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Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural transition zone

Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural... JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2022.2163591 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY AND THEORY Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural transition zone a b b a c d Tao Jin , Chen Youjia , Li Geng , Xiao Dawei , Chen Huashuai and Huang Jiaping State KeyLaboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, b c China; Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 9 December 2021 This paper explores the formation mechanisms of various architectural forms in a cultural Accepted 15 December 2022 transition region. A field investigation involving 504 ancestral shrines with Guangfu and Hakka styles in Shenzhen was performed. Then, spatial distribution analysis was conducted to reveal KEYWORDS the regional structure of aggregation, penetration and juxtaposition of the architectural forms. Cultural transition region; Case studies were adopted to explain the integration modes of the architectural forms. The architectural form; ancestral results show that, juxtaposition, as a typical mode of coexistence of architectural forms in shrine; juxtaposition; cultural transition zones, mainly occurs in regions dominated by weak cultures. Through integration gathering densely in a small region, a weak culture can gain the ability to compete with a strong culture, thus forming a basis for achieving an equilibrium state. The approaches to the integration of architectural forms are diverse. The transformation of the architectural plane involves changes in social organization and cultural essence. The alteration of construction details and decoration involves a compromise regarding noncritical elements adopted by the weak culture to maintain its original characteristics. Finally, their shared human and natural environmental “genes” give the buildings in the cultural transition region an underlying commonality. This study offers a significant addition to the cultural geography and architec- tural morphology literature. 1. Introduction Shenzhen is a large city on the southern coast of China. Historically, it has been dominated by the The relationship between culture and architectural mor- dual Guangfu and Hakka cultures, thus characteriz- phology has been extensively discussed. It is generally ing it as a cultural transition region (Figure 1). Most accepted that different cultural characteristics are key in of its ancient buildings have been demolished, but shaping various building forms (Amos, 1969, Bernard, the ancestral shrines, under the protection of the 1987). The philosophies, concepts and technologies of clans, have been retained. They have become pre- building construction can be regarded as the results of cious cultural heritage sites in this modern city. the influence of culture to a large extent (Amos, 1990, During the field investigation, we found that some Emmons, Lomholt, and Hendrix 2012). In addition, cul- ancestral shrines in Shenzhen have undergone tural geography theory indicates that in terms of spatial obvious changes in their physical forms, which are distribution, culture follows a core-periphery structure presented in a variety of ways. Thus, these shrines (Champion 2005; Rowlands, Larsen, and Kristiansen serve as appropriate objects to study the architec- 1987). The core area represents the main cultural fea- tural forms in a cultural transition zone. Therefore, tures of the whole region. In the periphery, transition this study analyses the features and distributions of areas between cultures emerge due to the homogene- the built form of the ancestral shrine in Shenzhen ity of culture weakening as the distance from the core by collecting a larger set of samples to provide increases (Sauer 2008; Jordan, 1986). As a phenomenon verification materials and solid empirical support and process of culture, the physical form of architecture for the existing research. At the same time, the also follows a core-periphery pattern (Ronald, 1986). formation mechanism of the heterogeneity and Compared with those in the core area, buildings in homogeneity of built form of the ancestral shrine a transition zone are influenced simultaneously by is explained through the pattern of spatial distribu- different cultures. This will inevitably increase the com- tion, which may bring new insights to the scholarly plexity of the formation mechanism of the architectural discussion of architectural morphology. form. CONTACT Huang Jiaping huangjp913@scau.edu.cn College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510642, China © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 1. The Guangfu and Hakka cultural regions. Source: Situ, S. J. (2000). Cultural Geography of Guangdong. Guangzhou: Guangdong People’s Publishing House. built form of ancestral shrines. According to Feng’s (2017) 2. Literature review research, the setting of steps, doors, gable walls and so 2.1. Ancestral shrine and its cultural connotation on were all related to the identities of the space users; they were used to distinguish the hosts and guests, men The ancestral shrine or family temple, as an important and women, and the generations of people. In addition, symbol of clan culture under the Confucian belief sys- the social function would also influence the shrine’s built tem, was a type of sacrificial and commemorative form. For example, to better civilize the clan people and building in ancient China. In contrast to temples and convey Confucian ethics, the gatehouse of the ancestral churches, they were not only where blood-related shrine always adopted the form of an academy building. family members worshipped ancestors and sages but That is, open spaces were set on both sides of the gate, were also gathering places for marriages, funerals, inside and outside the wall (Zhong 2018). longevity celebrations and deliberation regarding As a mapping of Confucian clan culture, the ances- important clan affairs (Wu, 2010; Liu 2003; Jin 2018). tral shrine exhibited some internal commonalities. Studies have shown that the design and construction However, to better suit the specific natural and cultural of ancestral shrines were essentially influenced by tradi- environments in different regions, adaptive design tional Confucian culture (David and Liu, 2000). First, the could always be observed. Thus, the ancestral shrines classic Confucian book “Family Ritual”, which was written show certain regional differences (Yang 2008). in the Southern Song Dynasty, laid the basic rules for the Therefore, based on the homogeneity of the general spatial pattern of ancestral shrines for later generations spatial form, partial and diversified variation constituted (Zhu 2002). Thus, the prototype, namely, the front gate- a basic logic for understanding the built forms of ances- house as a prelude, the grand middle hall for worship, tral shrines. This is an issue that deserves scholarly and the ending hall for ranking the tablet of ancestors, attention and will be discussed in the following section. was inherited (Feng 2017). Second, traditional sacrifice etiquettes had an impact on the setting of the ritual space. The sequence of construction, arrangement of 2.2. Cultural confrontation and architectural rooms, indoor furnishings, and placement of altars and forms ancestral tablets were all controlled by the sacrificial regulations (Gong and Guo 2008). Third, the ethical The phenomenon and mechanism of culture shaping order emphasized by Confucianism was reflected in the architecture have been reported worldwide. This is JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 seen, for example, in the influence of Islamic religious The above analysis shows that there are diverse customs on mosque architecture (Hisham, 2003, modes of response modes to confrontations between Mohammed Abdullah Eben, 1998), the impact of social two cultures. Sometimes the responses are character- cultural patterns on domestic building spaces in the ized by rigidity, and architectural forms juxtapose; Mediterranean region (Paul, 2000), and the effect of sometimes they present elasticity, and architectural etiquette systems on traditional Chinese architectural forms merge. In other cases, the built environment morphologies (Steinhardt 2019). This paradigm of gradually changes, and cultures adapt. These mechan- research aims to reveal the mapping between isms of cultural interlacing can also be found in a single culture and a building form, and the samples Shenzhen, of which the ancestral shrines are solid are located mainly in cultural core areas. evidence. Specifically, under the influence of colonial culture, colonial architecture represents different physical fea- 3. Materials and methods tures from the native architecture, as seen in British- style houses in the United States (Hugh, 1987), Beginning in 2018, a field survey of ancient buildings Spanish-style houses in Mexico (James, 1994), and and ancestral shrines in Shenzhen was conducted by French-style houses in Algeria (Joëlle, 1996). Although the research team. A total of 504 samples were col- such scenarios involve two cultures, they are not spa- lected, including 296 Guangfu ancestral shrines and tially adjacent, and there is no cultural transition area. 208 Hakka ancestral shrines distributed in 51 subdis- However, the phenomenon in which a strong colonial trict units. To conduct a comparative study, we culture integrates with the local culture is observed. recorded the differential features of the key elements After analysing the French colonial architecture in of the two types of ancestral shrines, including the Laos, (Xayaphone, 2015) argued that the colonial cul- pattern of the shrine-dwelling relationship, the archi- ture changed rather than eliminated the local culture, tectural plane, the building materials, and the con- and the combination of the two building forms was struction details and decorations. better suited to the local religion and climate. Demissie Then, a research method combining spatial distribu- (2012) examined the Italian colonial architecture in tion analysis and typical case analysis was adopted. Libya and pointed out that the mixture of local and The collected samples were spatially positioned, high- imported architectural vocabulary shaped a new archi- resolution remote sensing images; the boundaries of tectural form called “Libyan rationalism”. subdistrict units were superimposed on the images, When cultures came into contact and confronted and the features of the samples were individually each other in the cultural transition zone, they would labelled. On this basis, on the one hand, the spatial adjust and adapt, thereby developing new architec- distribution patterns of the key features were analysed, tural forms (Li, 2009). In this process, two types of based on which the structure of the agglomeration, architectural form transformations were observed, penetration and juxtaposition of the architectural form namely, linear gradual inheritance and parallel muta- was explored. On the other hand, through the mor- tion (Li et al. 2020). In addition, the integration of phological analysis of the typical ancestral shrines, the architectural forms caused by cultural fusion needed approaches of cultural interlacing were explained in an a specific basis, that is, a certain potential difference intuitive way, providing micro evidence supporting the between the two cultures. This potential difference macro spatial analysis, as the purpose was to reveal the should occur under the circumstances that the strong diversified generation mechanism of architectural culture could affect but not fully assimilate the weak forms in the cultural transition zone. culture (Peng et al. 2016). Kellner-Heinkele, Gierlichs, and Heuer (2008) introduced the architectural charac- 4. Types and features of the ancestral shrines teristics of Crimea, the Caucasus, and the Volga-Ural in Shenzhen regions on the edge of Europe, where different build- ing styles represent a state of juxtaposition, reflecting There are two types of ancestral shrines in Shenzhen, the cultural heterogeneity of the areas. Emma Maglio namely, Guangfu and Hakka shrines. Guangfu is an studied the architecture and urban forms on the important ethnic group in southern China. With Aegean island of Rhodes influenced by Ottoman cul- Cantonese as its mother tongue, it takes Guangzhou ture and found that the strategy adopted by the strong in the Pearl River Delta as the cultural centre and Ottoman culture was to make full use of the existing radiates outward. The western part of Shenzhen is an buildings and transform their functions gradually to area dominated by Guangfu culture. The Hakka are an encourage residents to adapt to a new residential ethnic group distributed in the area where the pro- culture (Maglio 2012). This case provides another pos- vinces of Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi meet in South sible process of cultural confrontation, that is, a gentle China. They are immigrants of Han nationality who and gradual transformation based on respect for the have historically been displaced by war (Leong, built environment. Wright, and Skinner 1997). They are distributed along 4 T. JIN ET AL. the Dongjiang River to the eastern part of Shenzhen. the roof is built directly on it. In addition, the decora- The Hakka people retain many ancient cultural char- tion of Hakka ancestral shrines is not rich, and the acteristics of Central China, and their architectural style appearance of these buildings is simple. The most is very different from that of the Guangfu (Constable decorated parts are the altars and niches. 2005). A detailed comparison of the Guangfu and The architectural differences between the two types Hakka ancestral shrines is provided in Figure 2. of ancestral shrines were, to a large extent, determined In terms of the shrine-dwelling relationship, by the attributes of the commercial culture and agri- Guangfu ancestral shrines are built independently in cultural culture corresponding to the Guangfu and villages, separated from the surrounding small court- Hakka ethnic groups (Guo 2013). Historically, the yard dwellings (Chen 2012; Lai 2010). In some larger Guangfu ethnic group lived in coastal plain areas and villages, several ancestral shrines of different sizes are developed a prosperous commercial culture. To reduce distributed at the forefront of dense alley building the clan contradiction caused by commercial wealth clusters according to the spatial hierarchy. The Hakka sharing, individual families played an important role in ancestral shrine, in contrast, is integrated into the the social structure of the clan. The family was the dwellings as a component (Lai and Yang 2008). smallest unit for economic activities. Therefore, Strictly speaking, there is it has no independent archi- Guangfu village was composed of small courtyard tectural form. Hakka dwellings are typically large build- houses. In this case, an ancestral shrine could not be ings, and almost all Hakka dwellings have ancestral integrated with a dwelling; thus, it was usually built shrines inside them. This is a key difference between independently (Lai 2010). While the Hakka was a typical the two types of ancestral shrines. agricultural society, collective farming was important In terms of the architectural plane, a Guangfu for clan self-sufficiency and development. Therefore, in ancestral shrine is generally organized in accordance Hakka culture, the concept of individual families was with the local formula of “Jian”, “Jin” and “Lu” (Yang weakened, and the clan branches played an important 2013). Importantly, the width of the main building of role. Therefore, the Hakka villages were composed of a Guangfu ancestral shrine is often 3 Jian or 5 Jian, with large dwellings, and a building actually corresponded no wall facing the courtyard. This makes the inner to a clan branch rather than a family. In this situation, space of a Guangfu ancestral shrine relatively open. the ancestral shrine would be integrated into the Hakka ancestral shrines are neatly arranged along the dwellings and used by the branch residents, which central axis of a dwelling. They usually occupy a width was compatible with its social structure (Lin 1997). At of only 1Jian, which runs from front to back and is the same time, the ancestral shrine was an embodi- enclosed by solid walls on both sides. It is narrow, ment of the economic power of the clan in commercial closed and has a strong sense of depth. In the case of culture. Building a larger and more beautiful ancestral larger Hakka dwellings, tall and enclosed structures are shrine could endorse its business behaviour and built on the periphery for safety. This structure will enhance the trust of trading partners. Therefore, further extend the central axis to a tower called the Guangfu ancestral shrines were grander and more “dragon hall”. It is another part of the sacred space and open in spatial pattern. They had more rooms and is unique to Hakka architecture (Pan et al. 2013). expanded to both sides, and fine decoration and car- With respect to building materials and decora- vings were usually abundant in different parts of the tions, blue brick and wood are commonly adopted for building. The huge wealth brought by commerce could Guangfu ancestral shrines (Xu 2019). Wood is used for exactly support this construction (Lai and Yang 2008). the framework of the structure that bears the weight of In Hakka farming culture, equality was the basis for the building, whereas the walls built of blue bricks con- social stability. The construction of ancestral shrines stitute an envelope. Red sandstone is also used for the should not destroy the balance of clans by flaunting base of the building, door and window frames and individual wealth, so they often showed a more intro- columns. In addition, Guangfu ancestral shrines are verted characteristic. As immigrants, Hakka people richly decorated by brick carvings, stone carvings, built walled dwellings for defence. This might limit wood carvings, the expansion of the building and result in a more colourful paintings, grey sculptures and so on compact and closed layout of the ancestral shrine (Zhang et al. 2018), which show high artistic skill. (Yang 2011). In addition, the wealth accumulated Hakka ancestral shrines use raw earth, granite and through farming was limited, which might also restrict wood as the main building materials. The earthen wall not only plays an enveloping role but is actually the application of luxury materials and decorations in a load-bearing structure because the wooden frame of Hakka ancestral shrines to a certain extent. Jian refers to the number of rooms arranged parallel to the main building, and it influences the width of the building. Jin refers to the number of buildings on the central axis and influences the depth of the building. Lu refers to the auxiliary structures on both sides of the main building. Through the combination of Jian, Jin and Lu, a large courtyard compound can be formed. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 Figure 2. Comparison of the key elements of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: The shrine-dwelling relationship is an important indicator for identifying the cultural type of the village, which reflects the social organization pattern of the community. The pattern of the architectural plane is a core indicator for identifying building types and reflects the cultural traditions associated with the function of the building and family organization. Building materials are an important distinguishing factor. The use of different materials leads to various construction techniques, creating differences between local buildings and buildings in other regions. The construction details and decorations reflect unified cultural features at the regional level and aesthetic taste at the individual level. shrines are widely distributed in western, central and 5. The formation mechanism of the southern Shenzhen, covering 49 subdistrict units. The architectural form in the cultural transition Hakka ancestral shrines are distributed in 17 subdistrict zone units in eastern Shenzhen. Only a few are located in the 5.1. Agglomeration and the formation of the central areas. Their spatial coverage is smaller than that transition zone of Guangfu ancestral shrines. Geographically, the regional centre of Guangfu cul- Figure 3 shows the spatial distribution of the two types ture, Guangzhou, flanks Shenzhen to the west, strongly of ancestral shrines. Generally, Guangfu ancestral 6 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 3. Distribution of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines and their kernel density. facilitating cultural radiation. Therefore, the Guangfu 5.2. The interlacing pattern of the architectural ancestral shrines have formed a strong agglomeration forms in the cultural transition zone core in the western coastal area, with an aggregation In the cultural transition area in Shenzhen, the logic of intensity that weakens gradually from west to east. It is the architectural form generation is diverse. There is common for the Guangfu culture to penetrate into the not only juxtaposition but also integration. In terms of Hakka zone, and Guangfu ancestral shrines are distrib- the larger human and environmental background, uted even in the core area of the Hakka zone. While there is homogeneity. Hakka is an immigrant culture, Shenzhen is located at the end of its diffusion route and is relatively weak in cultural potential. Hence, three smaller agglomeration 5.2.1. The pattern of juxtaposition cores in the east can be observed. Their radiation Juxtaposition refers to the non-mutually exclusive capacity is weak, the attenuation of the agglomeration coexistence of things in a medium. The juxtaposition areas is obvious, and their infiltration into the Guangfu of the Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines means that area is rare. the two architectural types coexist in one area and Accordingly, a delicate spatial equilibrium has maintain their own features. Taking the subdistrict as arisen. On the one hand, the two types of ancestral the basic geographical unit, we marked those where shrines have built up stable cultural positions by occu- the architectural forms coexist. The dark grey area in pying certain areas in western and eastern Shenzhen Figure 5 shows the juxtaposition region of the Guangfu and by forming agglomeration cores. On the other and Hakka ancestral shrines, which encompasses 14 hand, by gathering in smaller, scattered areas at units covering a large area of central and eastern a high intensity, the Hakka ancestral shrines are able Shenzhen. To a certain extent, it shows that juxtaposi- to compete with the strong Guangfu culture; in this tion is an important pattern of cultural interlacing in way, the destructive power of penetration by the the transition zone. Figure 6 shows examples of the opponent is resisted, and the cultural characteristics juxtaposition of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. of the ethnic group are maintained. Regarding the spatial distribution, the juxtaposition Abstracted into an illustration (Figure 4), the areas of the two types of ancestral shrines coincide attenuation curves of the Guangfu ancestral shrines mainly with core Hakka rather than core Guangfu (A) and Hakka ancestral shrines (B) cross, and curve areas. This is further evidence of the cultural penetra- A extends into the high-intensity area of curve B. The tion pattern proposed above. The circles in Figure 5 attenuation rate of curve A is low, so the slope is show the proportions of the two types of ancestral relatively gentle, while the attenuation degree of shrines in the subdistrict units. In summary, there are curve B is high. When the two reach a certain balance 67 Guangfu ancestral shrines and 177 Hakka ancestral in potential energy, a cultural transition area is formed. shrines. The ratio of the two within each boundary is JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 4. Attenuation curves of the two types of ancestral shrines. Figure 5. Areas with both types of ancestral shrines. Figure 6. Example photos of the juxtaposition of the two types of ancestral shrines. 1:2.6 on average, with a minimum ratio of 1:15. This lead to the collapse of the latter. Spatially, the balance indicates that although the strong culture permeates would break, and the weak culture would withdraw. the area of the weak culture, the strength of such Therefore, the strong agglomeration of the weak cul- penetration is relatively low. We can imagine that ture and the weak penetration of the strong culture once the penetration power increases, it might signifi - constitute a precondition for the juxtaposition in the cantly impact the core of the weak culture, which may cultural transition zone to a large extent. In this 8 T. JIN ET AL. situation, the two types of ancestral shrines coexist dwelling was directly replaced by the Guangfu harmoniously with their own intact characteristics, so ancestral shrine. The Guangfu architectural plane, there is no new architectural form generated. structure, materials and details were completely adopted. In a very rigid way, the shrines were 5.2.2. The pattern of integration implanted among the Hakka dwellings, which led Cultural integration refers to the merging of adjusted to a dramatic visual and cultural mismatch. The cultural elements to create new systems in the process Chen family’s ancestral shrine, a typical Hakka dwell- of cultural exchange and collision. In Shenzhen, the ing in Laoken village, is taken as an example; it long-term intermingling of the Guangfu and Hakka adopts a classic Guangfu style, with 3 Jian and 3 ethnic groups has resulted in the integration of their Jin. It was built tall and magnificent, and the overall cultures. Therefore, new architectural forms of ances- height is much higher than that of the row houses tral shrines have emerged. on both sides (Figure 8). This is significantly different from the simple and restrained temperament of (1) The shift in the dwelling-shrine relationship: Hakka buildings. This collage pattern reflects that In the Guangfu–Hakka transition area, there is the borrowed physical form of the Guangfu ancestral a special village pattern called the “row-house” shrine has not yet found an appropriate way to village, whose main residents are Hakka people. incorporate into the original Hakka dwellings. This This type of village follows the main structure of may represent an intermediate stage in the transfor- Hakka dwellings, namely, row houses, while mation of the large Hakka dwellings into the row- incorporating the dense alley layout of house villages mentioned above. Guangfu villages. It can be regarded as an inte- gration of the two patterns (Figure 7). In this (1) Transformation of the hierarchical configura - type of village, the spatial structure in which tion of Hakka ancestral shrines: The Hakka the ancestral shrines were originally integrated ancestral shrine is integrated into the central into Hakka dwellings disappeared, but the need axis of the building; thus, there is usually only for a space for worship continued. The construc- one ancestral shrine inside a dwelling. However, tion of independent ancestral shrines became during the investigation, we found cases of mul- a necessity, but there was no corresponding tiple ancestral shrines inside a typical Hakka experience in the Hakka tradition. Therefore, residential building. For example, in Qingpai imitating the Guangfu was an effective method. House located in Pingshan District, there are We can observe that independent Guangfu three ancestral shrines facing the front yard ancestral shrines were built in many row-house and arranged side by side, which is consistent villages (Figure 7). This combination pattern of with the layout of Guangfu ancestral shrines in Hakka village and Guangfu ancestral shrine is front of a square. According to the interpreta- unique to the cultural transition area in tion of the aborigines, the shrine on the central Shenzhen. axis is the main shrine and the sacrificial space for the whole ethnic group. The other shrines on (2) Collage of Hakka dwellings and Guangfu both sides are branch shrines and memorial ancestral shrines: Under these circumstances, the halls, and they occupy a lower position in the Hakka ancestral shrine on the central axis of the hierarchy. (Figure 9) Figure 7. The integration pattern of a Hakka village and Guangfu ancestral shrine. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 Figure 8. Collage of Hakka dwellings and Guangfu ancestral shrines. Figure 9. Plane and photos of Qingpai House. An ancestral shrine is the embodiment of the orga- integrated into the structure of traditional Hakka nization of the clan. The adoption of the Guangfu dwellings. ancestral shrine hierarchy in Hakka dwellings indicates (4) Details and decorations of Guangfu ancestral that the Hakka people living there have been influ - shrines used in Hakka ancestral shrines: As men- enced by and have assimilated into Guangfu culture. tioned above, under the influence of commercial cul- Therefore, the integration is no longer a simple juxta- ture, the Guangfu ancestral shrine adopted more position but a deeper fusion. However, the architec- details and decorations, while the Hakka ancestral tural plane adopted by these ancestral shrines still shrines were plain, reflecting agricultural culture. follows the traditional Hakka style. This may be However, the survey results showed that in the cultural a necessary choice that allows them to be better transition area of Shenzhen, the architectural details Figure 10. Details and decorations of Guangfu ancestral shrines used in Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: (a) Ridge: Some Hakka ancestral shrines use the Bogu ridge, which is common in Guangfu culture; (b) Material: some Hakka shrines use red sandstone, a high-grade Guangfu ancestral shrine material, for the frames of doors and windows; (c) Gable: The heightened and curved gables with typical Guangfu characteristics are adopted by Hakka ancestral shrines; (d) some unique Guangfu building techniques, such as the grey sculpture and ceramic detailing on the roof and pillar heads, appear on the Hakka ancestral shrines. 10 T. JIN ET AL. and decorations of some Hakka Ancestral shrines also cultures, they are both rooted in the Han ethnic became rich. They often adopted the decoration styles group and are two subcultures under the influence of that used to appear only in Guangfu ancestral shrines, Confucian culture. The same cultural genes shaped and this might happen extensively on different parts of some common essential features of their architectural the buildings, such as roofs, doors, windows, and forms, which are reflected in many aspects of the two gables. (Figure 10) types of ancestral shrines. However, the most funda- This phenomenon is common in Shenzhen, and only mental element of homogeneity lies in the plane some typical examples are listed. It is clear that, to pattern. a certain extent, the construction details, especially Chinese Han traditional architecture, whether offi - some independent decorative elements, have high flex - cial or folk, adopts a unified spatial model, that is, the ibility in the process of cultural integration. Technically, combination of axial symmetrical spatial sequences they can be integrated into the new building conveni- and multiple courtyards. It has been explained in ently without changing the cultural attributes of the many studies that this spatial pattern was consolidated original building. Notably, most of the changes in con- over a long span of time and is the physical embodi- struction detail and decoration occurred in the Hakka ment of the norms of the etiquette system promoted ancestral shrines. This indicates that in the process of under Chinese imperial rule (Wang 2006). On the one cultural integration, a weak culture is more susceptible hand, the core of the etiquette system is to pursue to being influenced by a strong culture. Therefore, harmony, that is, the balance between different ele- a weak culture may achieve consistency with a strong ments, and axial symmetry is considered to be the best culture through adaptive changes in some noncritical and most direct way to achieve this goal. The ancestral elements. This is done to better integrate into the strong shrine, as a spiritual space for clan members to wor- culture while ensuring that the essence of the weak ship, is a direct reflection of the norms of etiquette. culture remains unchanged. Therefore, both Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines adopt a strict axisymmetric layout to respond to this basic social criterion. At the same time, the axis 5.2.3. Common genes strengthens the depth of the building. The ancestors’ The above analysis focuses on the heterogeneous fea- hall is located in the last Jin of the shrine, and the altar tures of the two types of ancestral shrines, as well as their is placed at the end of the central axis, through which distribution patterns and the mechanisms of cultural the implication of spiritual impact is acquired. Under interlacing. However, during the investigation, we found this setting, the rest of the space on the axis, especially that there are also some common features between the middle hall used to discuss clan public affairs, was them. These can be understood as broader aspects of placed under the gaze of the ancestors, which greatly the cultural background and natural environment. strengthened people’s sense of awe in the space. (1) The common cultural genes of Han national- (Figure 11) ity: Although Guangfu and Hakka are two different Figure 11. Similar plane patterns adopted by Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 11 On the other hand, another core feature of the important factor that needs to be considered in the norms of etiquette is the implementation of a strict architectural design. Because both Guangfu and Hakka hierarchical system, which creates a fixed spatial hier- ancestral shrines adopt a layout with multiple courtyards, archical sequence for the functional layout of the the ground of the building site is designed to be low in buildings (Li 1993). Only the memorial tablet of ances- the front and high in the rear. By gravity, rainwater flows tors can be arranged inside the shrine; living people into the courtyards along the sloping roofs and drains are spatially ranked according to generations. The liv- into the pond in front of the village through pipes buried ing space of the elders is closest to the ancestral hall; under the buildings and the front square (Tao et al. the areas for children and grandchildren expand out- 2022). Outside the ancestral shrine, rapid rainwater dis- ward and backwards, and other families are arranged charge is realized through organized drainage ditches furthest from the ancestral hall. From the sacrifice- running parallel to the roadways (Guangfu) or corridors living space of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines, (Hakka). Therefore, from the perspective of the drainage we can consistently observe the mapping relationship system and mechanism, Guangfu and Hakka ancestral between spatial order and hierarchy. At the same time, shrines are also similar (Figure 12(a)). the division between hierarchies of space is realized Third, the humid climate makes the wood of the through the setting of multiple courtyards. When the building more prone to corrosion; therefore, special architecture scale expands, buildings and courtyards moisture-proof treatment is needed. Identical technol- appear alternately, forming a natural differential pat- ogies and materials, such as sand and lime, are laid tern centred on the ancestral shrines. Generally, as the down in multiple layers to material carrier of sacrificial activities, Guangfu and build a raised foundation to prevent underground Hakka ancestral shrines are affected by the same cul- moisture from rising to the floor through capillary action. ture gene and reflect a relatively consistent spatial Fired large bricks with a fine porous structure cover the order in the plane pattern. (Figure 11) floor to prevent the water from condensing on the floor (2) Common natural environmental genes: In and to keep the floor dry. In addition, the indoor columns a single area, ethnic groups with different cultural are made of stone bases and wooden bodies, while the backgrounds face the same natural environment, outdoor columns are made completely of stone, which which means that the settlements and dwellings they can prevent the wood from rotting and deforming after live in need to respond to the same environmental being exposed to rain or moisture (Figure 12(c)). adaptability issues. The climate in Shenzhen is hot, In summary, the above adaptive design technologies humid, and rainy, and it is often affected by tropical rooted in the same mother culture and natural environ- cyclones in summer and autumn. Disasters due to rain- ment make different types of buildings share a consistent storms are severe. In this environment, many climate- spatial response. They are the common genes shaping adaptive design concepts and technologies have been the forms of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. created. These were gradually integrated into the con- struction designs during the diffusion of the Guangfu 6. Conclusion and discussion and Hakka cultures. As a result, some common archi- tectural forms that reflect wind-proof, drainage and When two cultures confront each other in the process moisture-proof technologies are displayed in both of diffusion, a geographical cultural transition zone types of ancestral shrines. may form. Correspondingly, the buildings in First, tropical cyclones with strong winds often cause a transition zone can show different morphological disasters. For buildings, the roof is a weak link and a key characteristics that reflect the typical architecture in part in wind protection. Its different components, such the original cultural region. By studying a large number as ridges and cornices, need special structural designs to of ancestral shrines preserved in Shenzhen, this paper resist strong wind. For example, heightened ridges, analyses the spatial structure of their distribution and double-layer tiles and mortar bonding junctions are interlacing at the macro level and the variation in their adopted by both shrines to enhance the weight and morphological features at the micro level to reveal the integrity of the roof and make it typhoon resistant. In generation mechanism of architectural forms in cul- addition, cornice protection forms, such as covering the tural transition zones. The main conclusions are as cornice with gable, setting a cornice board or compact- follows. ing the cornice with a brick ridge or stone strip to First, juxtaposition is an important mode of coex- prevent the roof from being lifted by cyclones, are istence for architectural forms in cultural transition common in both types of ancestral shrines (Tao et al. zones. This phenomenon can mainly be observed in 2022). These windproof technologies used in ancestral regions dominated by a weak culture rather than shrines do not exist in the inland Guangfu and Hakka a strong culture. By gathering densely in a small areas far from the coastline (Figure 12(b)). region, a weak culture can build up the ability to Second, tropical cyclones are often accompanied by compete with a strong culture. This may constitute violent rainfall. Quickly discharging rainwater is an an important basis for achieving an equilibrium state 12 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 12. Climate-adaptive design technologies adopted by both Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: The source of the “cornice compaction strip and cornice board” and “heightened ridges and double-layer tiles” photographs is Tao, J., et al. (Tao et al. 2022). Climate-adaptive Design of Historic Villages and Dwellings in a Typhoon-prone Region in Southernmost Mainland China. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2020.1753262. in a cultural transition zone. Second, the integration regarded as a transformation of cultural essence invol- modes of the architectural forms in the cultural transi- ving social organization, the shift in the construction tion zone are diversified, as represented in the changes details and decorations is a compromise regarding in the combination structures of building groups, the noncritical elements adopted by the weak culture to alteration in the spatial pattern of single buildings, and maintain its own characteristics. Finally, because of the variations in architectural details and decorations. their shared human and natural environmental This leads to new architectural forms in the transition “genes”, the buildings in the cultural transition zone area that are different from those in the core area. It exhibit foundational common features even while can be argued that if the change in the plane pattern is exhibiting heterogeneous material forms. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 13 It should be noted that one of the established back- Huashuai Chen is a Senior Research Fellow of Duke University Medical Center. His research field is the health grounds of this research is the existence of strong and measurement of rural China. weak cultures. It is the difference in cultural potential that led to the complex interlacing patterns of the Jiaping Huang is a Senior Engineer and Master's Supervisor in the College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture at Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. This suggests South China Agricultural University. His main research field that cultural potential may be an important variable is the conservation of urban and rural historical and cultural affecting cultural interaction in transition zones, and heritage. diverse cultural intensity levels may produce different spatial equilibrium structures, which will lead to differ - entiated architectural forms. At the same time, the exis- Data availability statement tence of the same mother culture gives the Guangfu and The data that support the findings of this study are openly Hakka subcultures some similarities that may contribute available in [Baidu Netdisk] at [https://pan.baidu.com/s/ to their cultural integration. If the variable of mother 1f9yzWSU8L1g5Sso2vumBzw?pwd=0000]. culture is controlled, will cultural conflicts in the transi- tion zone become stronger, or will cultural fusion occur? This inevitably calls to mind the conflict and integration References between different civilizations. Furthermore, the situa- Amos, R. 1969. House Form and Culture. London-University tion discussed in this article involves only two cultures. In College. New Delhi: Prentice-hall of India Private . 73. reality, we often see the interlacing of three or more Amos, R. 1990. The Meaning of the Built Environment: cultures. This makes the situation much more compli- A Nonverbal Communication Approach. Tuscon: University cated because different cultures may develop their abil- of Arizona Press. ity to compete with each other through strategic Bernard, R. 1987. Architecture without Architects: A Short combination. Therefore, it becomes difficult to reveal Introduction to non-pedigreed Architecture. Albuquerque: UNM Press. the formation mechanism of the equilibrium state, and Champion, T., ed. 2005. Centre and Periphery: Comparative this is another issue worth scholarly discussing. Studies in Archaeology. London: Routledge. Chen, H. D. 2012. Cantonese Culture. Guangzhou: Guangdong People’s Publishing House. Disclosure statement Constable, N., ed. 2005. Guest People: Hakka Identity in China and Abroad. Seattle: University of Washington Press. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the David, F., and C. W. Liu. 2000. “Clans and State Representation author(s). in Local Society: The Ideological Foundation of the Development of Clans in South China during the Ming and Qing Periods.” Historical Research 3 (3–14). Funding Demissie, F., Ed. 2012. Colonial Architecture and Urbanism in Africa: Intertwined and Contested Histories. Farnham: This work was supported by National Natural Science Ashgate Publishing. Foundation of China [Grant Number: 51878283]; Emmons, P., J. Lomholt, and J. S. Hendrix, eds. 2012. The Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation Cultural Role of Architecture: Contemporary and Historical [Grant Number: 2021B1515020013]; Guangdong Office of Perspectives. London: Routledge. Philosophy and Social Science [Grant Number: GD21CYS05; Feng, J. 2017. The Wings of Ancestors: The Cultivation of Guangdong Philosophy and Social Science Project. Guangzhou Government in Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Gathering of Families and the Evolution of Ancestral Temples. 2rd ed. Beijing: China Construction Industry Notes on contributors Press. Gong, J., and H. Guo. 2008. “Sacrifice System and Ancestral Jin Tao is a Professor of the school of architecture, South Temple Architecture.” Shanxi Architecture (12): 75–77. China University of Technology, and a research fellow of the Guo, H. Y. 2013. “The Clan Structure Represented by the State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science. His Dwellings of the Three Major Han Ethnic Groups in main research field is the morphology of traditional settle- Guangdong.” People’s Tribune (32): 178–179. ments and buildings. Hisham, M. 2003. Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment. London: Routledge. Youjia Chen is a Master student of the school of architecture, Hugh, M. 1987. Early American Architecture: From the First South China University of Technology. Her research interest Colonial Settlements to the National Period. Chicago: is the culture of traditional village and dwellings. Courier Corporation. Geng Li is a Master student of the school of architecture, James, E. 1994. The Colonial Architecture of Mexico. South China University of Technology. His research interest is Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. the culture of traditional village and dwellings. Jin, F. L. 2018. Ancestral Hall and Church: A Comparative Study of Chinese and Western Core Values. Shanghai: People’s Dawei Xiao is a Professor of the school of architecture, South China University of Technology, and the director of State Key Publishing House. Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science. He has made Joëlle, B. 1996. A Jewish-Muslim Household in Colonial Algeria. great achievements in the field of Chinese ancient architec- The Architecture of Memory. Vol. 99. 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Beijing: China Construction Industry Press. Liu, L. M. 2003. Ancestral Hall, Spirit Tablet, Family Tree. Xayaphone, V., J.-E. Shin, and Y.-H. Kang. 2015. “The Influence Chengdu: Sichuan people’s Publishing House. of French Colonial Rule on Lao Architecture with a Focus Li, J., and D. H. Yang. 2020. “Study on the Cultural Divisions on Residential Buildings.” Journal of Asian Architecture and and Interregional Transition Relations of the Traditional Building Engineering 14 (2): 279–286. doi:10.3130/jaabe.14. Settlement in Hainan Island: Starting from the Layout of 279. Vernacular Dwelling and Settlement Morphology in Xu, Y. 2019. “The Form and Evolution of Ancestral Halls in Hainan Island”. Architectural Journal (S2): 8–15. Canton Vernacular Settlements.” Huazhong Architecture Maglio, E. 2012. “At the Periphery of the Empire: Urban 11: 129–133. Restructuring and Architectural Transformation in Yang, G. 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Xiao, and J. Tao. 2016. “A Study on Conghua.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Differentiation of Morphology Culture of Vernacular Science 153 (5): 052014. Architecture in the Core Culture Circle”. South Zhong, W. D. 2018. “Research on the Architectural Form of Architecture (1): 51–55. the Traditional Ancestral Halls in Zhaoqing.” Diss. Ronald, G. K. 1986. China’s Traditional Rural Architecture: Guangzhou: South China University of Technology. A Cultural Geography of the Common House. Honolulu: Zhu, X. 2002. Zhu’s Family Rite. Shanghai: Shanghai Chinese University of Hawaii Press. Classics Publishing House. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering Taylor & Francis

Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural transition zone

Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural transition zone

Abstract

This paper explores the formation mechanisms of various architectural forms in a cultural transition region. A field investigation involving 504 ancestral shrines with Guangfu and Hakka styles in Shenzhen was performed. Then, spatial distribution analysis was conducted to reveal the regional structure of aggregation, penetration and juxtaposition of the architectural forms. Case studies were adopted to explain the integration modes of the architectural forms. The results show that,...
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10.1080/13467581.2022.2163591
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JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2022.2163591 ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY AND THEORY Juxtaposition or integration: the formation mechanism of architectural form in a cultural transition zone a b b a c d Tao Jin , Chen Youjia , Li Geng , Xiao Dawei , Chen Huashuai and Huang Jiaping State KeyLaboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, b c China; Department of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 9 December 2021 This paper explores the formation mechanisms of various architectural forms in a cultural Accepted 15 December 2022 transition region. A field investigation involving 504 ancestral shrines with Guangfu and Hakka styles in Shenzhen was performed. Then, spatial distribution analysis was conducted to reveal KEYWORDS the regional structure of aggregation, penetration and juxtaposition of the architectural forms. Cultural transition region; Case studies were adopted to explain the integration modes of the architectural forms. The architectural form; ancestral results show that, juxtaposition, as a typical mode of coexistence of architectural forms in shrine; juxtaposition; cultural transition zones, mainly occurs in regions dominated by weak cultures. Through integration gathering densely in a small region, a weak culture can gain the ability to compete with a strong culture, thus forming a basis for achieving an equilibrium state. The approaches to the integration of architectural forms are diverse. The transformation of the architectural plane involves changes in social organization and cultural essence. The alteration of construction details and decoration involves a compromise regarding noncritical elements adopted by the weak culture to maintain its original characteristics. Finally, their shared human and natural environmental “genes” give the buildings in the cultural transition region an underlying commonality. This study offers a significant addition to the cultural geography and architec- tural morphology literature. 1. Introduction Shenzhen is a large city on the southern coast of China. Historically, it has been dominated by the The relationship between culture and architectural mor- dual Guangfu and Hakka cultures, thus characteriz- phology has been extensively discussed. It is generally ing it as a cultural transition region (Figure 1). Most accepted that different cultural characteristics are key in of its ancient buildings have been demolished, but shaping various building forms (Amos, 1969, Bernard, the ancestral shrines, under the protection of the 1987). The philosophies, concepts and technologies of clans, have been retained. They have become pre- building construction can be regarded as the results of cious cultural heritage sites in this modern city. the influence of culture to a large extent (Amos, 1990, During the field investigation, we found that some Emmons, Lomholt, and Hendrix 2012). In addition, cul- ancestral shrines in Shenzhen have undergone tural geography theory indicates that in terms of spatial obvious changes in their physical forms, which are distribution, culture follows a core-periphery structure presented in a variety of ways. Thus, these shrines (Champion 2005; Rowlands, Larsen, and Kristiansen serve as appropriate objects to study the architec- 1987). The core area represents the main cultural fea- tural forms in a cultural transition zone. Therefore, tures of the whole region. In the periphery, transition this study analyses the features and distributions of areas between cultures emerge due to the homogene- the built form of the ancestral shrine in Shenzhen ity of culture weakening as the distance from the core by collecting a larger set of samples to provide increases (Sauer 2008; Jordan, 1986). As a phenomenon verification materials and solid empirical support and process of culture, the physical form of architecture for the existing research. At the same time, the also follows a core-periphery pattern (Ronald, 1986). formation mechanism of the heterogeneity and Compared with those in the core area, buildings in homogeneity of built form of the ancestral shrine a transition zone are influenced simultaneously by is explained through the pattern of spatial distribu- different cultures. This will inevitably increase the com- tion, which may bring new insights to the scholarly plexity of the formation mechanism of the architectural discussion of architectural morphology. form. CONTACT Huang Jiaping huangjp913@scau.edu.cn College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510642, China © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 1. The Guangfu and Hakka cultural regions. Source: Situ, S. J. (2000). Cultural Geography of Guangdong. Guangzhou: Guangdong People’s Publishing House. built form of ancestral shrines. According to Feng’s (2017) 2. Literature review research, the setting of steps, doors, gable walls and so 2.1. Ancestral shrine and its cultural connotation on were all related to the identities of the space users; they were used to distinguish the hosts and guests, men The ancestral shrine or family temple, as an important and women, and the generations of people. In addition, symbol of clan culture under the Confucian belief sys- the social function would also influence the shrine’s built tem, was a type of sacrificial and commemorative form. For example, to better civilize the clan people and building in ancient China. In contrast to temples and convey Confucian ethics, the gatehouse of the ancestral churches, they were not only where blood-related shrine always adopted the form of an academy building. family members worshipped ancestors and sages but That is, open spaces were set on both sides of the gate, were also gathering places for marriages, funerals, inside and outside the wall (Zhong 2018). longevity celebrations and deliberation regarding As a mapping of Confucian clan culture, the ances- important clan affairs (Wu, 2010; Liu 2003; Jin 2018). tral shrine exhibited some internal commonalities. Studies have shown that the design and construction However, to better suit the specific natural and cultural of ancestral shrines were essentially influenced by tradi- environments in different regions, adaptive design tional Confucian culture (David and Liu, 2000). First, the could always be observed. Thus, the ancestral shrines classic Confucian book “Family Ritual”, which was written show certain regional differences (Yang 2008). in the Southern Song Dynasty, laid the basic rules for the Therefore, based on the homogeneity of the general spatial pattern of ancestral shrines for later generations spatial form, partial and diversified variation constituted (Zhu 2002). Thus, the prototype, namely, the front gate- a basic logic for understanding the built forms of ances- house as a prelude, the grand middle hall for worship, tral shrines. This is an issue that deserves scholarly and the ending hall for ranking the tablet of ancestors, attention and will be discussed in the following section. was inherited (Feng 2017). Second, traditional sacrifice etiquettes had an impact on the setting of the ritual space. The sequence of construction, arrangement of 2.2. Cultural confrontation and architectural rooms, indoor furnishings, and placement of altars and forms ancestral tablets were all controlled by the sacrificial regulations (Gong and Guo 2008). Third, the ethical The phenomenon and mechanism of culture shaping order emphasized by Confucianism was reflected in the architecture have been reported worldwide. This is JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 seen, for example, in the influence of Islamic religious The above analysis shows that there are diverse customs on mosque architecture (Hisham, 2003, modes of response modes to confrontations between Mohammed Abdullah Eben, 1998), the impact of social two cultures. Sometimes the responses are character- cultural patterns on domestic building spaces in the ized by rigidity, and architectural forms juxtapose; Mediterranean region (Paul, 2000), and the effect of sometimes they present elasticity, and architectural etiquette systems on traditional Chinese architectural forms merge. In other cases, the built environment morphologies (Steinhardt 2019). This paradigm of gradually changes, and cultures adapt. These mechan- research aims to reveal the mapping between isms of cultural interlacing can also be found in a single culture and a building form, and the samples Shenzhen, of which the ancestral shrines are solid are located mainly in cultural core areas. evidence. Specifically, under the influence of colonial culture, colonial architecture represents different physical fea- 3. Materials and methods tures from the native architecture, as seen in British- style houses in the United States (Hugh, 1987), Beginning in 2018, a field survey of ancient buildings Spanish-style houses in Mexico (James, 1994), and and ancestral shrines in Shenzhen was conducted by French-style houses in Algeria (Joëlle, 1996). Although the research team. A total of 504 samples were col- such scenarios involve two cultures, they are not spa- lected, including 296 Guangfu ancestral shrines and tially adjacent, and there is no cultural transition area. 208 Hakka ancestral shrines distributed in 51 subdis- However, the phenomenon in which a strong colonial trict units. To conduct a comparative study, we culture integrates with the local culture is observed. recorded the differential features of the key elements After analysing the French colonial architecture in of the two types of ancestral shrines, including the Laos, (Xayaphone, 2015) argued that the colonial cul- pattern of the shrine-dwelling relationship, the archi- ture changed rather than eliminated the local culture, tectural plane, the building materials, and the con- and the combination of the two building forms was struction details and decorations. better suited to the local religion and climate. Demissie Then, a research method combining spatial distribu- (2012) examined the Italian colonial architecture in tion analysis and typical case analysis was adopted. Libya and pointed out that the mixture of local and The collected samples were spatially positioned, high- imported architectural vocabulary shaped a new archi- resolution remote sensing images; the boundaries of tectural form called “Libyan rationalism”. subdistrict units were superimposed on the images, When cultures came into contact and confronted and the features of the samples were individually each other in the cultural transition zone, they would labelled. On this basis, on the one hand, the spatial adjust and adapt, thereby developing new architec- distribution patterns of the key features were analysed, tural forms (Li, 2009). In this process, two types of based on which the structure of the agglomeration, architectural form transformations were observed, penetration and juxtaposition of the architectural form namely, linear gradual inheritance and parallel muta- was explored. On the other hand, through the mor- tion (Li et al. 2020). In addition, the integration of phological analysis of the typical ancestral shrines, the architectural forms caused by cultural fusion needed approaches of cultural interlacing were explained in an a specific basis, that is, a certain potential difference intuitive way, providing micro evidence supporting the between the two cultures. This potential difference macro spatial analysis, as the purpose was to reveal the should occur under the circumstances that the strong diversified generation mechanism of architectural culture could affect but not fully assimilate the weak forms in the cultural transition zone. culture (Peng et al. 2016). Kellner-Heinkele, Gierlichs, and Heuer (2008) introduced the architectural charac- 4. Types and features of the ancestral shrines teristics of Crimea, the Caucasus, and the Volga-Ural in Shenzhen regions on the edge of Europe, where different build- ing styles represent a state of juxtaposition, reflecting There are two types of ancestral shrines in Shenzhen, the cultural heterogeneity of the areas. Emma Maglio namely, Guangfu and Hakka shrines. Guangfu is an studied the architecture and urban forms on the important ethnic group in southern China. With Aegean island of Rhodes influenced by Ottoman cul- Cantonese as its mother tongue, it takes Guangzhou ture and found that the strategy adopted by the strong in the Pearl River Delta as the cultural centre and Ottoman culture was to make full use of the existing radiates outward. The western part of Shenzhen is an buildings and transform their functions gradually to area dominated by Guangfu culture. The Hakka are an encourage residents to adapt to a new residential ethnic group distributed in the area where the pro- culture (Maglio 2012). This case provides another pos- vinces of Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi meet in South sible process of cultural confrontation, that is, a gentle China. They are immigrants of Han nationality who and gradual transformation based on respect for the have historically been displaced by war (Leong, built environment. Wright, and Skinner 1997). They are distributed along 4 T. JIN ET AL. the Dongjiang River to the eastern part of Shenzhen. the roof is built directly on it. In addition, the decora- The Hakka people retain many ancient cultural char- tion of Hakka ancestral shrines is not rich, and the acteristics of Central China, and their architectural style appearance of these buildings is simple. The most is very different from that of the Guangfu (Constable decorated parts are the altars and niches. 2005). A detailed comparison of the Guangfu and The architectural differences between the two types Hakka ancestral shrines is provided in Figure 2. of ancestral shrines were, to a large extent, determined In terms of the shrine-dwelling relationship, by the attributes of the commercial culture and agri- Guangfu ancestral shrines are built independently in cultural culture corresponding to the Guangfu and villages, separated from the surrounding small court- Hakka ethnic groups (Guo 2013). Historically, the yard dwellings (Chen 2012; Lai 2010). In some larger Guangfu ethnic group lived in coastal plain areas and villages, several ancestral shrines of different sizes are developed a prosperous commercial culture. To reduce distributed at the forefront of dense alley building the clan contradiction caused by commercial wealth clusters according to the spatial hierarchy. The Hakka sharing, individual families played an important role in ancestral shrine, in contrast, is integrated into the the social structure of the clan. The family was the dwellings as a component (Lai and Yang 2008). smallest unit for economic activities. Therefore, Strictly speaking, there is it has no independent archi- Guangfu village was composed of small courtyard tectural form. Hakka dwellings are typically large build- houses. In this case, an ancestral shrine could not be ings, and almost all Hakka dwellings have ancestral integrated with a dwelling; thus, it was usually built shrines inside them. This is a key difference between independently (Lai 2010). While the Hakka was a typical the two types of ancestral shrines. agricultural society, collective farming was important In terms of the architectural plane, a Guangfu for clan self-sufficiency and development. Therefore, in ancestral shrine is generally organized in accordance Hakka culture, the concept of individual families was with the local formula of “Jian”, “Jin” and “Lu” (Yang weakened, and the clan branches played an important 2013). Importantly, the width of the main building of role. Therefore, the Hakka villages were composed of a Guangfu ancestral shrine is often 3 Jian or 5 Jian, with large dwellings, and a building actually corresponded no wall facing the courtyard. This makes the inner to a clan branch rather than a family. In this situation, space of a Guangfu ancestral shrine relatively open. the ancestral shrine would be integrated into the Hakka ancestral shrines are neatly arranged along the dwellings and used by the branch residents, which central axis of a dwelling. They usually occupy a width was compatible with its social structure (Lin 1997). At of only 1Jian, which runs from front to back and is the same time, the ancestral shrine was an embodi- enclosed by solid walls on both sides. It is narrow, ment of the economic power of the clan in commercial closed and has a strong sense of depth. In the case of culture. Building a larger and more beautiful ancestral larger Hakka dwellings, tall and enclosed structures are shrine could endorse its business behaviour and built on the periphery for safety. This structure will enhance the trust of trading partners. Therefore, further extend the central axis to a tower called the Guangfu ancestral shrines were grander and more “dragon hall”. It is another part of the sacred space and open in spatial pattern. They had more rooms and is unique to Hakka architecture (Pan et al. 2013). expanded to both sides, and fine decoration and car- With respect to building materials and decora- vings were usually abundant in different parts of the tions, blue brick and wood are commonly adopted for building. The huge wealth brought by commerce could Guangfu ancestral shrines (Xu 2019). Wood is used for exactly support this construction (Lai and Yang 2008). the framework of the structure that bears the weight of In Hakka farming culture, equality was the basis for the building, whereas the walls built of blue bricks con- social stability. The construction of ancestral shrines stitute an envelope. Red sandstone is also used for the should not destroy the balance of clans by flaunting base of the building, door and window frames and individual wealth, so they often showed a more intro- columns. In addition, Guangfu ancestral shrines are verted characteristic. As immigrants, Hakka people richly decorated by brick carvings, stone carvings, built walled dwellings for defence. This might limit wood carvings, the expansion of the building and result in a more colourful paintings, grey sculptures and so on compact and closed layout of the ancestral shrine (Zhang et al. 2018), which show high artistic skill. (Yang 2011). In addition, the wealth accumulated Hakka ancestral shrines use raw earth, granite and through farming was limited, which might also restrict wood as the main building materials. The earthen wall not only plays an enveloping role but is actually the application of luxury materials and decorations in a load-bearing structure because the wooden frame of Hakka ancestral shrines to a certain extent. Jian refers to the number of rooms arranged parallel to the main building, and it influences the width of the building. Jin refers to the number of buildings on the central axis and influences the depth of the building. Lu refers to the auxiliary structures on both sides of the main building. Through the combination of Jian, Jin and Lu, a large courtyard compound can be formed. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 Figure 2. Comparison of the key elements of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: The shrine-dwelling relationship is an important indicator for identifying the cultural type of the village, which reflects the social organization pattern of the community. The pattern of the architectural plane is a core indicator for identifying building types and reflects the cultural traditions associated with the function of the building and family organization. Building materials are an important distinguishing factor. The use of different materials leads to various construction techniques, creating differences between local buildings and buildings in other regions. The construction details and decorations reflect unified cultural features at the regional level and aesthetic taste at the individual level. shrines are widely distributed in western, central and 5. The formation mechanism of the southern Shenzhen, covering 49 subdistrict units. The architectural form in the cultural transition Hakka ancestral shrines are distributed in 17 subdistrict zone units in eastern Shenzhen. Only a few are located in the 5.1. Agglomeration and the formation of the central areas. Their spatial coverage is smaller than that transition zone of Guangfu ancestral shrines. Geographically, the regional centre of Guangfu cul- Figure 3 shows the spatial distribution of the two types ture, Guangzhou, flanks Shenzhen to the west, strongly of ancestral shrines. Generally, Guangfu ancestral 6 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 3. Distribution of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines and their kernel density. facilitating cultural radiation. Therefore, the Guangfu 5.2. The interlacing pattern of the architectural ancestral shrines have formed a strong agglomeration forms in the cultural transition zone core in the western coastal area, with an aggregation In the cultural transition area in Shenzhen, the logic of intensity that weakens gradually from west to east. It is the architectural form generation is diverse. There is common for the Guangfu culture to penetrate into the not only juxtaposition but also integration. In terms of Hakka zone, and Guangfu ancestral shrines are distrib- the larger human and environmental background, uted even in the core area of the Hakka zone. While there is homogeneity. Hakka is an immigrant culture, Shenzhen is located at the end of its diffusion route and is relatively weak in cultural potential. Hence, three smaller agglomeration 5.2.1. The pattern of juxtaposition cores in the east can be observed. Their radiation Juxtaposition refers to the non-mutually exclusive capacity is weak, the attenuation of the agglomeration coexistence of things in a medium. The juxtaposition areas is obvious, and their infiltration into the Guangfu of the Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines means that area is rare. the two architectural types coexist in one area and Accordingly, a delicate spatial equilibrium has maintain their own features. Taking the subdistrict as arisen. On the one hand, the two types of ancestral the basic geographical unit, we marked those where shrines have built up stable cultural positions by occu- the architectural forms coexist. The dark grey area in pying certain areas in western and eastern Shenzhen Figure 5 shows the juxtaposition region of the Guangfu and by forming agglomeration cores. On the other and Hakka ancestral shrines, which encompasses 14 hand, by gathering in smaller, scattered areas at units covering a large area of central and eastern a high intensity, the Hakka ancestral shrines are able Shenzhen. To a certain extent, it shows that juxtaposi- to compete with the strong Guangfu culture; in this tion is an important pattern of cultural interlacing in way, the destructive power of penetration by the the transition zone. Figure 6 shows examples of the opponent is resisted, and the cultural characteristics juxtaposition of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. of the ethnic group are maintained. Regarding the spatial distribution, the juxtaposition Abstracted into an illustration (Figure 4), the areas of the two types of ancestral shrines coincide attenuation curves of the Guangfu ancestral shrines mainly with core Hakka rather than core Guangfu (A) and Hakka ancestral shrines (B) cross, and curve areas. This is further evidence of the cultural penetra- A extends into the high-intensity area of curve B. The tion pattern proposed above. The circles in Figure 5 attenuation rate of curve A is low, so the slope is show the proportions of the two types of ancestral relatively gentle, while the attenuation degree of shrines in the subdistrict units. In summary, there are curve B is high. When the two reach a certain balance 67 Guangfu ancestral shrines and 177 Hakka ancestral in potential energy, a cultural transition area is formed. shrines. The ratio of the two within each boundary is JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 4. Attenuation curves of the two types of ancestral shrines. Figure 5. Areas with both types of ancestral shrines. Figure 6. Example photos of the juxtaposition of the two types of ancestral shrines. 1:2.6 on average, with a minimum ratio of 1:15. This lead to the collapse of the latter. Spatially, the balance indicates that although the strong culture permeates would break, and the weak culture would withdraw. the area of the weak culture, the strength of such Therefore, the strong agglomeration of the weak cul- penetration is relatively low. We can imagine that ture and the weak penetration of the strong culture once the penetration power increases, it might signifi - constitute a precondition for the juxtaposition in the cantly impact the core of the weak culture, which may cultural transition zone to a large extent. In this 8 T. JIN ET AL. situation, the two types of ancestral shrines coexist dwelling was directly replaced by the Guangfu harmoniously with their own intact characteristics, so ancestral shrine. The Guangfu architectural plane, there is no new architectural form generated. structure, materials and details were completely adopted. In a very rigid way, the shrines were 5.2.2. The pattern of integration implanted among the Hakka dwellings, which led Cultural integration refers to the merging of adjusted to a dramatic visual and cultural mismatch. The cultural elements to create new systems in the process Chen family’s ancestral shrine, a typical Hakka dwell- of cultural exchange and collision. In Shenzhen, the ing in Laoken village, is taken as an example; it long-term intermingling of the Guangfu and Hakka adopts a classic Guangfu style, with 3 Jian and 3 ethnic groups has resulted in the integration of their Jin. It was built tall and magnificent, and the overall cultures. Therefore, new architectural forms of ances- height is much higher than that of the row houses tral shrines have emerged. on both sides (Figure 8). This is significantly different from the simple and restrained temperament of (1) The shift in the dwelling-shrine relationship: Hakka buildings. This collage pattern reflects that In the Guangfu–Hakka transition area, there is the borrowed physical form of the Guangfu ancestral a special village pattern called the “row-house” shrine has not yet found an appropriate way to village, whose main residents are Hakka people. incorporate into the original Hakka dwellings. This This type of village follows the main structure of may represent an intermediate stage in the transfor- Hakka dwellings, namely, row houses, while mation of the large Hakka dwellings into the row- incorporating the dense alley layout of house villages mentioned above. Guangfu villages. It can be regarded as an inte- gration of the two patterns (Figure 7). In this (1) Transformation of the hierarchical configura - type of village, the spatial structure in which tion of Hakka ancestral shrines: The Hakka the ancestral shrines were originally integrated ancestral shrine is integrated into the central into Hakka dwellings disappeared, but the need axis of the building; thus, there is usually only for a space for worship continued. The construc- one ancestral shrine inside a dwelling. However, tion of independent ancestral shrines became during the investigation, we found cases of mul- a necessity, but there was no corresponding tiple ancestral shrines inside a typical Hakka experience in the Hakka tradition. Therefore, residential building. For example, in Qingpai imitating the Guangfu was an effective method. House located in Pingshan District, there are We can observe that independent Guangfu three ancestral shrines facing the front yard ancestral shrines were built in many row-house and arranged side by side, which is consistent villages (Figure 7). This combination pattern of with the layout of Guangfu ancestral shrines in Hakka village and Guangfu ancestral shrine is front of a square. According to the interpreta- unique to the cultural transition area in tion of the aborigines, the shrine on the central Shenzhen. axis is the main shrine and the sacrificial space for the whole ethnic group. The other shrines on (2) Collage of Hakka dwellings and Guangfu both sides are branch shrines and memorial ancestral shrines: Under these circumstances, the halls, and they occupy a lower position in the Hakka ancestral shrine on the central axis of the hierarchy. (Figure 9) Figure 7. The integration pattern of a Hakka village and Guangfu ancestral shrine. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 Figure 8. Collage of Hakka dwellings and Guangfu ancestral shrines. Figure 9. Plane and photos of Qingpai House. An ancestral shrine is the embodiment of the orga- integrated into the structure of traditional Hakka nization of the clan. The adoption of the Guangfu dwellings. ancestral shrine hierarchy in Hakka dwellings indicates (4) Details and decorations of Guangfu ancestral that the Hakka people living there have been influ - shrines used in Hakka ancestral shrines: As men- enced by and have assimilated into Guangfu culture. tioned above, under the influence of commercial cul- Therefore, the integration is no longer a simple juxta- ture, the Guangfu ancestral shrine adopted more position but a deeper fusion. However, the architec- details and decorations, while the Hakka ancestral tural plane adopted by these ancestral shrines still shrines were plain, reflecting agricultural culture. follows the traditional Hakka style. This may be However, the survey results showed that in the cultural a necessary choice that allows them to be better transition area of Shenzhen, the architectural details Figure 10. Details and decorations of Guangfu ancestral shrines used in Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: (a) Ridge: Some Hakka ancestral shrines use the Bogu ridge, which is common in Guangfu culture; (b) Material: some Hakka shrines use red sandstone, a high-grade Guangfu ancestral shrine material, for the frames of doors and windows; (c) Gable: The heightened and curved gables with typical Guangfu characteristics are adopted by Hakka ancestral shrines; (d) some unique Guangfu building techniques, such as the grey sculpture and ceramic detailing on the roof and pillar heads, appear on the Hakka ancestral shrines. 10 T. JIN ET AL. and decorations of some Hakka Ancestral shrines also cultures, they are both rooted in the Han ethnic became rich. They often adopted the decoration styles group and are two subcultures under the influence of that used to appear only in Guangfu ancestral shrines, Confucian culture. The same cultural genes shaped and this might happen extensively on different parts of some common essential features of their architectural the buildings, such as roofs, doors, windows, and forms, which are reflected in many aspects of the two gables. (Figure 10) types of ancestral shrines. However, the most funda- This phenomenon is common in Shenzhen, and only mental element of homogeneity lies in the plane some typical examples are listed. It is clear that, to pattern. a certain extent, the construction details, especially Chinese Han traditional architecture, whether offi - some independent decorative elements, have high flex - cial or folk, adopts a unified spatial model, that is, the ibility in the process of cultural integration. Technically, combination of axial symmetrical spatial sequences they can be integrated into the new building conveni- and multiple courtyards. It has been explained in ently without changing the cultural attributes of the many studies that this spatial pattern was consolidated original building. Notably, most of the changes in con- over a long span of time and is the physical embodi- struction detail and decoration occurred in the Hakka ment of the norms of the etiquette system promoted ancestral shrines. This indicates that in the process of under Chinese imperial rule (Wang 2006). On the one cultural integration, a weak culture is more susceptible hand, the core of the etiquette system is to pursue to being influenced by a strong culture. Therefore, harmony, that is, the balance between different ele- a weak culture may achieve consistency with a strong ments, and axial symmetry is considered to be the best culture through adaptive changes in some noncritical and most direct way to achieve this goal. The ancestral elements. This is done to better integrate into the strong shrine, as a spiritual space for clan members to wor- culture while ensuring that the essence of the weak ship, is a direct reflection of the norms of etiquette. culture remains unchanged. Therefore, both Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines adopt a strict axisymmetric layout to respond to this basic social criterion. At the same time, the axis 5.2.3. Common genes strengthens the depth of the building. The ancestors’ The above analysis focuses on the heterogeneous fea- hall is located in the last Jin of the shrine, and the altar tures of the two types of ancestral shrines, as well as their is placed at the end of the central axis, through which distribution patterns and the mechanisms of cultural the implication of spiritual impact is acquired. Under interlacing. However, during the investigation, we found this setting, the rest of the space on the axis, especially that there are also some common features between the middle hall used to discuss clan public affairs, was them. These can be understood as broader aspects of placed under the gaze of the ancestors, which greatly the cultural background and natural environment. strengthened people’s sense of awe in the space. (1) The common cultural genes of Han national- (Figure 11) ity: Although Guangfu and Hakka are two different Figure 11. Similar plane patterns adopted by Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 11 On the other hand, another core feature of the important factor that needs to be considered in the norms of etiquette is the implementation of a strict architectural design. Because both Guangfu and Hakka hierarchical system, which creates a fixed spatial hier- ancestral shrines adopt a layout with multiple courtyards, archical sequence for the functional layout of the the ground of the building site is designed to be low in buildings (Li 1993). Only the memorial tablet of ances- the front and high in the rear. By gravity, rainwater flows tors can be arranged inside the shrine; living people into the courtyards along the sloping roofs and drains are spatially ranked according to generations. The liv- into the pond in front of the village through pipes buried ing space of the elders is closest to the ancestral hall; under the buildings and the front square (Tao et al. the areas for children and grandchildren expand out- 2022). Outside the ancestral shrine, rapid rainwater dis- ward and backwards, and other families are arranged charge is realized through organized drainage ditches furthest from the ancestral hall. From the sacrifice- running parallel to the roadways (Guangfu) or corridors living space of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines, (Hakka). Therefore, from the perspective of the drainage we can consistently observe the mapping relationship system and mechanism, Guangfu and Hakka ancestral between spatial order and hierarchy. At the same time, shrines are also similar (Figure 12(a)). the division between hierarchies of space is realized Third, the humid climate makes the wood of the through the setting of multiple courtyards. When the building more prone to corrosion; therefore, special architecture scale expands, buildings and courtyards moisture-proof treatment is needed. Identical technol- appear alternately, forming a natural differential pat- ogies and materials, such as sand and lime, are laid tern centred on the ancestral shrines. Generally, as the down in multiple layers to material carrier of sacrificial activities, Guangfu and build a raised foundation to prevent underground Hakka ancestral shrines are affected by the same cul- moisture from rising to the floor through capillary action. ture gene and reflect a relatively consistent spatial Fired large bricks with a fine porous structure cover the order in the plane pattern. (Figure 11) floor to prevent the water from condensing on the floor (2) Common natural environmental genes: In and to keep the floor dry. In addition, the indoor columns a single area, ethnic groups with different cultural are made of stone bases and wooden bodies, while the backgrounds face the same natural environment, outdoor columns are made completely of stone, which which means that the settlements and dwellings they can prevent the wood from rotting and deforming after live in need to respond to the same environmental being exposed to rain or moisture (Figure 12(c)). adaptability issues. The climate in Shenzhen is hot, In summary, the above adaptive design technologies humid, and rainy, and it is often affected by tropical rooted in the same mother culture and natural environ- cyclones in summer and autumn. Disasters due to rain- ment make different types of buildings share a consistent storms are severe. In this environment, many climate- spatial response. They are the common genes shaping adaptive design concepts and technologies have been the forms of Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. created. These were gradually integrated into the con- struction designs during the diffusion of the Guangfu 6. Conclusion and discussion and Hakka cultures. As a result, some common archi- tectural forms that reflect wind-proof, drainage and When two cultures confront each other in the process moisture-proof technologies are displayed in both of diffusion, a geographical cultural transition zone types of ancestral shrines. may form. Correspondingly, the buildings in First, tropical cyclones with strong winds often cause a transition zone can show different morphological disasters. For buildings, the roof is a weak link and a key characteristics that reflect the typical architecture in part in wind protection. Its different components, such the original cultural region. By studying a large number as ridges and cornices, need special structural designs to of ancestral shrines preserved in Shenzhen, this paper resist strong wind. For example, heightened ridges, analyses the spatial structure of their distribution and double-layer tiles and mortar bonding junctions are interlacing at the macro level and the variation in their adopted by both shrines to enhance the weight and morphological features at the micro level to reveal the integrity of the roof and make it typhoon resistant. In generation mechanism of architectural forms in cul- addition, cornice protection forms, such as covering the tural transition zones. The main conclusions are as cornice with gable, setting a cornice board or compact- follows. ing the cornice with a brick ridge or stone strip to First, juxtaposition is an important mode of coex- prevent the roof from being lifted by cyclones, are istence for architectural forms in cultural transition common in both types of ancestral shrines (Tao et al. zones. This phenomenon can mainly be observed in 2022). These windproof technologies used in ancestral regions dominated by a weak culture rather than shrines do not exist in the inland Guangfu and Hakka a strong culture. By gathering densely in a small areas far from the coastline (Figure 12(b)). region, a weak culture can build up the ability to Second, tropical cyclones are often accompanied by compete with a strong culture. This may constitute violent rainfall. Quickly discharging rainwater is an an important basis for achieving an equilibrium state 12 T. JIN ET AL. Figure 12. Climate-adaptive design technologies adopted by both Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. Note: The source of the “cornice compaction strip and cornice board” and “heightened ridges and double-layer tiles” photographs is Tao, J., et al. (Tao et al. 2022). Climate-adaptive Design of Historic Villages and Dwellings in a Typhoon-prone Region in Southernmost Mainland China. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, https://doi.org/10.1080/15583058.2020.1753262. in a cultural transition zone. Second, the integration regarded as a transformation of cultural essence invol- modes of the architectural forms in the cultural transi- ving social organization, the shift in the construction tion zone are diversified, as represented in the changes details and decorations is a compromise regarding in the combination structures of building groups, the noncritical elements adopted by the weak culture to alteration in the spatial pattern of single buildings, and maintain its own characteristics. Finally, because of the variations in architectural details and decorations. their shared human and natural environmental This leads to new architectural forms in the transition “genes”, the buildings in the cultural transition zone area that are different from those in the core area. It exhibit foundational common features even while can be argued that if the change in the plane pattern is exhibiting heterogeneous material forms. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 13 It should be noted that one of the established back- Huashuai Chen is a Senior Research Fellow of Duke University Medical Center. His research field is the health grounds of this research is the existence of strong and measurement of rural China. weak cultures. It is the difference in cultural potential that led to the complex interlacing patterns of the Jiaping Huang is a Senior Engineer and Master's Supervisor in the College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture at Guangfu and Hakka ancestral shrines. This suggests South China Agricultural University. 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Journal

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building EngineeringTaylor & Francis

Published: Sep 3, 2023

Keywords: Cultural transition region; architectural form; ancestral shrine; juxtaposition; integration

References