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Ondol is the popular house heating system in Korea onto which hardwood flooring is laid. However, the low heat conductivity of the wooden flooring decreases heating efficiency. To address this issue, a thin flooring panel was developed. For practical applications, this material's performance, life cycle energy, and costs must be evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the life cycle energy and cost of the developed flooring with enhanced thermal efficiency. The energy analysis focuses on heating energy consumption in the maintenance phase, while the cost analysis focuses on the installation, repair, and replacement costs. As a result of this study, energy consumption was 7.2% lower and cost was 9.62% lower compared with the conventional wooden panel. Keywords: ondol; life cycle energy; life cycle cost; thin flooring panel; energy reduction 1. Introduction Korea (Kim and Kim, 2005; Kim et al., 2011; Park and Buildings consume energy and resources as they go Kim, 2011). Ondol is applied with a low-temperature through the construction, operation and maintenance radiant floor heating system that provides a pleasant (O&M), and demolition phases. Several studies on indoor thermal environment even at relatively low energy consumption during a building's lifecycle room temperature, and it is proven superior in terms divide lifecycle into the construction, O&M, and of energy saving (Kim et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2009; demolition phases, among which the O&M phase Song, 2003; Song, 2004; Won et al., 2001). According accounts for the greatest energy consumption (Kim to a Seoul Housing Corporation report, since heat et al., 2011; Lee and Lee, 2010; Lee and Yang, 2009; conductivity decreases due to wood insulation Li and Guo, 2012; Ramesha et al., 2010; Zheng et properties, management difficulties have occurred in al., 2011). According to data from Statistics Korea, surface-enhanced wooden panels, which are one of the apartment buildings account for more than 40% of the main panels used in the Korean ondol heating system total area of building permission (National statistical (Son et al., 2013; Yang, 2010). The thickness of the office, 2014). Since Korea has four distinct seasons, the flooring panel is reduced to improve heat conductivity, energy consumption for air-conditioning and heating resulting in the development of a thin flooring panel to maintain an indoor environment is high (Baek et al., (TFP). 2010; Joo et al., Kim and Lee, 2003; 2012; Lee et al., 2002). Moreover, 94% of petroleum (the major energy source of heating) is being imported from overseas (LA times, 2012). Thus, a plan to reduce energy for heating in the construction industry must be discussed, as shown in Fig.1. Ondol heating, a kind of radiant floor heating is the main form of heating being used in housing units in Fig.1. Needs of Energy Reduction for Heating *Contact Author: Sunkuk Kim, Professor, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-dearo, Giheung-gu, However, to apply the developed panels on site, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701, Republic of Korea cost-efficiency due to lowered energy consumption in Tel: +82-31-201-2922 Fax: +82-31-203-0089 the construction and O&M phases should be examined. E-mail: email@example.com Previous studies on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis ( Received April 2, 2014 ; accepted November 1, 2014 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/January 2015/173 167 of construction projects did not take into account the 2. Preliminary Study economic efficiency due to energy reduction (Zheng et 2.1 Thin Flooring Panel al., 2011; Lee and Lee, 2010; Lee and Yang, 2009; Lee For TFP, the surface of plywood is decorated with et al., 2011; Yi and Komatsu, 2010). sliced veneer so that a solid color or colorful pattern Considering the cost savings due to energy reduction appears, and a silica nano particle dispersion coating during the O&M lifecycle phase, outcomes compared method is adopted to improve the wear and scratch to existing LCC analyses may differ (Na et al., 2011; resistance of the sliced veneer (Son et al., 2013). Song et al., 2011). Likewise, existing studies on the estimation of life cycle energy (LCE) do not consider LCC when calculating the energy consumption of a building's lifecycle reduction (Lee and Lee, 2010; Lee and Yang, 2009; Choi et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2011). This implies that the cost relevant to LCC has been increased, demonstrating low economic efficiency although energy consumption per unit basis is low. Thus, considering resources (material cost, labor cost, and overhead charge) and energy input during the lifecycle Fig.3. Thin Flooring Panels Shape phases as the panels used as finishing materials for ondol change in terms of LCC and LCE is critical. Therefore, The line that is vertical to a base is formed with the purpose of this study is to analyze the life cycle multiple slits inclined to 25 degrees in order to prevent energy and cost of the developed flooring with enhanced bending of the lower surface. As shown in Fig.3., the thermal efficiency. The LCE/LCC analysis model sides of each surface are applied with the standard verified in this study is used as a material development flooring panel (4×75×600 mm) that is formed with a tool that not only satisfies the LCC of apartment tongue-and-groove joint. Three new technologies are buildings, but also minimizes energy consumption. applied to TFP. First, a silica nano particle dispersion In order to calculate the LCE and cost of TFP used coating technology is adopted to form a surface that is as finishing materials of ondol in apartment buildings, highly resistant to scratches or dents, to protect from and to compare it with conventional wooden panels ultraviolet radiation, and to prevent decolonization. (CWP), this study focuses on energy analysis at the Second, flooring panels are joined by inserting the operation phase and on cost at the construction and joints formed at both sides of the flooring panels, or maintenance phases. separately furnished joint materials are inserted in the This study analyzes the energy and cost reduction grooves, in order to increase the durability of the panel- effects of the TFP with enhanced thermal efficiency. As to-panel connection. Third, multiple slits are formed in illustrated in Fig.2., this study is intended to estimate the lower part of flooring panels to prevent bending or the energy and cost generated per phase by dividing the twist that may occur on flooring panels when thermal lifecycle of a building into a construction phase and an heating is turned on. Unlike other surface-enhanced O&M phase, and ultimately compares the application flooring panels (7-7.5 mm), it is comparatively thin so of TFP and CWP to apartment buildings. as to improve heat conductivity. 2.2 Literature Survey LCE analysis accounts for all energy inputs to a building during its life cycle. The system boundaries of this analysis include the energy use of the manufacture, use, and demolition phases. The manufacture phase includes manufacturing and transportation of building materials and technical installations used in erection and renovation of a building. The operation phase encompasses all activities related to the use of a building over its life span. These activities include maintaining comfortable conditions inside the building, Fig.2. Needs of the Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis of TFP water use, and powering appliances. Finally, the For analyses on the energy and cost of TFP used as demolition phase includes destruction of the building finishing materials of ondol in apartment buildings, and transportation of dismantled materials to landfill this study first thoroughly examines the LCE and sites and/or recycling plants (Ramesha et al., 2010). LCC analysis methods, and then analyzes energy and This study excludes the demolition phase. cost by adopting these methods. To do so, a sample house is selected and the developed TFP is used for 3. Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis construction. Finally, this study identifies the LCE/ 3.1 Procedure of Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis LCC effects of using TFP based on the analysis results. TFP resource analysis for a building's lifecycle is 168 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Sungho Lee Fig.4. Concept of the Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis composed of energy and cost analyses. To do so, it is (6) Lastly, compare the calculated values to check linked to the actual resource database (DB) and the CO the lifecycle energy and cost per panel. emission DB provided by the Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Research Center of Korea which adopts the guidelines of IPCC2006. Fig.4. demonstrates a concept of calculating resources and energy consumption throughout the lifecycle of an apartment building when finishing materials (CWP, TFP) are applied to ondol in terms of LCC and LCE. Cost analysis consists of installation and maintenance costs of finishing materials. The installation cost at the construction phase includes panel material cost, labor cost for installation, and overhead. Like the construction phase, the cost in the maintenance phase is calculated by taking into account the material cost, labor cost, and overhead according to the long-range repair and replacement plan for finishing materials. The energy consumption of CWP and TFP at the operation phase is estimated by investigating the energy use of apartment buildings for CWP, and by experimenting with energy efficiency at the Korea Conformity Laboratory for TFP. This cost is referred to as operation cost. This process is adopted to compare LCE and LCC of both CWP and TFP. The procedure Fig.5. Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis Process illustrated in Fig.5. is applied to identify the cost and energy consumption of CWP and TFP in this study. 3.2 Lifecycle Energy and Cost Analysis Each item for the procedure described above is as For lifecycle energy and cost analysis, the installation follows. cost in the construction phase, the maintenance cost in (1) Select a panel that is to be used as the finishing the maintenance phase, and the energy consumption in material of ondol. the operation phase are utilized. The lifecycle cost (C ) life (2) Calculate the panel installation cost using the consists of installation cost (C ), maintenance cost inst price information and Korean estimate data. (C ), and operation energy cost (C ) as shown in main energy (3) Calculate the maintenance cost to sustain a eq. (1). pleasant indoor environment for occupants by considering the long-range repair and C = C +C +C (1) life inst main energy replacement plan, price information, and estimate data. The estimate data, price information, and wage unit (4) Calculate the operation cost for indoor heating price are used to calculate an installation cost (C ). inst by applying CO emissions from heating The installation cost is composed of material cost (C ), 2 m apartment buildings and from energy sources, labor cost (C ), and overhead charge (C ) as shown in l o such as diesel. eq. (2). The material cost is calculated by multiplying (5) Sum the values of (2), (3), and (4) to estimate the unit price of a panel (P ; obtained from the price the cost and energy consumption throughout the information) by the installation area (A ) as shown in building's lifecycle. eq. (3). The labor cost uses the standard of estimate JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Sungho Lee 169 on flooring panels ( E ) as well as the wage unit price 4. Case Study (C ) and installation area (A ) as shown in eq. (4). The 4.1 Analysis Conditions c t overhead charge is calculated on the assumption that For this research, a housing unit with 100 m of floor percentage of tools and consumables (P) is added to area was selected. This type of housing unit accounts the material and labor costs as shown in eq. (5). for approximately one quarter of all apartment units in Korea, and the total area of the heating system applied C = C +C +C (2) with the flooring panel was 80.9 m as shown in Fig.6. inst m l o For reference, the case apartment unit analyzed in C = A ×P (3) this paper adopted the district heating method using m t u diesel for energy source. Table 1. shows the detailed C = A ×E ×C (4) conditions for energy and cost analyses. 1 t s c C = (C ×C )×P (5) 0 m l The standard estimate data, price information, wage unit price, and long-range repair and replacement plan are used to calculate the maintenance cost (C ). A main long-range repair and replacement plan is a scheme to repair and replace materials and equipment that comprise a building. The maintenance cost ( C ) is estimated by main multiplying the installation cost ( C ) by the Fig.6. Plan of a Housing Unit Used in Case Study inst replacement and repair ratio during the lifecycle Table 1. Analysis Conditions of a building as s hown in eq. 6. The number of replacements (N ) is calculated by dividing the life Description Unit CWP TFP fr span of a building (L ) with the material service life (L ) b m Installation area (A ) m 80.9 80.9 and then rounding up to the nearest integer, excluding Unit price of panel (P ) USD/m 48.50 41.23 the initial installation as shown in eq. 7. The number Labor productivity rate (E ) Man-day/m 0.038 0.038 of repairs (N ) is estimated by dividing the material pr Unit labor cost (C ) USD/man-day 92.31 92.31 service life (L ) with the repair cycle (R ) and then m c multiplying the calculated value by the repair rate (R ), r Percentage of tools and % 10 10 which results in a ratio that represents the cost to repair consumables (P) flooring panels for a set period of time as shown in eq. 8. Life span of a building (L ) Years 30 30 Material service life (L ) Years 20 20 C = C ×(N +N ) (6) main inst fr pr Repair cycle (R ) Years 5 5 Repair rate (R ) % 5 5 N = Int((L ÷L -1), 0) (7) fr b m, Diesel unit price USD/L 1.64 1.64 N = (L ÷R )×R (8) pr m c r Energy efficiency % 100 92.80 The annual heating energy consumption (Q ), diesel 4.2 Energy and Cost Analyses of CWP unit price (C ) and diesel energy heating unit (D ) are The CWP installation cost is calculated by using d con used to calculate the operation energy cost (C ) as the conditions described in Table 1. When the panels energy shown in eq. 9. The operation energy cost ( C ) is are installed on a surface of 80.9 m , Eq. (3) is used energy estimated by converting the energy consumption during to calculate the material cost, which is USD 3,924.72. the life span of a building (E ) as shown in eq. 10. The labor cost calculated with eq. (4) is USD 283.79, oper and the overhead charge calculated with eq. (5) is USD C =E ÷D ×C (9) 420.75. Therefore, the total installation cost calculated energy oper con d with eq. (2) is USD 4,628.26. The maintenance cost is estimated with the same (10) conditions specified in Table 1. Equations 6-8 are used For cost conversion, the diesel unit price ( C ) that for calculation, and the total cost is USD 5,785.32. is used as the heating energy source and the diesel Ten apartment complexes in metropolitan cities were energy heating unit (D ) are used. For annual heating selected from the apartment housing management con energy consumption values, the apartment housing information system (www.k-apt.net) to calculate the management information system (www.k-apt.net) can energy consumption of CWP, and CO emissions per be used. monthly heating were investigated. The result was converted into CO emissions from heating per unit 170 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Sungho Lee area. Fig.7. shows the relevant diagram. Monthly finish was applied to the surface of the floor. The hot energy consumption soars constantly from November water was supplied at 2 L/min, the size of the testing to April when heating systems are used, increasing CO room was 2,000 (W) × 2,000 (D) × 1,000 (H) mm, and emissions. There are no CO emissions from heating the temperature and humidity were 20°C and 80%, from May to October. respectively. The testing room was built according to Article 2009-1217 of the Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs (KS L 9016) that followed the ISO regulations. The results are shown in Table 4. Fig.7. Energy Consumption for Heating a Housing Unit Applied by CWP Based on the survey, CO emissions are converted into diesel consumption, energy consumption, and cost using Equations 9-10 in order to identify the annual Fig.8. Photograph of Testing Room energy consumption and cost as shown in Table 2. that shows the test results of CWP provided by the As a heat source, two boilers (11.6 KW = 10,000 government-authorized test institution. The carbon Kcal) were operated for 3 hours and then stopped for emission from diesel in order to replace CO with the 3 hours four times a day for testing. The heating water -3 diesel is 2.084×10 TCO /L, the energy consumption temperature under testing was set as 80 C, and the gas of diesel for energy conversion is 9,200 kcal/L, and the consumption and indoor air temperature were measured diesel price for cost conversion is 1.64 USD/L (Korea until reaching the desired indoor temperature of 22 C. Institute of Constriction Technology, 2004). Table 3. The flow rate in the return pipe was measured every 30 shows the annual energy consumption and cost applied seconds for gas consumption and every 1-minute for for the 100 m apartment by using the data of Table indoor temperature. As a result, the accumulated gas 2. The annual energy use for heating is 5,046,658 J, consumption was 1.6562 (m³·N) for CWP and 1.5366 and the cost of operation energy consumption is USD (m³·N) for TFP, which represented a 7.2% energy 900.41. reduction. 4.3 Energy and Cost Analysis of TFP The energy efficiency verified though it can be The operation cost of TFP is calculated by applying applied to the annual heating energy and cost per the conditions set in Table 1. When the panels are household of CWP to calculate the annual energy installed on a surface of 80.9 m , the material cost and cost of TFP as shown in Table 5. The annual TFT is USD 3,335.16, the labor cost is USD 283.79, the energy consumption for heating is 4,683,299 J, and the overhead charge is USD 361.90, and the installation operation cost is USD 835.58. cost is USD 3,980.84. The operation cost is also 4.4 Comparison of the Lifecycle Energy and Cost calculated by applying Table 1. and Equations 6-8, The installation, maintenance, and operation costs which results in a total of USD 4,777.01. The energy of both CWP and TFP were converted into total costs. consumption of TFP is calculated by multiplying the The deflator of Korean construction cost index was energy consumption of CWP and the energy efficiency considered as the discount rate to calculate the LCC of TFP. of TFP and CWP. As illustrated in Fig.9., TFP is In order to analyze the energy efficiency of TFP, as superior to CWP in terms of both energy efficiency shown in Fig.8., the hot water supply amount changes and cost. The initial installation cost of TFP is 87% of according to the time CWP and TFP were measured that required to install CWP. Furthermore, the energy by testing in the Korea Conformity Laboratory. For efficiency of TFP improved by 7.2%, reducing energy testing, hot water supply and a constant temperature/ usage during the operation phase. And the LCC of humidity were maintained. A hot water supply system CWP is around 20,661 USD, and that of TFP is around was applied to the floor heating system with PE-Xa 18,673 USD, reducing the LCC by 9.62% compared piping (outer diameter of 20 mm, thickness of 1.9 to that of CWP. As time elapses, the difference of mm) arranged at intervals of 200 mm. The mortar accumulated cost ratio per panel use decreases (from JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Sungho Lee 171 Table 2. Energy Cost of CWP for Heating Apartment Buildings Per Unit Floor Area Description Unit 2011.01 2011.02 2011.03 2011.04 2011.05 2011.06 2011.07 CO emission kg-CO /m 2.480 2.938 1.963 1.583 0.763 0.178 0.041 2 2 Diesel L/m 1.19 1.41 0.94 0.76 0.37 0.09 0.02 Energy J/m 10,950 12,968 8,667 6,986 3,368 785 180 Cost USD/m 1.95 2.31 1.55 1.25 0.60 0.14 0.03 Description Unit 2011.08 2011.09 2011.10 2011.11 2011.12 Annual estimation CO emission kg-CO /m 0.028 0.004 0.100 0.506 0.848 11.432 2 2 Diesel L/m 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.24 0.41 5.49 Energy J/m 122 18 442 2,234 3,745 50,467 Cost USD/m 0.02 0.00 0.08 0.40 0.67 9.00 Table 3. Annual Energy Cost of CWP Per Housing Unit (100m of Floor Area) Description Unit 2011.01 2011.02 2011.03 2011.04 2011.05 2011.06 2011.07 Energy J 1,095,029 1,296,792 866,749 698,628 336,781 78,467 17,990 Cost USD 195.37 231.37 154.64 124.65 60.09 14.00 3.21 Description Unit 2011.08 2011.09 2011.10 2011.11 2011.12 Annual estimation Energy J 12,228 1,828 44,212 223,416 374,537 5,046,658 Cost USD 2.18 0.33 7.89 39.86 66.82 900.41 Table 4. Experiment Results for Heat and Energy Efficiency Contents Test results Difference CWP TFP (8mm x 75mm x 900mm) (4mm x 75mm x 600mm) Accumulated gas consumption 1.6562 (m³·N) 1.5366(m³·N) ∆7.2% Time to reach the design temperature 1 hour 15 minutes 1 hour 4 minutes Indoor air temperature change ∆11.6 ∆11.0 Table 5. Annual Energy Cost of TFP Per Housing Unit (100m of Floor Area) Description Unit 2011.01 2011.02 2011.03 2011.04 2011.05 2011.06 2011.07 Energy J 1,016,187 1,203,423 804,343 648,327 312,533 72,818 16,694 Cost USD 181.30 214.71 143.51 115.67 55.76 12.99 2.98 Description Unit 2011.08 2011.09 2011.10 2011.11 2011.12 Annual estimation Energy J 11,348 1,697 41,029 207,330 347,571 4,683,299 Cost USD 2.02 0.30 7.32 36.99 62.01 835.58 13% initially to 9.7% in the final phase). This is reduce energy for heating in the construction industry because the annual operation and maintenance costs must be discussed. decrease every year compared to the total accumulated cost. However, the annual accumulated cost increases. 5. Conclusion Buildings consume energy and resources as they go through their lifecycles of construction, operation and maintenance, and demolition phases. Globally, the construction industry is consuming tremendous amounts of energy and resources, accounting for 30% of energy consumption and 40% of raw material consumption. CO emissions are increasing rapidly in Korea with the rapid development of industry and the economy. Moreover, 94% of petroleum (the major Fig.9. Comparison of the LCE Cost of TFP and CWP energy source of heating) is imported. Thus, a plan to 172 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Sungho Lee 11) Korea institute of construction technology. (2004) A study on Therefore, this study aims to analyze the LCE and the program development and making unit for building life cycle cost of a building with flooring developed for maximal assessment, Korea institute of construction technology. energy efficiency. The results include the LCE 12) Lee, J., Yeo, M. and Kim, K. (2002) Predictive Control of the efficiency of TFP and the LCC required for installation, Radiant Floor Heating System in Apartment Buildings, Journal of maintenance, and operation. Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 1(1), pp.105-112. 13) Lee, K. and Yang, J. (2009) A study on the functional unit As a result, TFP provides a 7.2% energy reduction estimation of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in compared to CWP. Moreover, 363,359 J of energy is the construction materials, Journal of the architectural of Korea, saved throughout the lifecycle, which translates into a 25(6), pp.43-50. cost savings of USD 66.14 /year, or USD 1944.88 for 14) Lee, Y. and Lee, K. (2010) Life cycle primary energy use and the whole lifecycle of a building. Energy consumption carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building, Energy and Buildings, 42(2), pp.230-242. is reduced in different phases, saving USD 647.41 15) Lee, Y., Jeong, C., Yeo, M. and Kim, K. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 1, 2015
Keywords: ondol; life cycle energy; life cycle cost; thin flooring panel; energy reduction
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