Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
(1984)Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh rural industries
(1995)Non-wood forest products and integrated mountain development: Observations from Nepal
H. Gunatilake, D. Senaratne, P. Abeygunawardena (1993)Role of non-timber forest products in the economy of peripheral communities of knuckles national wilderness area of Sri Lanka: A farming systems approach
Economic Botany, 47
S. Hecht, A. Anderson, P. May (1988)The Subsidy from Nature: Shifting Cultivation, Successional Palm Forests, and Rural Development
Human Organization, 47
N. Siddiqi, R. Ara, S. Merry (1998)Survival and Initial Growth of Schumannianthus dichotoma (Marantaceae) from four Different Propagating Materials
The Indian Forester, 124
M. Mohiuddin, M. Rashid (1988)Survival and growth of vegetatively grown patipata (Schumannianthus dichotoma): an exploratory study
Working Plan for the Forest of Sylhet Division for the Period 1963-64 to 1982-83
Valuation and Pricing of NWFPS
(2001)Propagation and Cultivation of Rattan and Patipata in Bangladesh. Proceeding of Training Courses held at the Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI)
D. Chowdhury, B. Konwar (2006)Morphophenology and karyotype study of patidoi (Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. synonym Clinogyne dichotoma Salisb.) - : a traditional plant of Assam
Current Science, 91
P. Vishwakarma, Bipin Behari, S. Ashutosh (1998)Economic Study of Bansods (Bamboo Craftsmen) of Mungeli : a Case Study
The Indian Forester, 124
S. Merry, R. Ara, N. Siddiqi (1997)Raising seedlings of patipata (Schumannianthus dichotoma)
Journal of forest science, 26
J. Arnold (1995)Socio-economic benefits and issues in non-wood forest products use
(2006)Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh (Thana series). Ministry of Planning
(1987)Tribal women and forest economy
(1993)GEMINI Working paper No. 36. Bethesda, MA: Growth and Equity through micro enterprise investments and institutions (GEMINI)
(1993)How to Cultivate Rattan and Patipata (in Bengali)
R. Ara, S. Merry, S. Paul, N. Siddiqi (2000)Effect of fertilizer on the yield of pati-pata, Schumannianthus dichotoma.
(1972)Materials towards a monocot flora of Asam-II (Zingiberaceae & Marantaceae)
(2001)Bangladesh Population Census 2001 Preliminary data for Sylhet Division. Ministry of Planning
(2007)Indigenous Management of Patipata (Schumannianthus dichotoma) plantation in the rural homesteads of Bangladesh
(1984)Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh rural industries. Bangladesh Development Studies 1984;XII
International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 3 (2007) 252–258 Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma in rural homesteads in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh Romel Ahmed, A. N. M. Fakhrul Islam, Mostafizur Rahman and Md. Abdul Halim Department of Forestry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh Key words: Indigenous, management, NWFP, Murta, Sylhet, Bangladesh SUMMARY Schumannianthus dichotoma (Murta) is widely grown in wetland areas of Bangladesh, providing the raw material for prayer and bed mats and also minimizing flood risk and soil erosion. The study was carried out in two villages in Gowainghat Thana (subdistrict) in Sylhet district, to determine techniques for traditional management of Murta plantations and its role in the household economy. On average, about 13% of the total homestead area is used for Murta plantations. Propagation was from rhizomes and branch cuttings, and little intensive management was required. Harvesting was usually done annually, from mid-September to the end of March. Three-quarters of respondents were directly involved in Murta-based cottage enterprises, providing an average annual income of US$216: 43% of total income. Net average profit per man-day from selling articles varies from US$0.23 to 0.73. Middlemen make significant profits, due to lack of marketing knowledge and available market information and marketing facilities of the villagers. The cultivation and processing of Murta has great potential for the rural economy of such areas. INTRODUCTION Schumannianthus dichotoma is popular cultivated and dichotomously branched stems 3–5 m high, species with local names in different regions of and basal diameter of 2–5 cm (Prain 1903; Anon Bangladesh, such as Patipata and Pati-jung in 1950; FMP 1992). It has a tuberous rootstock Chittagong, Mostak in Noakhali, Pat-bat and Murta (Hooker 1892) with stem buds on culms (new shoot in Sylhet and Tangail and Paitrabon in Barishal buds). The species is found in Northeast India, (Rashid et al. 1993; Islam 2005). It is in the West Bengal, the Coromandal Coast and the Malay Marantaceae (Hooker 1892; Prain 1903), with 20 Peninsula (Hooker 1892; Anon 1950; Chowdhury species in the genus Schumannianthus. It is a shrub and Konwar 2006). In Bangladesh, it covers size- with oblong or oblong lanceolate leaves 1.5–3.0 × able areas in the Sylhet Division forests (Anon 1.0 cm, broadly rounded at the base (Mohiuddin 1970) and grows well in swampy areas (Rao and and Rashid 1988), erect, conspicuous glossy green Verma 1972; Ara et al. 2000); it is grown in partial Correspondence: Romel Ahmed, Department of Forestry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh. Email: email@example.com 252 Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. shade, and prefers clay or clay-loam soil with high average annual revenue of US$4567 from Murta moisture. The plant cannot tolerate direct sun. It is (BBS 2001), less than in the previous decade. To propagated from rhizomes that are planted directly maximise income, it is necessary to undertake in the field at 1 × 1 m spacing (Merry 2001). Murta intensive research on the management, cultivation is cheaper to grow than jute or rice, and gives a good and marketing of Murta and its products (Merry economic return (Mohiuddin and Rashid 1988) as 2001; Chowdhury et al. 2007). For instance, the the raw material for Shitalpati (Chowdhury and effect of collecting rhizomes on the productivity of Konwar 2006; Chowdhury et al. 2007), a traditional parent plants; costs of raising seedlings; enthusing bed mat in Bangladesh, and other mats. The mat local people to cultivate Murta (Merry 2001); and is woven from the dyed fibres, 3–5 mm wide, with marketing (Banik 2001). coloured designs on a natural beige background. The vast areas of Murta in the northern Sylhet Bed mats made of Murta are attractive and comfort- forests annually trap huge amounts of mud and silt, able, especially during the hot summer months saving nearby low-lying areas from flash floods. (Banik 2001). Murta also has a positive role in the regeneration of A growing body of research suggests that tree species by trapping seeds and providing protec- non-woody forest products (NWFPs) can help com- tion to young plants (Banik 2001). Mohiuddin and munities to meet basic needs without destroying Rashid (1988) found that the number of new culms forest resources. In local, urban, national and inter- and their height is higher in Sylhet than in other national markets, forest goods and medicines con- sites. Although the use of Murta has recently tribute substantially to national economic growth expanded (Banik 2001), the cultivated area has (FAO 1995). NWFPs complement wood-based decreased (Rashid et al. 1993). The deteriorating forest management and can contribute to inte- condition of this resource demands immediate grated forms of development that yield higher rural attention for its scientific management (Mohiuddin incomes and conserve biodiversity without compet- and Rashid 1988; Chowdhury et al. 2007). Conse- ing with agriculture (Sharma 1995). According to quently, this study was carried out in the Sylhet the FAO (1995), NWFPs are important to three region to ascertain traditional management prac- main groups: i) rural populations (the largest tices and their contribution to sustainable develop- group) who have traditionally used these items; ii) ment of the rural economy. urban consumers (the smallest group, but increas- ing) who purchase these items; and iii) traders and STUDY AREA product processors whose numbers are increasing as urban markets for these products grow. Field investigations were carried out in Gowainghat As a NWFP, Murta generated significant revenue Thana (subdistrict) of Sylhet district, an important for the Forest Department of Bangladesh. 100 ha of wetland area (Anon 1970; Chowdhury et al. 2007) Murta is worth US$91,783 annually, rising to more between 24°55′–25°11′ N and 91°45–92°07′ E than US$35,3012 after processing (Anon 1990), (Figure 1), with an area of 486.5 km including 2 2 US$706/ha more than paddy (Rashid et al. 1993). 6.8 km of rivers and 78.5 km of forest. The area is From 1981 to 1991, the average annual revenue bounded in the north by India, in the east by collected by the government was US$6057 (US$1 = Jaintiapur and Kanaighat Thanas, in the south by Tk. 70) (Banik 2001). Only a small percentage Sylhet Sadar Thana and in the west by Companiganj of Murta products are exported and most are Thana (BBS 2006). The soil type varies from sandy for domestic consumption. In 1992, BSCIC loam to clay loam, annual maximum and minimum (Bangladesh Small Cottage Industries Corpora- temperatures are 33.2–13.6°C, respectively, and tion) reported 175 Sitalpati processing units con- average annual rainfall is 3334 mm (BBS 2006). suming materials worth US$37,571 at a production There are eight unions (rural administrative cost of US$61,428. The resultant products were units consisting of several villages) in Gowainghat sold for US$11,6714 (Banik 2001). Murta plays a Thana. The average household size for a Thana is vital role in the economy and environment of the 6.1 persons and about 70% of the households country (Rashid et al. 1993), if properly managed, depend on agriculture as the main source of and products can be exported abroad. From 1999 income (BBS 2001). The Thana has a population of to 2003, the Bangladesh government received 207,000: 108,230 male and 98,680 female (BBS International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 253 Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. New avenues of questioning were pursued as the interviews developed. To analyse the data obtained from field, we used MS Excel and SPSS 10. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Homestead area used for Murta plantations The average area of a homestead is 0.12 ha, ranging from 0.07 to 0.23 ha, of which 0.016 ha (13%) was occupied by Murta. Murta was cultivated around the households, fallow and marginal submerged land, around ponds and ditches and in low lands (i.e. low-lying areas with no natural outlet for surface Figure 1 Map of the study area drainage and usually flooded during the wet Figure 1 Map of the study area season). Chowdhury et al. (2007) found a similar tendency of farmers in choosing sites for planting 2006). The literacy rate for 7 year olds and over is Murta. Site selection is done on the basis of tradi- 15.1% for both sexes; 21.01% male and 8.6% tional knowledge. In general, sites that are not suit- female (Al-Hadi 2004). Among those whose major able for production of other products are selected economic activity is agriculture, 23.43% are land- for Murta. Land for plantations usually remains sub- less, 43.16% marginal, 27.00% intermediate and merged year-round or for most of the year. Farmers 6.41% rich (Al-Hadi 2004). They usually cultivate stated that the objective of planting Murta is partly paddy and betel leaf. Most households (80%) have to earn additional income from land that would Murta on their fallow land and make Shital Pati from otherwise remain unused, but mostly for the pro- Murta, as well as selling Murta in bundles as a raw tection of homesteads against environmental material for handicrafts. hazards such as soil erosion. METHODS Propagating materials Field investigations were carried out from June Three propagating materials, rhizomes, branch to August 2006. A multistage random sampling cuttings and seeds, may be used for Murta (Rashid method was applied to locate the village and house- et al. 1993). All the farmers used rhizomes and holds for the study within the Thana as the primary branch cuttings, as also found by Chowdhury et al. sampling and ultimate sampling units, respectively. (2007). One third (33%) of farmers used only Two unions were selected randomly and, from rhizomes and 23% used branch cuttings, while each, one village was selected for detailed investiga- 44% used both rhizomes and branch cuttings, and tion. The total number of households in the two none used seeds. Though the Bangladesh Forest villages was obtained from the District Census, con- Research Institute has developed a method of rais- ducted to assess the socio-economic status of house- ing seedlings from seed (Merry et al. 1997), the holds in the villages (BBS 2001). The villages each farmers have not accepted it because they can had 150 households and a population density of purchase or collect rhizomes easily, either from −2 1117 km , such size and density are characteristic relatives or neighbours, and are reluctant to invest for the area. From each village, 35 households were time in labor-intensive cultivation or germinating selected for survey by random sampling. A semi- seeds in polybags (Chowdhury et al. 2007). In addi- structured questionnaire was used to collect data tion, Merry et al. (1997) found that the percentage from the heads of the households to assess the area germination of the seeds is poor (22.6%) and that allocated for cultivation of Murta, propagating intensive management is required for higher ger- materials, different silvicultural techniques, and mination, which may discourage farmers. In con- contribution of Murta to the household economy. trast, rhizomes are easy to establish and have better 254 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. initial growth. Mohiuddin and Rashid (1988) also (1988), Rashid et al. (1993) and Chowdhury et al. found that rhizomes are more suitable for Murta (2007). plantation, but Merry (2001) claimed that collec- tion of rhizomes may affect the productivity of Pest and disease management parent plants. Siddiqi et al. (1998) found that the difference in survival for rhizomes, rooted cuttings Farmers did not consider pests or diseases a prob- and seedlings was insignificant. lem in Murta plantation and did not use any pesti- cides. Rashid et al. (1993) found that there were no significant pest and disease attacks in Murta Weeding plantations. Half of the respondents weeded plants once a year, 23% weeded every other year, and the remainder Harvesting did not follow any schedule. Farmers did not consider weeds as a threat to Murta plantations. Harvesting of Murta is done manually using daos Weeding is done only for vines and climbing weeds, (a sharp curved knife). Most respondents (72%) generally before the rainy season. Weeding, espe- harvest from mid-September to the end of March. cially of the main weed, Asam lata (Eupatorium The other respondents harvest small quantities of odoratum), is usually done along with harvesting, or Murta throughout the year. Harvesting was done occasionally when farmers notice or are feeding almost every year (Merry 2001). Respondents who their livestock, as also found by Rashid et al. (1993) harvest over a longer period retain current-year and Chowdhury et al. (2007). Merry (2001) sug- growth in the stand and only harvest mature and gested that the planting site should be weeded twice almost mature Murta. Experience is used to assess a year. the maturity of Murta sticks, based on colour: culms with two to three branches and slightly reddish are considered mature. All respondents harvest to Soil addition and fertilization ground level, leaving almost nothing of the cut Overall, 60% of the farmers add soil to their planta- sticks in the clumps. tions: 24% add soil every other year, 57% add soil The bark of one Murta plant yields seven or eight every year. However, 40% of farmers did not add thin strands. Harvested Murta is bundled and soil, as most of the Murta plantations were around brought into the yard where sticks are manually homesteads and soil is automatically added to these split into bark strands. The strands are then dried in during the rainy season to prevent homestead soil the sun for 2 to 3 days, then boiled with tamarind erosion. Soil addition is done during the dry and kau leaves (Garcinia cowa). At times, starch from season, usually after harvesting and before the boiled rice is also used. Some strands are dyed to onset of the monsoon (60% of respondents). Soil make them attractive, lucrative and ready for use addition was done throughout the plantation, and in cottage industries; otherwise, harvested Murta particularly within and around the Murta clumps. (without processing) is bundled and sold in the Chowdhury et al. (2007) found that the farmers dig market (Chowdhury et al. 2007). the soil to enhance aeration. The respondents only use cow dung as fertilizer, Economics of Murta products probably because it is available and is free as most of the participants have livestock. About 67% of Seventy-seven per cent of respondents are directly respondents apply cow dung to their Murta planta- involved in Murta-based cottage enterprises. The tion; others were unaware of the need for fertiliza- rest of the population comprises children and agri- tion. Among the respondents who apply cow dung, cultural day labourers. The average annual income 67% maintained a schedule, usually applying it of farmers who process and produce different twice a year: once just after the rainy season and products is US$500. The products derived from once just after harvesting. Other respondents did Murta (e.g. simple prayer mats, coloured prayer not follow a regular schedule. Application of cow mats, bed mats and bed mats with a colour strip) dung as fertilizer in Murta plantations has previ- contribute 43% (US$216) of the total. The remain- ously been recorded by Mohiuddin and Rashid ing 57% (US$286) comes from other sources, such International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 255 Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. as agriculture, day labourer, business, fishery, and profit from, bed mats and prayer mats con- etc. (Table 1) (cf. Leidholm and Mead 1993). taining colour strips and designs and sold in city Employment and income from small-scale non- markets. The price of the product varies with farm activities, particularly for poor people, is of size, quality and local demand (Rashid et al. 1993). growing importance in the rural economy of There was no organized marketing of finished developing countries (Arnold 1995; Fernandes and products in the study area. Artisans sell products Menon 1987; Hecht et al. 1988; Gunatilake et al. sporadically in different local markets, directly or 1993). through intermediaries, with no uniform pricing With regard to products using Murta, prices for products. The small scale of the enterprises, depend on the amount of Murta and other materi- poor financial position of the artisans, and scat- als used, market demand, and the time required to tered distribution of the enterprises poses serious produce an article. An estimate of the economics of problems for marketing. Middlemen make con- product manufacturing was made in terms of net siderable profits (Table 2): US$0.36–1.86, depend- average profit accrued from one-man day (8 h/day ing on the type of article. This is due to farmers’ by an adult). The formula is adopted from lack of marketing knowledge and available market Vishwakarma et al. (1998): net average profit/ information, as well as marketing facilities. The man-day = (selling price – cost of raw materials)/ variation might be higher, as middlemen generally man-days. The net average profit per man-day do not state the real price and sometimes were not varies from US$0.23–0.73, with a net profit per very informative (cf. Warner 1995). Bakht (1984) article from US$0.36–1.81. Entrepreneurs manu- argued that marketing is a leading constraint to facture articles according to seasonal requirements the development of cottage industries. Nair and local market demand. Simple bed mats are (1995) found that a substantial number of essential items required for local people, and thus NWFPs cater to low-income markets, which impose their production is higher than that of other limitations on possible income for producers of articles. However, there is a higher demand for, such products. Table 1 Average number of articles sold annually and expected income per household Articles Income (US$) Articles sold/industry (no. articles ¥ net average profit per article) Simple prayer mat (36″× 45″, 0.12–0.25″ thick) 13 4.64 Prayer mat with colour strip (same size, = 0.12″ thick) 16 22.17 Prayer mat with colour design (same size, 36″× 45″, 10 18.14 = 0.12″ thick) Simple bed mat (63″× 81″, 0.12–0.25″ thick) 200 142.86 Bed mat with colour strip (63″× 81″, = 0.12″ thick) 15 28.86 Total 216 Table 2 Variation in price for different products from producer to retailer Selling Price (US$) Difference between Artisan Articles Artisan Middlemen Wholesaler Retailer and Retailer (US$) Simple prayer mat 0.60 Not involved Not involved Not involved – Prayer mat with colour strip 1.93 2.07 2.14 2.29–2.43 0.36–0.50 Prayer mat with colour design 2.57 2.80 2.86 3.14–4.29 0.57–1.71 Simple bed mat 1.57 – – – – Bed mat with colour strip 3.14 3.36 3.43 3.71–5.00 0.57–1.86 256 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. and on fallow lands can control soil erosion and CONCLUSION minimize flood risk. It is necessary to develop This study has shown that farmers generally possess effective propagation methods which will lead to effective management techniques for Murta planta- higher production; these must be user-friendly tions. Murta can play a vital role in the economy and so that farmers can adopt them easily. Adequate environment of Bangladesh. It can easily be culti- training and motivation is required to encourage vated in lands that remain under water for a long people to cultivate Murta elsewhere in Bangladesh, time during the rainy season, and remain wet even and infrastructure should be developed to support in the dry season. These lands are not suitable for Murta-based cottage industries and community- cultivation of other cash crops. The cultivation of based marketing facilities, complemented by access Murta is inexpensive and does not conflict with the to adequate knowledge and information, to ensure production of agricultural crops. Its cultivation that the economic and environmental benefits to along roads, canals, ponds, around homesteads, rural people are maximised. REFERENCES Al-Hadi AH. Sylhet District. In Islam S (ed.), Chowdhury D and Konwar BK. Morphology and Banglapedia Multimedia CD. Dhaka, Bangladesh: karyotype study of Patidoi (Schumannianthus Asiatic Society of Bangladesh; 2004 dichotomus (Roxb.) Gagnep. synonym Clinogyne Anon. Wealth of India (Raw Materials), Vol. II. New dichotoma Salisb.), a traditional plant of Assam. Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Current Science 2006;91(5):648–51 Research; 1950:427 Chowdhury MSH, Uddin MS, Haque F, Muhammed N Anon. Working Plan for the Forest of Sylhet Division for and Koike M. Indigenous Management of Patipata the Period 1963–64 to 1982–83. Vol. I. Dhaka, (Schumannianthus dichotoma) plantation in the Bangladesh: East Pakistan Government Press; rural homesteads of Bangladesh. Journal of Sub- 1970:215 tropical Agriculture Research and Development 2007; Ara R, Merry SR, Paul SP and Siddiqi NA. Effect of 5(1):202–7 Fertilizer on the Yield of Patipata, Schumannianthus FAO. Non-wood forest products for rural income and dichotoma. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science 2000; sustainable forestry 7. Reprinted in 1999. Rome: 29(1):67–8 FAO; 1995:1–2 Arnold JEM. Socio-Economic Benefits and Issues in Fernandes W and Menon G. Tribal women and forest Non-wood Forest Products Use. In Report of the economy. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute; 1987 International Expert Consultation on Non-wood forest FMP. Forestry masterplan. Forest production. Dhaka: products. Non-Wood Forest Products 3. Rome: FAO; UNDP/FAO BGD 88/025; 1992:147 1995:89–123 Gunatilake HM, Senaratine DMAH and Bakht Z. Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh rural Abeygunawardena P. Role of Non-timber forest industries. Bangladesh Development Studies 1984;XII products in the economy of peripheral communi- (1&2):25–58 ties of Knuckles National Wilderness area of Sri Banik RL. Economic Importance and Future of Rattan Lanka. Economic Botany 1993;47(3):275–81 and Patipata in Bangladesh. In Roshetko M and Hecht SB, Anderson A and May P. The subsidy from Bose SK (eds), Propagation and Cultivation of Rattan nature: shifting cultivation, successional palm and Patipata in Bangladesh. Proceeding of Training forests and rural development. Human Organiza- Courses held at the Bangladesh Forest Research tion 1988;47(1):25–35 Institute (BFRI), Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2001: Hooker JD. Flora of British India, Vol. VI.Kent, UK: 25–8 L. Reave and Co.; 1892:257–8 BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Bangladesh Islam ANMF. The role of Murta-Based Cottage Industry Population Census 2001 Preliminary data for Sylhet in Socio-Economic Development of Rural People: A Division. Ministry of Planning, Government Case Study from Sylhet District, Bangladesh. A Pro- Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2001 ject Paper. Department of Forestry. Shahjalal BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Statistical Year University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Book of Bangladesh (Thana series). Ministry of Bangladesh; 2005:47 Planning, Government Republic of Bangladesh, Liedholm C and Mead DC. The structure and growth of Dhaka; 2006 micro-enterprises in southern and eastern Africa. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 257 Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Ahmed et al. GEMINI Working paper No. 36. Bethesda, MA: Rao AS and Verma DM. Materials towards a monocot Growth and Equity through micro enterprise flora of Asam-II (Zingiberaceae & Marantaceae). investments and institutions (GEMINI); 1993 Bull. Bot. Sur. India 1972;14:114–43 Merry SR, Ara R and Siddiqi NA. Raising Seedlings of Rashid MH, Merry SR, Ara R, Mohiuddin M and Alam Patipata (Schumannianthus dichotoma). Bangladesh MJ. How to Cultivate Rattan and Patipata (in Journal of Forest Science 1997;26(1):74–5 Bengali). Bulletin 6, Minor Forest Products Series, Merry SR. Propagation Technique of Patipata. In Bangladesh Forest Research Institute. 1993:8–12 Roshetko JM and Bose SK (eds), Propagation and Sharma P. Non-wood forest products and integrated Cultivation of Rattan and Patipata in Bangladesh. mountain development: Observations from Proceeding of Training Courses held at the Nepal. In Report of the Expert consultation on Non-wood Bangladesh Forest Research Institute (BFRI), Forest Products, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Non-Wood Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2001:22–4 Forest Products 3. Rome: FAO; 1995 Mohiuddin M and Rashid MH. Survival and growth Siddiqi NA, Ara R and Merry SR. Survival and of vegetatively grown pati-pata (Schumannianthus initial growth of Schumannianthus dichotoma dichotoma): an exploratory study. Bangladesh (Marantaceae) from four different propagating Journal of Forest Science 1988;17(1&2):20–5 materials. Indian Forester 1998; 24(12):1014–19 Nair CTS. Income and employment from non-wood Vishwakarma P, Behari B and Ashutosh S. Economic forest products. In Durst PB and Bishop A (eds), study of Bansods (Bamboo craftsmen) of Mungelii: Proceedings of Regional Expert Consultation: Beyond A case study. Indian Forester 1998;124(8):619–24 Timber: Social, Economic and Cultural Dimensions of Warner AT. Marketing, Valuation and Pricing of Non-wood Forest Products in Asia and the Pacific. NWFPS. In Durst PB and Bishop A (eds), Proceed- Rome: FAO/RAP; 1995:87–95 ings of Regional Expert Consultation: Beyond Timber: Prain D. Bengal plants, Vol. II. Dehra Dun, India: Social, Economic and Cultural Dimensions of Non-wood Bishen Singh & Mahendra Pal Singh; 1903:1048 Forest Products in Asia and the Pacific. Rome: FAO/RAP; 1995:97–107 258 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Contents for Volume 3 Number 1, March 2007 Second home development in the Norwegian mountains: Is it outgrowing the Second home development in the Norwegian mountains: Is it outgrowing the planning capability? 1 planning capability? Bjørn P. Kaltenborn, Oddgeir Andersen and Christian Nellemann Climate change and biodiversity: Impacts and policy development challenges – Climate change and biodiversity: Impacts and policy development challenges – a European case study 12 a European case study Rob Brooker, Juliette C. Young and Allan D. Watt Reflections on the social learning process for community work in rural areas of Mexico Reflections on the social learning process for community work in rural areas of Mexico 31 Silvia Del Amo Rodríguez and María del Carmen Vergara-Tenorio Assessment of Canadian federal and provincial legislation to conserve native and managed pollinators Assessment of Canadian federal and provincial legislation to conserve native and 46 managed pollinators Jennifer Tang, Joanna Wice, Vernon G. Thomas and Peter G. Kevan Biodiversity use through harvesting faunal resources from forests by the Mro tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh Biodiversity use through harvesting faunal resources from forests by the Mro tribe 56 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury, Md. Abdul Halim, Md. Danesh Miah, Nur Muhammed and Masao Koike Guidelines for Authors Guidelines for Authors 63 Number 2, June 2007 Introduction Whither communities and conservation? Introduction 65 Whither communities and conservation? James Igoe and Crystal Fortwangler Deconstructing the stakeholder: A case study from Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, Australia Deconstructing the stakeholder: A case study from Garig Gunak Barlu National Park, 77 Australia Vanessa deKoninck Struggles over resources and community formation at Dwesa-Cwebe, South Africa Struggles over resources and community formation at Dwesa-Cwebe, South Africa 88 Derick Fay Community dynamics in Japanese rural areas and implications for national park management Community dynamics in Japanese rural areas and implications for national park 102 management Lisa Hiwasaki Constituting forest communities in the hills of Nepal Constituting forest communities in the hills of Nepal 115 Christopher A. Thoms Guidelines for Authors Guidelines for Authors 126 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 259 Number 3, September 2007 Biodiversity conservation and public support for sustainable wildlife harvesting: A case study Biodiversity conservation and public support for sustainable wildlife harvesting: 129 A case study Clem Tisdell, Hemanath Swarna Nantha and Clevo Wilson Conservation implications of contingent valuation of critically endangered white-rumped vulture Conservation implications of contingent valuation of critically endangered Gyps bengalensis in South Asia 145 white-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis in South Asia Nabin Baral, Ramji Gautam, Nilesh Timilsina and Mahadev G. Bhat Opportunities and risks in reconciling conservation and development in a Opportunities and risks in reconciling conservation and development in a post-Soviet setting: The example of the Tajik National Park 157 post-Soviet setting: The example of the Tajik National Park Andrea Haslinger, Thomas Breu, Hans Hurni and Daniel Maselli Medicinal plants and rural livelihoods in Pondoland, South Africa: Towards an understanding of resource value Medicinal plants and rural livelihoods in Pondoland, South Africa: 170 Towards an understanding of resource value Thembela Kepe Utilization and conservation of medicinal plants used for primary health care in Makueni district, Kenya Utilization and conservation of medicinal plants used for primary health care in 184 Makueni district, Kenya Daniel Patrick Kisangau and Thora Martina Herrmann Guidelines for Authors Guidelines for Authors 193 Number 4, December 2007 On transferring outcome-oriented agri-environmental reward schemes for grasslands between regions On transferring outcome-oriented agri-environmental reward schemes for 195 grasslands between regions Annika Höft, Johannes Isselstein and Bärbel Gerowitt Increasing the chances of successful reintroduction of white-clawed crayfish ( pallipes Increasing the chances of successful reintroduction of white-clawed crayfish ) in the Peak District National Park, UK Austropotamobius 209 (Austropotamobius pallipes) in the Peak District National Park, UK David Rogers and Elizabeth Watson The potential of native species aquaculture to achieve conservation objectives: freshwater crayfish in Madagascar The potential of native species aquaculture to achieve conservation objectives: 217 freshwater crayfish in Madagascar J. P. G. Jones, F. B. Andriahajaina and N. Hockley Species richness, distribution pattern and conservation status of higher plants in the Spiti cold desert of trans-Himalaya, India Species richness, distribution pattern and conservation status of higher plants in 223 the Spiti cold desert of trans-Himalaya, India K. N. Singh, Brij Lal, R. D. Singh, N. P. Todaria and P. S. Ahuja Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India 234 S. S. Samant, Shreekar Pant, Man Singh, Manohar Lal, Ashok Singh, Aman Sharma and Sakshi Bhandari in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh Management and economic value of Management and economic value of Schumannianthus dichotoma Schumannianthus dichotoma in rural homesteads in rural homesteads 252 in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh Romel Ahmed, A. N. M. Fakhrul Islam, Mostafizur Rahman and Md. Abdul Halim 260 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Index of Authors Ahmed, Romel 252 Lal, Brij 223 Ahuja, P. S. 223 Lal, Manohar 234 Andersen, Oddgeir 1 Andriahajaina, F. B. 217 Maselli, Daniel 157 Miah, Md. Danesh 56 Baral, Nabin 145 Muhammed, Nur 56 Bhandari, Sakshi 234 Bhat, Mahadev G. 145 Nantha, Hemanath Swarna 129 Breu, Thomas 157 Nellemann, Christian 1 Brooker, Rob 12 Pant, Shreekar 234 Chowdhury, Mohammad Shaheed Hossain 56 Rahman, Mostafizur 252 deKoninck, Vanessa 77 Rodríguez, Silvia Del Amo 31 Rogers, David 209 Fakhrul Islam, A. N. M. 252 Fay, Derick 88 Samant, S. S. 234 Fortwangler, Crystal 65 Sharma, Aman 234 Singh, Ashok 234 Gautam, Ramji 145 Singh, K. N. 223 Gerowitt, Bärbel 195 Singh, Man 234 Singh, R. D. 223 Halim, Md. Abdul 56, 252 Haslinger, Andrea 157 Tang, Jennifer 46 Herrmann, Thora Martina 184 Thomas, Vernon G. 46 Hiwasaki, Lisa 102 Thoms, Christopher A. 115 Hockley, N. J. 217 Timilsina, Nilesh 145 Hurni, Hans 157 Tisdell, Clem 129 Höft, Annika 195 Todaria, N. P. 223 Igoe, James 65 Vergara-Tenorio, María del Carmen 31 Isselstein, Johannes 195 Watson, Elizabeth 209 Jones, J. P. G. 217 Watt, Allan D. 12 Wice, Joanna 46 Kaltenborn, Bjørn P. 1 Wilson, Clevo 129 Kepe, Thembela 170 Kevan, Peter G. 46 Young, Juliette C. 12 Kisangau, Daniel Patrick 184 Koike, Masao 56 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 261 Index of Key Words Aboriginal Australians 77 Grazing 88 Agri-environmental scheme 195 Gyps bengalensis 145 Agriculture and biodiversity 195 Astaciculture 217 Hill forests 56 Attitudes 129 Himachal Pradesh 234 Australian wildlife 129 Hunting 56 Austropotamobius pallipes 209 Indigenous 252 Insects 46 Bangladesh 252 Integrated Conservation and Development Biodiversity 12, 157 Project (ICDP) 217 Biodiversity conservation 145, 184 Japan 102 Canada 46 Joint management 77 Captive breeding 209 Climate change 12 Kenya 184 Communities and conservation 65 Community 115 Laws 46 Community forestry 88, 115 Livelihoods 170 Community-based natural resource Local community 102 management 88 Conservation 12, 46, 77, 115, 129, 217, 234 Makueni 184 Conservation interventions 65 Management 1, 252 Conservation strategy 209 Medicinal plants 170, 184, 234 Contingent valuation 145 Mexico 31 Convention on biological diversity 129 Migration 102 Convention on international trade in Mro, Bangladesh 56 endangered species 129 Murta 252 Crayfish 217 NWFP 252 Dependence 56 National park 157 Differentiation 88 National parks 77, 102 Distribution 223 Native wild pollinators 46 Diversity 234 Natural resource management 31, 157 Domestication 217 Nature conservation 157 Nature tourism 102 Ecological goods and services 195 Neoliberalization of conservation 65 Endemism 234 Nepal 115, 145 Environmental impacts 1 Networks of governance 65 Ethnobotany 184 Norwegian mountain regions 1 Europe 12 Outcome-oriented reward 195 Forest 115 Pamirs 157 Germany 195 Participation 115 Grassland 195 Peak District National Park 209 262 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Planning 1 Stakeholder 77 Plant collector 170 Stakeholder analysis 102 Policy 12 Sustainable use 129 Pondoland 170 Sylhet 252 Poverty alleviation 115 Prioritization 234 Tajik National Park 157 Protected area 157 Tajikistan 157 Protected area management 102 Threatened plants 223 Provinces 46 Traditional healer 170 Trans-Himalaya 223 Reintroduction 209 Transkei 88 Tropical forest 31 Second home development 1 Skin infections 184 UK Biodiversity Action Plan 209 Social learning 31 South Africa 88, 170 Vulture crisis 145 Species richness 223 Spiti cold desert 223 Wildlife 56 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 263
International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management – Taylor & Francis
Published: Dec 1, 2007
Keywords: INDIGENOUS; MANAGEMENT; NWFP; MURTA; SYLHET; BANGLADESH
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.