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GeoloGy, ecoloGy, and landscapes, 2018 Vol . 2, no . 2, 81–103 https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2018.1452481 INWASCON OPEN ACCESS Mapping and analysis of tectonic lineaments of Pachamalai hills, Tamil Nadu, India using geospatial technology A. Prabhakaran and N. Jawahar Raj d epartment of Geology, national c ollege, Tiruchirappalli, India ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 14 november 2017 In the present study an updated tectonic lineament database for Pachamalai hill, a resource- a ccepted 25 February 2018 rich hill of central Tamil Nadu state of India has been generated and analysed. Digital Elevation Model generated from CARTOSAT-1 satellite data have been the data source. Lineaments KEYWORDS extracted from eight different azimuth angles were compiled together towards the generation pachamalai hills; lineaments; of the lineament database, which has been subsequently analysed for their number, length, caRT osa T deM density and spatial distribution using ArcGIS software. In addition, their orientations were analysed using Rockworks software. Of the 561 lineaments of the study area, about 90% are very short and short lineaments. The total length of the lineaments is 680 sq. km and their density ranges from 0 to 3.4 km/sq. km. The diversely oriented lineaments of the hill reflect the multiple deformation events that have affected the region through geologic time. In about 30% of the hill, the lineament density is high to very high which implies higher degree of deformation, fracturing, shearing and permeability of rocks besides higher soil erodibility and groundwater yield. These high to very high density areas render themselves unsuitable for the construction of dams and reservoirs as the possibility of water leakages into the subsurface, slope and dam failures and rate of sedimentation would be higher. Further, the analysis of the lineaments clearly underlines the need to extract lineaments from different azimuth angles instead of the widely adopted practice of mapping lineaments from single azimuth angle. 1. Introduction tool especially towards the analysis of the identified lin- eaments in view of its ability to process quickly, store the e t Th erm lineament refers to mappable linear or curvi- results quantitatively and also to generate maps. Thus, linear features on the Earth’s surface which maybe the the advancements made in the field of geospatial tech- expression of a fault or other linear zones of weakness. nology and the demonstrated utilities of the study of A number of studies have demonstrated the utility of lineaments in various fields of geosciences have led to the knowledge about lineaments of an area in various the spurt in the studies pertaining to lineaments. fields of geosciences such as mapping of geological Pachamalai hills, the study area is a natural resource- structures, exploration for minerals, hydrocarbons and rich area, inhabitated by tribals. For formulating strat- groundwater, identification of areas prone for seismicity, egies towards sustainable development of the hills, it is volcanic eruption, landslides, soil erosion, detection of essential to have thorough knowledge about the linea- hot springs, sites suitable for the construction of dams, ments of the hills. Lineaments specifically of Pachamalai tunnels, bridges, roads especially in hill areas, etc. The hills have not been studied so far. Existing information advent of remote sensing data and the demonstrated about the lineaments of the study area are of regional capabilities of mapping lineaments from them have nature (Balaji, 2000; Cenki & Kriegsman, 2005; Chetty, led to increasing number of studies pertaining to line- 1996; Drury & Holt, 1980; Drury, Harris, Holt, Reeves, & aments. Aerial photographs which were widely used for Wightman, 1984; Grady, 1971; Rakshit & Prabhakar Rao, the study of lineaments have now been replaced by sat- 1989; Ramasamy, 1991; Ramasamy, 2006; Ramasamy & ellite images. The availability of variety of freely down- Balaji, 1993; Ramasamy, Balaji, & Kumanan, 1999; loadable satellite images, advancements in digital image Reddy, Mathew, Singh, & Naidu, 1988; Srinivasan, 1974; processing and automated lineament extraction tech- Subrahmanya, 1996; Subrahmanyam, 1978; Sugavanam, niques have made satellite data as the main data source Venkata Rao, Simhachalam, Nagal, & Murthy, for extracting lineaments. The rapid advancements made 1977; Tirukumaran, 2013; Valdiya, 2016; Vemban, in the field of Geographical Information System (GIS) Subramanian, Gopalakrishnan, & Venkata Rao, 1977) has made this technique a powerful and indispensible CONTACT a. p rabhakaran email@example.com © 2018 The a uthor(s). published by Informa UK limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an open a ccess article distributed under the terms of the creative c ommons a ttribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 82 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ and are not specific to Pachamalai hills. Furthermore, region has been characterized as Tonalite with high these lineaments have been mapped from small scale sat- Na O and Al O contents, and the charnockitic magma 2 2 3 ellite data which is sufficient only for regional level stud - of the region is found to be generated due to crustal ies. Detailed investigation into the lineaments of this hill recycling process at the mid-crustal region (George & has not been attempted so far. The present study attempts Sajeev, 2015). Similar view has been expressed by Rajesh to study the lineaments exclusively of the Pachamalai (2012) who attributes the origin of these charnockites hills using large-scale data. The study area is located in to subduction process. Rest of the 7% of the study area the central part of Tamil Nadu state of southern India, is occupied by pyroxene granulites, hornblende biotite between north latitudes 11°8′52″–11°28′39″ and east gneiss, granite, basic dykes, ultrabasics and garnetiferous longitudes 78°29′34″–78°39′29″, and forms part of the gabbros. The pyroxene granulites of the study area occur Survey of India’s topographic sheets 58 I/11, 12 and 15 as linear bands trending in an almost NE–SW direction of 1: 50000 scale (Figure 1). The maximum north–south confining to the northern part of the study area espe- stretch of the hills is 37 km and along the east–west it is cially to the Gangavalli, Pulambadi and Vedambiyam almost the same (36 km). The areal extent of the study Reserved Forests. The mineral assemblage of this rock area is 507.52 sq. km and is spread over three districts includes quartz + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene and of the central Tamil Nadu state; while the northern and K-feldspar. southern halves lie within Salem and Tiruchirappalli dis- Hornblende biotite gneiss is restricted to the foot tricts, respectively, a small portion on the eastern side hills of the study area especially to the eastern and lies in Perambalur District (Figure 2). south eastern parts. The mineral assemblage of the rock e o Th bjectives considered for the present study is quartz-hornblende-biotite-K-feldspar-plagioclase. includes the extraction of lineaments of the study area Granites are confined to the northern part of the study (from CARTOSAT satellite data) from eight different area especially to the Vedambiyam and Pulambadi azimuth angles and their compilation to generate linea- Reserved Forests and are seen as enclaves within char- ment database for the study area, evaluation of number, nockites. These small plutons were emplaced as culmi- length, orientation, lineament density variations and a nation of migmatization that occurred in the area during comparative analysis of the lineaments obtained from the Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic Periods (George the eight different azimuth angles considered with that & Sajeev, 2015). The basic dykes of the study area are of the final lineament output. seen transecting the charnockites and are exposed in three locations. One of them occurs in the northern part of the study area (near Vedambiyam) trending in 2. Geology of the study area a NNE–SSW direction while the other two are found e s Th tudy area forms part of the geologically well-known in the eastern part of the study area (near Nagur and southern Granulitic Terrain of Tamil Nadu state which Sikkadu villages) trending in ENE–WSW to nearly E–W has experienced multiple episodes of crustal deformation direction. A small patch of ultrabasic rocks occurs in the (Chetty & Bhaskar Rao, 2006; Chetty, Vijay, Narayana, & western part of the study area within the Sengattupatti Giridhar, 2003; Drury & Holt, 1980; Ramasamy et al., Reserved Forest. 1999) because of which the rocks are highly deformed and e s Th trike direction of the foliation of the major rock metamorphosed to granulite facies. Geochronological type of the study area, the charnockites, is predom- and isotope studies have shown crustal growth of the ter- inantly NE–SW. Two prominent synform structures rain during the period 3400 Ma. to 2500 Ma. (Geological are found on the western part of the study area, one Survey of India [GSI], 2006). The granulitic facies meta - of which is in the Periyasolai Reserved Forest and the morphism that occurred in the region has resulted in the other in the north eastern side of Sengattupatti Reserved formation of charnockites of the region and concomitant Forests. A prominent antiform structure is found in the anatexis of earlier rocks (GSI, 2006). Information relat- south eastern side of the Sengattupatti Reserved Forests. ing to the rock types of the study area obtained from Two prominent NNE–SSW trending shear zones pass the geology map published by the Geological Survey of through the Manmalai Reserved Forest in the north India in the year 2014 and ascertained by field checks western part of the study area (Figure 3). reveals that the study area comprises predominantly the rocks of Charnockite Group (mostly charnockites 3. Methodology intruded by ultrabasic rocks and granites, and pyroxene granulites) and Bhavani Group (Fissile hornblende bio- Literature relevant to the present study which include tite gneiss and basic dykes) of Archaen and Archaen to those relating to the various aspects of lineaments and Proterozoic age respectively (Figure 3). Of these rocks those pertaining to the rocks, geological structure and charnockites are widespread and they occupy most part geological history of the study area were collected, com- of the study area (93%), the typical mineral assemblages piled and reviewed in order to have a thorough under- being orthopyroxene + quartz + K-feldspars + bio- standing of the theme under study and the geology of tite ± garnet. Geochemically the charnockites of this the area. In the next stage, lineaments of the study area GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 83 Figure 1. s tudy area. s ource: c ompiled from the published survey of India’s open s eries Map and Taluk maps of Government of Tamil nadu. were extracted from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) represent lineaments such as straight valleys, continuous generated from CARTOSAT-1 satellite data (P143 R52) scraps, straight streams segments and rock boundaries, by the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) which systematic off set of streams, sudden tonal variations and is freely downloadable (http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/data/ alignment of vegetation were identified and digitized on download/index.php). Topographic features which screen. Lineaments were extracted from eight different 84 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 2. a dministrative divisions. s ource: published survey of India’s open s eries Map. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 85 Figure 3. Rock types. s ource: Geological Quadrangle Map of s alem district published by Geological survey India. 86 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ azimuth angles (45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315° and from the eight individual azimuth angles were far lesser, 360°) to ensure unbiased mapping of all lineaments of the varying from 154.30 km (at 225° azimuth angle data) area under study as demonstrated from a number of stud- to 261.21 km (at 45° azimuth angle output), which is ies (Hubbard, Mack, & o Th mpson, 2012; Muhammad & reflection of variation in the extractable lineaments at Awdal, 2012; Tahir, Garba, & Hassan, 2015). Furthermore, different azimuth angles discussed earlier. interpretation of lineaments at each of these azimuth Based on the length, lineaments of the study area angles was done at two different scales (1:50000 and 1: (Figure 5) were classified as very short (<1 km), short 80000 scales) to ensure mapping of lineaments of all sizes. (1–2 km), medium (2–3 km), long (3–4 km) and very e ext Th racted lineaments from each azimuth angle were long (>4 km). Estimation of the number of lineaments compared with other data sources such as topographic in each of these classes shows that of the 561 linea- maps and high resolution Google images to eliminate ments of the study area, 291 are very short and 211 non-geological lineaments. This elimination of non-ge- are short lineaments. These two lineament classes ological lineaments was performed for all the eight line- together constitute about 90% of the lineaments of ament maps extracted from the eight different azimuth the study area. Dominance of such smaller lineaments angles. Aer t ft his elimination process, the remaining line - have also been reported from Adwa river basin of aments in each of the eight different azimuth angles were Vindhyan plateau (Nagal, 2014), Medium sized line- stored in eight different separate GIS shape files. aments are lesser in number and they constitute only This was followed by combining all the lineaments 7% of the lineaments of the study area. Long and very obtained from these eight different shape files into a sin- long lineaments are fewer in number and they consti- gle shape file. From this output the redundant/duplicate tute just about 2% each of the lineaments of the study lineaments were eliminated and the final lineament map area (Table 2). of the study area was generated. In the next stage, the Lineament density, the total length of lineaments final lineament map was analysed for number of line- per unit area was estimated and analysed in order to aments, length of lineaments, lineament density from demarcate geologically weaker zones. For understand- the computations made using ArcGIS software 10.2 ver - ing the spatial variation of lineament density, a grid of sion. Orientation of lineaments of the study area were cells 1 sq. km each was overlaid over the final lineament also analysed for which rose diagrams generated using map of the study area and the length of lineaments in Rockworks software 2016 version were made use of. This each grid was estimated. Based on the range of such was followed by compilation of results based on which estimated lineament density values of the grids, the var- conclusions have been made. ious lineament density classes such as low (<.5 km/sq. km), moderate (.5–1.5 km/sq. km), high (1.5–2.5 km/ sq. km) and very high (>2.5 km/sq. km) were demar- 4. Results and discussion cated (Figure 6) using ArcGIS software. In the study area Lineaments extracted from each of the eight azimuth lineament density ranges from 0 to 3.24 km/sq. km. In angles considered for the study (45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, most part of the study area (57%), the density of lin- 225°, 270°, 315° and 360°) and the final lineament out- eaments is moderate. The density is found to be high put (generated by compiling the lineaments from all the and very high in about 30 and 2%, respectively, and are eight azimuth angle outputs) are shown in Figures 4a–4h restricted to the reserved forests such as Palamalai exten- and 5, respectively. These lineament data-sets were made sion, Nakkasalem, Solaimatti and Gangavalli, besides the use of to estimate their numbers, length and orientations villages of Thenpuranadu and Vadapuranadu. Studies besides spatial variation in lineament density. The sali- have shown that areas of high lineaments density ent findings from these estimations are discussed in the reflects high degree of rock fracturing (Edet, Okereke, following section. Teme, & Esu 1998), shearing (Chandrasekhar, Martha, e t Th otal number of lineaments of the study area, esti - Venkateswarlu, Subramanian, & Kamaraju, 2011), inten- mated from the final lineament output is 561. However, sity of deformation (Hung, Batelaan, San, & De Smedt, lineaments extracted individually from various azimuth 2004), permeability (Masoud & Koike, 2011), higher angles were far lesser in number and it varied from 116 groundwater yield (Sener, Davraz, & Ozcelik, 2005), (at 225° azimuth angle) to 223 lineaments (at 45° azi- mineral occurrences associated with hydrothermal alter- muth angle). Among the eight azimuth angles, greater ation zones (Kiran Raj & Ahmed, 2014; Rameshchandra number of lineaments (223) were extractable from the Phani, 2014), higher soil erodibility (Jawahar Raj, 2001) 45° azimuth angle. However, even from this seemingly and slope failures (Kiran Raj & Ahmed, 2014), etc. Thus most favourable azimuth angle data for lineament based on the above established relationship of high lin- extraction, the number of lineaments extracted (223) eament density with the above described factors, it can was only about 40% of the lineaments extracted from be inferred that in the high and very high lineament the final lineament output (561 lineaments) (Table 1). density zones of the study area, the degree of rock frac- e t Th otal length of lineaments of the study area is turing, shearing, intensity of deformation, rock perme- 680.89 km. However, the length of lineaments estimated ability, groundwater yield and soil erodibility, would be GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 87 Figure 4a. lineaments extracted by 45 degree azimuth angle. 88 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 4b. lineaments extracted by 90 degree azimuth angle. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 89 Figure 4c. lineaments extracted by 135 degree azimuth angle. 90 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 4d. lineaments extracted by 180 degree azimuth angle. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 91 Figure 4e. lineaments extracted by 225 degree azimuth angle. 92 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 4f. lineaments extracted by 270 degree azimuth angle. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 93 Figure 4g. lineaments extracted by 315 degree azimuth angle. 94 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 4h. lineaments extracted by 360 degree azimuth angle. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 95 Figure 5. Final output. 96 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ Figure 6. lineament density. s ource: Generated from c artosat -1 s atellite’s deM data. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 97 Table 1. number of lineaments and length from various azimuth angles. Sl. No. Azimuth angle (in degrees) Number of lineaments Min. length Max. length Total length of lineaments (in km) 1. 45 223 0.30 3.36 261.21 2. 90 201 0.48 3.96 253.12 3. 135 155 0.46 6.95 215.39 4. 180 165 0.20 5.11 225.13 5. 225 116 0.41 6.61 154.30 6. 270 148 0.26 5.90 180.83 7. 315 183 0.38 5.12 234.86 8. 360 178 0.52 5.43 241.04 9. Final output 561 0.20 6.95 680.89 (a) For 45°Azimuth angle output (b) For 90°Azimuth angle output (c) For 135°Azimuth angle output Figure 7. Rose diagrams depicting orientation of lineaments at various azimuth angles. 98 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ (g) For 315°Azimuth angle output (h) For 360°Azimuth angle output (i) Final output Figure 7. (Continued) higher. These areas render themselves unsuitable for the classes (to understand the existence of size-wise pre- construction of dams and reservoirs as the possibility ferred orientation(s) of lineaments) using the Rockworks of water leakages into the subsurface, slope and dam software – 2016 version (Figure 7(a)–(h)) (Table 2). failures, rate of sedimentation are higher. Rose diagrams constructed for the final lineament Rose diagrams were constructed for the finalized output shows that though the lineaments of the study lineament output (to understand the orientation of lin- area are diverse in orientation, those oriented in N–S, eaments in the study area), lineament outputs of eight ENE–WSW and NE–SW directions are predominant different azimuth angles (to understand the existence of (Figure 7(i)). The diverse orientations of the lineaments preferred orientation(s) of lineaments, if any, in die ff rent of the study area reflect the multiple episodes of defor - azimuth angles) and outputs of various lineament length mation events that have occurred in the region through GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 99 (d) For 180°Azimuth angle output (e) For 225°Azimuth angle output (f) For 270°Azimuth angle output Figure 7. (Continued) Table 2. number of lineaments and length of various lineament length classes. No. of lineaments No. of lineaments Sl. No. Lineament length class (in km) (in Nos.) (in %) (in Nos.) (in %) 1. <1 291 51.87 213.73 31.39 2. 1–2 211 37.61 282.95 41.56 3. 2–3 37 6.60 90.38 13.27 4. 3–4 13 2.32 45.29 6.65 5. >4 9 1.60 48.54 7.13 Total 561 100.00 680.89 100.00 100 A. PRABHAKARAN AND N. JAWAHAR RAJ (a) Orientation of Very Short Lineaments (b) Orientation of Short Lineaments (c) Orientation of Moderate sized Lineaments Figure 8. Rose diagrams depicting orientation of lineaments at various lineament length classes. geologic time as reported by Anderson (1951), Drury and features of the study area such as the trend of the promi- Holt (1980), Bartlett, Dougherty, Harris, Hawkesworth, nent regional Gangavalli Shear Zone that passes through and Santosh (1998), Ramasamy et al. (1999), Chetty the study area, trend of basic dykes and pyroxene granulitic et al. (2003), Bhaskar Rao et al. (2003), Chetty and Bhaskar bands which are all oriented in almost NE–SW direction. Rao (2006) and Tirukumaran (2013). The predominant e a Th nalysis of orientation of lineaments of different orientation of the lineaments of the study almost cor- sizes (Figure 8(a)–(c)) shows distinct size-wise prefer- roborates with the results of several regional studies on ential orientation. North–south direction is found to lineaments (Balaji, 2010; Rakshit & Prabhakar Rao, 1989; be the predominant orientation of very short and short Subramanian & Mani, 1979; Tirukumaran, 2013) and lineaments in addition to NE–SW direction of the later. with the orientation of a number of prominent geological Moderate-sized lineaments are oriented predominantly GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 101 d) Orientation of Long Lineaments e) Orientation of Very Long Lineaments Figure 8. (Continued) in three directions which includes NE–SW, ENE–WSW This data can serve as a valuable input in evolving strat- and E–W, while longer and very longer lineaments are egies towards developmental and management planning predominantly oriented in ENE–WSW direction. Thus, of this natural resource-rich hill which is facing threats with increasing lineament size the predominant orienta- from anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the analysis tion changes from N–S to NE–SW towards ENE–WSW. of lineament number, length and predominant orienta- e a Th nalysis of the orientation of lineaments extracted tion from eight different azimuth angles and the com- individually from eight different azimuth angles reveals piled final lineament output clearly shows that extraction that NE–SW-oriented lineaments are predominant in of lineaments from any single azimuth angle, which most of the azimuth angles which includes 90°, 135°, 270°, has been the widely followed practice, is inadequate to 315° and 360°. In two azimuth angles viz., 135° and 225°, provide a reliable account of the lineaments. The study the predominant orientation is N–S. In case of 45° and further underlines the need to extract lineaments from 180° azimuth angles, the lineaments are predominantly varied azimuth angles and their compilation, for getting oriented in WNW–ESE and NW–SE directions, respec- a reliable database of lineaments. tively. 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Apr 3, 2018
Keywords: Pachamalai hills; lineaments; CARTOSAT DEM
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