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JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING https://doi.org/10.1080/13467581.2022.2049276 Measuring the accessibility of metro stations in Tianjin: an origin-destination approach a b Tao Wu and Ye Zhou a b School of Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China; Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Wave Information Technology and Metrology of Zhejiang Province, College of Information Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 10 November 2020 The achievement of good spatial accessibility is one of the supreme goals for metro transit Accepted 21 February 2022 planners. While many studies have measured either the accessibility of metro networks or walk accessibility of metro stations, the literature provides limited knowledge for metro station KEYWORDS accessibility evaluations integrating both in the context of the origin-destination pair. The Metro stations; by-metro present study fills this gap through the use of a set of integrated measures that consider both accessibility; to-metro by-metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility in combination and explores accessibility- accessibility; space syntax based typology among stations. The space syntax is used to conduct the measure models for each dimension (by-metro and to-metro), and typology among stations is divided by an SOM (self-organizing map). The new approach is applied to the case of Tianjin, China. We find that the by-metro accessibility declines from the urban centre to the outskirts of the city and depends mainly on the location in the metro network and the topological depth from the transfer stations. However, the to-metro accessibility varies widely and depends on the street network structure in the station catchment area. Six typologies are identified among stations based on the different characteristics of by-metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility. CONTACT Tao Wu email@example.com School of Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; Ye Zhou firstname.lastname@example.org Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Wave Information Technology and Metrology of Zhejiang Province, College of Information Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the Architectural Institute of Japan, Architectural Institute of Korea and Architectural Society of China. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2 W. TAO AND Z. YE 1. Introduction With the increase in the sustainability concerns, accessi- different understandings and interpretations of the bility becomes a central issue in the analysis of sustain- definition of accessibility, depending on the specific able transport and urban development. Enhancing application. Hansen first put forward the concept of accessibility may help reduce automobile usage and accessibility in 1959 and defined it as “potential of relieve contemporary urban and regional problems. As opportunities for interaction” (Hansen 1959). shown by many scholars that metros are the backbone Niemeier (1997) defined accessibility as the capabil- of the public transport system (Currie and Delbosc 2011; ity/ease with which desired destinations may be Hansson et al. 2021), the measures of metro accessibility reached from an original location using a particular have been the central of attraction. Steg (2003) found transport system (Niemeier 1997). In the field of that people consider travelling by train more positively metro system, accessibility is mainly explained in rela- than bus (Steg 2003). In general, the better accessibility tion to metro stations, representing people’s ability to a metro station has, the more ridership it attracts and reach destinations by metro (Van Wee 2016). the more opportunities for integration of transport with Moniruzzaman and Páez (2012) contended the ease land use. In turn, more passengers and higher land use- of reaching attractive destinations by metro system driven demand can strengthen the functionality of and the ease of entering the system are two important a metro station, thus further improving the urban spatial factors that must be considered to analyze metro structure (Cervero and Kockelman 1997). accessibility (Moniruzzaman and Páez 2012). Actually, two levels of mobility should be studied in Therefore, metro accessibility can be defined as the measuring the accessibility of metro systems. The first integration of by-metro accessibility and to-metro one is metro network mobility, or “by-metro accessi- accessibility. bility”. The by-metro accessibility means the ease of reaching other stations from a given station by the metro system. It is commonly measured by the level 2.2. Measures of metro accessibility of metro service, including headway frequency, travel Numerous empirical studies have focused on the time/distance, number of transfers, and number of methods of measuring by-metro accessibility, depend- reachable stations within a specific travel time (Ato ing on how the metro system of concern is described Xu et al. 2018; Yang et al. 2020). The second one is as a network. Two major categories of by-metro mea- the pedestrian or bike mobility, or “to-metro accessi- surement can be identified in the literature: geometry bility”. The to-metro accessibility means the ease of based and topology based (Li et al. 2017). Geometry- reaching a station from a giving location. It is generally based measures represent the geometrical structure of measured by the level of first/last mile service around transport system, including gravity method, opportu- stations, such as travel time/distance to a station, nity method, utility method and space-time method length/width of sidewalks, and intersection density (Kelobonye et al. 2019). Different from geometry-based (Lahoorpoor and Levinson 2020; Yang et al. 2020). measures, topology-based measures describe the The main purpose of this study is to purpose topological structure of transport system, and repro- a set of integrated measures that consider by- duce the spatial scale by the connection between the metro accessibility and the to-metro accessibility nodes. As passengers usually have a vague perception together in order to evaluate and classify metro of the space and distance while taking the metro, they system’s performance. To attain this purpose, the pay more attention to the number of stations passed next section will review the relevant literature on and the transfer experience between different lines. accessibility in transportation studies. In the metho- Therefore, the topological structure instead of the dology section, a set of standardized by-metro actual travel distance can better quantifies the by- accessibility and to-metro accessibility measures metro accessibility (Li et al. 2017). Zhang et al. (2011) are introduced to draw the integrated model for analysed the topology network of the Shanghai metro the accessibility-based typology. This is followed system, with each station regarded as a node and all by an empirical illustration for these concepts nodes connected according to the complex network using Tianjin metro system as a case study. The (Zhang et al. 2011). Chopra et al. (2016) analysed the last section briefly concludes. topology structure of the London metro system with the space l metric (Chopra et al. 2016). Zhou et al. proposed an improved method for topology network 2. Literature review based on space syntax and took the Guangfo metro 2.1. Definition of metro accessibility system as an example to demonstrate the effective - ness of this method for spatial morphology, evolution Accessibility, a crucial concept in the field of sustain- and prediction of metro network accessibility distribu- able transport and urban development science, has tion (Zhou et al. 2015). been used widely. Researchers have presented JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 3 Besides by-metro accessibility, a key focus interest accessibility has only recently begun to receive atten- for metro accessibility is to-metro accessibility, defined tion. Monajem and Ekram Nosratian (2015) found that as the ease of reaching a station by walking. The metro the continuous and dense spatial configuration of the can become the preferred transport option if to-metro street network in station areas is associated with an accessibility is improved (Bivina, Gupta, and Parida increase in the variety and intensity of activities, an 2019). To-metro accessibility is mainly influenced by increase in the workforce and better accessibility to factors relating to the design and built environment the station by attracting greater pedestrian movement (Cervero et al. 2009; Vale, Viana, and Pereira 2018). (Monajem and Ekram Nosratian 2015). A recent study These factors include travel time/distance to conducted in Tehran, Iran, investigated walking poten- a station, length/width of sidewalks, quality of side- tial by measuring spatial specifications and spatial walks, and intersection density. Hoback et al. concen- parameters of street networks around metro stations trated on travel distance and travel time to metro using space syntax and found that integration and stations (Hoback, Anderson, and Dutta 2008). choice value together affected pedestrian accessibility Olszewski and Wibowo (2005) determined that urban (Pezeshknejad, Monajem, and Mozafari 2020). design and sidewalk provisions influenced the accessi- In the past studies, metro accessibility are mainly bility to transit stations. Bivina et al. classified built modeled using a single measure, either by-metro environment factors that facilitate to-metro accessibil- accessibility or to-metro accessibility. While in fact ity into two scales: macroscale and microscale (Bivina, metro stations may have different features of by- Gupta, and Parida 2020). The connectivity of street as metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility which a significant factor that influences to-metro calling for an integrated measure considering both of Figure 1. Framework of metro accessibility evaluation. 4 W. TAO AND Z. YE them in the context of the origin-destination pair. module is described in more detail in Section 3.2. In Space syntax, one of the widely used topology-based module (b), an axis model of space syntax is employed measures, can measure both the by-metro accessibility to measure to-metro accessibility using the topology and to-metro accessibility, which is very suitable for feature of the street in the station catchment; this the development of this study. module is described in more detail in Section 3.3. By integrating by-metro accessibility and to-metro acces- sibility according to node-place model, all the metro 2.3. Accessibility-based typology stations in the study area are evaluated and classified into different typologies by the SOM in module (c); this Understanding the by-metro accessibility and to-metro module is described in more detail in Section 3.4. accessibility features of metro stations can reveal their context-specific structure. Accessibility-based typology assists in this process, as it can cluster metro stations that share common characteristics. This helps 3.1. Space syntax method policymakers and planners not only develop remedial In this paper, the space syntax analysis previously used actions to existing situation, but also formulate more by Monajem and Ekram Nosratian (2015) over spatial targeted strategies for specific station types. parameters is revised and optimized. The space syntax The node-place model, developed by Bertolini (1996, method was developed by Hillier and Hanson, and 1999) (Bertolini 1996, 1999), provides an analytical fra- a series of subsequent works has been applied to mework through which to develop a quantitative sta- urban space, street networks and complex buildings tion typology (Rodríguez and Kang 2020). The model (Hillier, Yang, and Turner 2012; Su et al. 2019). There summaries stations’ characteristics with regard to two are three basic concepts: convex space, axial map, and aspects, transit stations (“node”) and their catchment isovist field, depending on how the space is segmen- area (“place”). Based on the node and place values, ted (Noichan and Dewancker 2018). This research uses stations can be classified into five categories. the convex space method to analyse the by-metro Monajem and Ekram Nosratian (2015) has done accessibility and the axis method to analyse the to- a pioneer study by combining the node-place model metro accessibility. with the spatial configuration of the street network to The space syntax model abstracts the interrelation- evaluate and classify station area in Tehran. With ship of spaces into connection graphs (Hillier et al. reference to the notion of metro accessibility and 1976). According to the principle of graph theory, the building on the work of Monajem and Ekram topological analysis of the spatial accessibility of the Nosratian (2015), we consider by-metro accessibility axis or feature nodes is carried out, and a series of as the node value of metro stations, while to-metro morphological analysis variables are derived (Li accessibility as the place value of metro stations. et al. 2017). Accessibility of space is measured through the concepts of integration and choice of the axis or nodes. Integration plays an important 3. Methodology role in understanding how urban systems operate, reflecting the convenience of the movements from To develop and implement our integrated measures of an origin to the destination in the system (Hillier metro accessibility, the present study has three major 1998). As a result, a station with a greater integra- objectives: (a) the by-metro accessibility measure mod- tion degree in the metro network has a better ule, (b) the to-metro accessibility measure module, and chance of being chosen as a destination by passen- (c) the accessibility-based typology module, as shown gers and a better by-metro accessibility index. in Figure 1. Additionally, a station with a more integrated street As shown in Figure 1, a convex space model of network in its catchment area has better walkability space syntax is utilized to extract topology features and a better to-metro accessibility index. for the metro network in module (a). The metro net- According to Hillier (1998), choice value depicts work can be transformed into a topological graph the intervening spaces that must be passed between stations, and the by-metro accessibility is between two points or nodes (Hillier 1998). In this measured by the figure of the integration and choice regard, choice measures the through-movement degree generated by the convex space model; this Table 1. Accessibility factors and their descriptions. Dimension Indicator Explanation of indicators By-metro accessibility Network integration Metro network integration value Network choice Metro network choice value To-metro accessibility Street integration Average integration values after angular choice analysis in a 700 m catchment area Street choice Average choice values after angular choice analysis in a 700 m catchment area JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 5 potential of metro stations, which leads to a better map with the least and longest straight lines, and chance of by-metro accessibility, and the ease with the street network can be abstracted as a relation which a pedestrian can access/egress the station by diagram made up of the axes. the shortest path without too many turns, which As the indicators included in the to-metro acces- leads to better by-metro accessibility. sibility dimension are calculated for the radius for the area within a certain spatial threshold, the out- comes of the measure are, to a certain degree, 3.2. Model for evaluating by-metro accessibility affected by the accepted walking distance access/ egress to the station (Caset, Vale, and Viana 2018). The by-metro accessibility proposed in this paper is Our previous research showed that 600 m is the defined as the ease of passengers completing their desirable radius of walking for a pedestrian from/ trips among origin stations to destination stations to a station in Tianjin. Following Monajem and on the metro network. As passengers usually have Ekram Nosratian (2015), the local metric radius a vague perception of the space and distance while (600 m) is selected to perform angular choice ana- taking the metro, they pay more attention to the lysis, while 100 m is added to the catchment area number of stations passed and the transfer experi- size to reduce the edge effect due to cutting. ence between different lines (Li et al. 2017). To incorporate spatial indices in the to-metro acces- Therefore, the measure is specified with the topolo- sibility index, seven significant steps were performed gical structure of the metro network, and the num- as follows: ber of stations and transfers instead of actual travel 1) Gathering accurate street line data from the distance. The convex space method of space syntax Baidu map. is adopted in this paper to measure by-metro acces- 2) Segregating gathered street maps using ArcGIS in sibility. The basic principle of convex space is to the catchment area (700 m) of metro stations. divide the spatial system into the least and largest 3) Preparing the axial map based on the segregated convex shapes, and each convex shape is regarded street maps. as a node. Then, based on the connection relation- 4) Preparing a fewest-line map based on the ship between nodes, the spatial system can be axial map and processing unwanted lines if transformed into a justified graph, and the syntactic needed. variables of the spatial system can be calculated. In 5) Creating a segment map using the fewest-line general, each station can be abstracted as a node, map to analyse the angular choice. and metro lines are regarded as the connection 6) Performing angular choice analysis with a local between nodes. metric radius (600 m) to determine the street segment To incorporate integration and choice value in the quality around metro stations. by-metro accessibility index, four significant steps are 7) Determining the average integration and choice taken as follows: values in the catchment area (Table 1). 1) Segregating metro station maps using ArcGIS and importing to Depthmap software. 3.4. Accessibility-based typology 2) Preparing convex space maps with the connec- tion of metro stations. Cluster analysis is then applied to obtain classes of 3) Performing global integration analysis (Rn) to metro stations under the framework of node-place define how one node is positioned with respect to model. By-metro accessibility presents the node the system as a whole. value, while to-metro accessibility presents the place 4) Determining the integration and choice values of value. Cluster analysis facilitates the identification of each station (Table 1). the natural segments of metro stations having com- mon accessibility profiles. Among many clustering techniques, the present study employed the self- 3.3. Model for evaluating to-metro accessibility organizing maps (SOM) algorithm for three reasons. First, it is a powerful clustering tool that is often pre- Although a number of different measures of to- ferred in recent literature; second, it is more efficient metro accessibility have been suggested, the funda- for nonlinear and high-dimensional data; and third, mental idea of to-metro accessibility is to focus on there are no priori knowledge requirements (Delgado the walking environment around the station. In this et al. 2017; Li et al. 2019). Different from traditional study, to-metro accessibility refers to the ease for cluster methods such as K-means and hierarchical clus- passengers to access/egress a given station by walk- tering offering optimum clusters based on statistical ing. Given this definition, streets within the catch- inference, this method is a type of artificial neural net- ment area of metro stations are critical in assessing work inspired by how the cortical somatosensory the to-metro accessibility, and the space syntax axis areas are structured in the brain. With characteristics method is adopted. The axis method draws the axial 6 W. TAO AND Z. YE of self- orga- niza- tion, self- learn- ing, fault toler- ance and adap- tabi- lity, the SOM has pro- ven to be a very pow- erful met- hod in terms of build- ing typol- ogy for urba- con- texts (Liu, Singl- eton, and Arrib- as-Bel 2020; Qian et al. 2020- ). In the SOM met- hod, both the Figure 2. Location of metro stations in the central urban area of Tianjin. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 7 Figure 3. Street network in the catchment area of Tianjin’s metro stations. input layer and output layer are composed of urban built area in 2019 (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2020). The metro acts as the a number of neurons, and neurons in these two most essential component of the public transport layers are connected. Therefore, this study con- system in Tianjin. The Tianjin metro system is ducted an SOM analysis of two accessibility factors, China’s second-oldest rapid transport system and namely, by-metro accessibility and to-metro acces- has expanded over 30 times in terms of network sibility, as the determinants. Then, a series of SOMs length since 1984. Currently, it is a hybrid suburban- with different numbers of output neurons were commuter rapid rail transit system with a central trained, and the number was set to 6 (3*2), under underground core that covers over 217 km of which one neuron included similar metro stations. track serving 143 stations over 6 corridors. The daily average passengers reached 1.2 million. Some sections of the network have been expanded to 4. Study area Binhai New District, a new port town. For the pur- pose of this study, only stations in the central urban The present research used the Tianjin metro net- area of Tianjin were considered (Figure 2). We iden- work as a case study. Tianjin, located on the north tified 136 metro stations in the central urban area coast, is one of the four main municipalities of of Tianjin based on the metro map. China, with 15.6 million residents and 1,078 km Figure 4. By-metro and to-metro accessibility of metro stations. 8 W. TAO AND Z. YE The metro network information was downloaded the central area (CBD) of Tianjin, and the centrality is clearly established when four lines formed “口” corridors. from Tianjin Rail Transit Group Corporation Limited. Moreover, the by-metro accessibility gradually decreases The street network data were downloaded from the from the city centre to the periphery/suburb, evidencing Baidu map website. To measure to-metro accessibil- the strong monocentric urban structure of Tianjin. ity, walkable street lines in the maps were consid- Spatially, transfer stations possess higher by-metro ered sidewalks to represent the pedestrian network accessibility, reflecting their greater public transport around stations, as shown in Figure 3. Prior to accessibility, and the top six stations with the best by- performing evaluation and categorization of metro metro accessibility are all transfer stations. In contrast, the accessibility, all indicators were checked for normal- terminal stations present the lowest by-metro accessibil- ity, and all relationships followed the expected ity. The by-metro accessibility of the general stations directions. Simultaneously, following Suarez-Alvarez ranges widely and depends on their locations in the net- et al. (2012), all of the indicators were rescaled to work and topological depth from the transfer stations. In values between zero and one (Suarez-Alvarez et al. addition, the by-metro accessibility of the stations within 2012). The by-metro accessibility and to-metro the metro lines 5 and 6 loop is fairly good, reflecting that accessibility were calculated by the average of all a loop line will contribute greatly to an increase in the by- indicators referring to them. metro accessibility of the network, and overall, it presents a declining rating-circle structure. 5. Results 5.2. To-metro accessibility evaluation 5.1. By-metro accessibility evaluation The stations within the core urban area have the high- As shown in Figure 4, higher by-metro accessibility values est to-metro accessibility. There are well-integrated, were observed for the stations within the core urban continuous and dense street networks around these metro network. The metro network has evolved around stations, which leads to a better chance of walking to the metro by passengers and for more activities to Table 2. Cluster description summary. occur in their catchment area. Nanjing Road Clusters Pedestrian Street has played a positive role in improv- Indices 1 2 3 4 5 6 By-metro accessibility 0.171 0.431 0.657 0.185 0.521 0.735 ing the to-metro accessibility of stations around the To-metro accessibility 0.114 0.275 0.447 0.391 0.571 0.696 CBD. Although there is an evident difference between Number of stations 29 21 24 12 25 25 Figure 5. Accessibility-based typologies among metro stations in Tianjin. JOURNAL OF ASIAN ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING ENGINEERING 9 city centre stations and those in the suburbs, they do Stations of cluster 4 are located on the outer area of not show an obvious decrease from the city centre to the metro network. The stations in cluster 4 have simi- the suburbs like the by-metro accessibility. lar to-metro accessibility as those in cluster 3. While Then we calculate the average to-metro accessi- they had the lowest value of by-metro accessibility bility of all stations in each line. Metro Line 1 exhi- similar to cluster 1. The by-metro accessibility condi- bits the highest to-metro accessibility value (0.69). tions of these stations are lower than they should be in With more than 30 years of operation, the infra- terms of adequately matching the travel demand aris- structure is truly good, and the street network is ing from their feature of to-metro accessibility. This well connected along the corridor. Metro line 2 requires more transportation development to meet (0.57) and metro line 9 (0.56) are just above the region-driven demand. average, while metro line 6 (0.53) is just below the Cluster 5 presents stations with well-balanced by- average. Metro line 3 (0.50) and metro line 5 (0.51) metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility. These present the worst to-metro accessibility values, with stations lie in the periphery of the inner urban area. many undeveloped areas and a lack of pedestrian The station areas are characterized by well-planned streets at the ends of these two lines. street networks and proximity to metro stations. Many stations in the northern section of metro line 1 belong to this type. With more than twenty years of 5.3. Accessibility-based typology development, these regions have well-connected streets and good infrastructure. The SOM cluster analysis is then applied among by- Cluster 6 is analogous to cluster 5 with well- metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility com- balanced by-metro accessibility and to-metro accessi- bined indices. A series of SOM with different number bility but higher values on both by-metro accessibility of output neurons have been trained and the number and to-metro accessibility. Cluster 6 includes stations is set to 6 (3*2), and the model identified six types of with the highest value in by-metro accessibility and to- metro stations. In order to interpret the distinguishing metro accessibility, and coordinated development features of these types, Table 2 reports the descriptive between transport and catchment areas is realized. statistics of the two indices for each types. Figure 5 These stations lie in the central and historic neighbour- illustrates the spatial distributions of typology for the hoods of the city and on the inner area of the metro accessibility of metro stations in Tianjin. The majority network. Although these areas are under stress, they of stations were in cluster 1 (29 stations), followed by operate at maximum efficiency. cluster 5 and cluster 6 (all are 25 stations). Twenty-four stations were classified in cluster 3, and 21 stations were classified in cluster 2. Cluster 4 comprised the 5.4. Accessibility optimization fewest stations (12 stations). Stations in cluster 1 are located in the periphery of The accessibility-based typologies distinguished in the study area and on the fingers of the metro system, this study provide valuable insights for accessibility comprising the lowest by-metro accessibility and to- oriented development. The distinctive characteristics metro accessibility scores. Some stations, such as the among accessibility-based typologies highlight that South Railway, Xiaodian, and Nansunzhuang at the the traditional one-size-fits-all approach is inappropri- ends of metro lines possess an unplanned and unde- ate and that planners, designers and policymakers veloped urban structure with few street networks. should develop a set of targeted strategies for each Cluster 2 includes stations with medium by-metro type. For instance, these stations in C2 and C3 are accessibility (slightly lower than average) but low to- characterized by high levels of by-metro accessibility, metro accessibility. These stations located not far but show lower level of to-metro accessibility. For away from the transfer stations, but lacks adequate stations in C2 and C3, strategies could therefore functional connectivity to stations by walking for local focus on increasing the connectivity of street network neighbourhoods. Establishing pedestrian-friendly street and improving walkability to match their already high networks around these stations will greatly promote the by-metro accessibility. The characteristics of stations accessibility of these stations. in C4, suggest a different set of strategies. Their to- Cluster 3 includes stations with high by-metro metro accessibility is medium, but their by-metro accessibility but medium to-metro accessibility. They accessibility is relatively low, suggesting that improv- lie between the inner and outer periphery of the city ing the transportation supply is a more logical strat- core and on the inner area of the metro network. The egy toward much balanced situation. Although transfer stations in the periphery of the core urban area characterized by lowest both by-metro accessibility mainly belong to this type. This indicates that the and to-metro accessibility, stations in C1 can consti- density and connectivity of the street network around tute proper development in the future and should be these stations should be improved to achieve coordi- given extra attention. For stations in C5 and C6, the nated development like cluster 6. existing high by-metro accessibility and to-metro 10 W. TAO AND Z. YE accessibility provide golden opportunities for the a better understanding and representation of metro evolution of sustainable balanced metro stations(Su accessibility. The similar characteristics of metro sta- et al. 2021). tions for different clusters can potentially help policy- makers develop sustainable stations by providing new strategies to balance between by-metro accessibility 6. Conclusion and to-metro accessibility for each cluster. The study has some limitations. First, in our by-metro Although there are many methods for measuring metro accessibility analysis, only the variations in network station accessibility, a comprehensive measure is often topology were considered, and other relevant variables, required in metro network planning. A single measure, such as running speed and daily frequency of metro either accessibility by-metro or accessibility to-metro, service, were not investigated. Second, the defined uncovers different aspects of the metro system charac- catchment area size may not be mutually exclusive teristics, and the results are often different, which makes because the buffers may overlap. Despite such weak- it hard for planners and decision-makers to draw nesses, this paper demonstrated a new and powerful a conclusion. With a focus on origin-destination pairs, methodology for evaluating and classifying the accessi- this paper simultaneously considered by-metro accessi- bility of metro stations based on the origin-destination bility and to-metro accessibility and proposed pair and will likely be a useful framework for other cities. a multimodal measurement to analyse the integration of metro networks and walkability access/egress to metro stations. Space syntax was used to establish mod- els for measuring by-metro accessibility and to-metro Disclosure statement accessibility. The paper also developed an accessibility- No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s). based typology using the node-place model and SOM algorithm to examine the relationships between by- metro accessibility and to-metro accessibility. Funding By-metro accessibility aims to evaluate the rational- This work was supported by the National Natural Science ity of the metro network layout. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Mar 4, 2023
Keywords: Metro stations; by-metro accessibility; to-metro accessibility; space syntax
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