þ 3Z eight activities presented. Among the rankings of the eight items, the highest-ranked activity was given 6 points, the second-highest was given 3 points and the 9X v ¼ (4) third-highest was given 2 points, as shown in Figure 2. X þ 15Y þ 3Z The results indicate significant differences in overall activity before and during COVID-19 [χ = 169.26, L ¼ 116ðY=Y Þ