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International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 2013 Vol. 9, No. 4, 330–338, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2013.841757 Medicinal plant usage by traditional medical practitioners of rural villages in Chuadanga district, Bangladesh a a a b M. Mizanur Rahman *, Gazi Ziaul Haque Masum , Priyanka Sharkar and Shamima Nasrin Sima a b Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003, Bangladesh; Department of Botany, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh Traditional medical practitioners (Kavirajes) administer primary health care to most of the rural population in Bangladesh. They use medicinal plants for various formulations to treat ailments. The medicinal plants used by the traditional medical practitioners vary considerably from region to region. The objectives of this study were to identify native medicinal plants and their ethno-medicinal use among the traditional medical practitioners of Chuadanga district, Bangladesh. After obtaining informed consent, interviews were conducted with the Kavirajes with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Plant specimens, as pointed out by respondents, were collected and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The results show 119 plant species belonging to 64 families were used by the traditional medical practitioners for treatment of various ailments. The most frequently used families were Asteracea with six species followed by Moraceae, Solanaceae and Apocynaceae with five species. Among the selected species the maximum contribution was recorded for herbs with 38% species followed by trees (32%), shrubs (21%), climbers (7%) and palm (2%). Assessments of reported ethno-medicinal activity indicate that these plant species can potentially be of pharmacological interest as well as for conservation of biodiversity. Keywords: medicinal plants; Kavirajes; ethno-medicinal; cultivation; conservation biodiversity Introduction traditional medical practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes (Ghani 1998). Medicinal plants serve as important therapeutic agents as There are over 87,000 villages in Bangladesh and most well as valuable raw material for manufacturing numerous villages have one or two practicing Kavirajes. Knowledge traditional and modern medicines. They offer alternative of the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes of remedies with tremendous opportunities to generate Bangladesh can be a good source for further scientific income, employment and earn foreign currencies for studies in the quest for better drugs from the medicinal developing countries (Rawat & Uniyal 2004). Many tradi- plants used and with lesser side effects. Previous ethno- tional healing herbs and their parts have been shown to medicinal studies conducted among traditional and tribal have medicinal value and can be used to prevent, alleviate medical practitioners in Bangladesh have noticed consid- or cure several human diseases. It is estimated that 70– erable variation between the medicinal plants selected by 80% of people worldwide rely chiefly on traditional, lar- different Kavirajes for treatment of a given ailment gely herbal medicine to meet their primary health-care (Nawaz et al. 2009; Hasan et al. 2010; Hossan et al. needs (Farnsworth & Soejarto 1991; Shengji 2001). It 2010; Mollik, Hassan, et al. 2010; Mollik, Hossan, et al. has further been observed that a number of modern phar- 2010; Rahmatullah, Ferdausi, et al. 2010; Rahmatullah, maceuticals have been derived from plants used by indi- Khatun, et al. 2010; Jahan et al. 2011). These variations genous people (Balick & Cox 1996; Rahmatullah, Azam, exist even between Kavirajes practicing in adjoining vil- et al. 2010). Important modern drugs that have been lages with identical flora. derived from observations of traditional curing methods Chuadanga is a district in southwestern Bangladesh, of indigenous people include aspirin, atropine, ephedrine, with an area of 1157.42 km . The entire Chuadanga dis- digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine trict lies within the Ganges Delta, with rivers (Gilani & Rahman 2005; Rahmatullah, Azam, et al. 2010). Mathabhanga, Bhairab, Kumar, Chitra and Nabaganga In Bangladesh, medicinal plants are found grown natu- flowing through the district. The majority of the area is rally in forests, bushes and marginal land along the canal agricultural land. Total cultivable land amounts to and in other places. A long tradition of indigenous herbal 894.20 km , of which 57% is under some sort of irrigation medicinal systems, based on the rich local plant diversity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuadanga_District). The is considered a very important component of the primary remaining uncultivated area and riversides are rich in health-care system. Among the various systems of tradi- biodiversity. Although this region was found to be a rich tional medicine co-existing within the country are the source of medicinal plants, no systematic study has been homoeopathic, ayurvedic, unani and the traditional medi- conducted yet. Therefore, the objective of the present cal system. The latter system is practiced by folk or *Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com © 2013 Taylor & Francis International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 331 study was to conduct an ethno-medicinal survey among recorded for herbs with 45 species (39%) followed by the traditional medical practitioners of villages in the trees with 38 species (32%), shrubs with 25 species Chuadanga district. (21%), climbers with 9 species (7%) and palms with 2 species (2%). Most of the plant species were found to be for ornamental (36%), fruit growth (33%) or timber (31%) Methods and materials purposes. Plant parts used for medicinal purposes were whole Study area plant (35%), leaf (24%), fruit (13%), bark (8%), root The study was conducted in Chuadanga district, in the (4%), seed (4%), stem (3%), rhizome (3%), latex (2%), southwestern part of Bangladesh. We conducted surveys gum (2%) and tuber (1%). Most plants were used to among traditional medical practitioners of 16 villages in alleviate complaints related to cold, cough, fever, Alamdanga Upazilla and Sadar Upazilla under the district. asthma, diarrhoea and dysentery, diabetes, skin disease Eight villages in Chuadanga Sadar Upazilla were included: and sexual diseases. Chayghoria, Vanderdaho, Bohalgasi, Khezurtala, 58.6% of the respondents were found to collect Songkorchandro, Jugirhudar, Fulbari and Borosolo. The medicinal plants species from riverside and roadside. Alamdanga villages were Sorajgong, Boalia, Kutubpur, On the other hand, 20.7%, 13.8%, and 6.7% of the Jalibila, Subdia, Belekhandi, Gholdari and Hossenpur. respondents collected medicinal plants from local mar- Villages were randomly selected. It was observed that ket, nursery sources and neighbour’s house, respec- traditional medical practitioners of that area often collect tively. In the study area, we found that amloki, arjun, their raw materials from these villages. helencha, shefali, lajjaboti, hatishur, bot and bel are likely to be threatened, in accordance with WWF and IUCN, 1994–1997 (Table 1). Data collection Data were collected through personal interviews by the researchers themselves during 25 May to 25 July 2012, Discussion using questionnaires prepared earlier. The villages had Medicinal plants grow naturally around us. Medicinal nine traditional medical practitioners. The practitioners plants have been used by humans since prehistoric times were told in detail as to the nature and purpose of the (Rahman et al. 2011). Over centuries, cultures around survey and consent was particularly obtained to dissemi- the world have learned how to use plants to fight illness nate the survey results in national or international publica- and maintain health. Exploitation of medicinal and aro- tions. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a matic plants as pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, fla- semi-structured questionnaire and the guided fieldwork vourings, perfumes and cosmetics, and other natural method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this products has greatly increased globally (Rao & Arora method, the practitioners took the interviewers on guided 2004;Khanetal. 2009). It is estimated that 70–80% of field tours through areas from where they collected their people worldwide (Shengji 2001), with the use of 20% medicinal plants, pointed out the plants and described their of drugs in modern allopathic medicine (Uddin et al. uses. All information provided during daytime field tours 2008), rely mainly on traditional herbal medicine to were later double-checked with the practitioners in eve- meet their primary health-care needs. These readily ning sessions. Interviews were conducted in the Bengali available and culturally important traditional medicines language, which was very well spoken and understood by form the basis of an accessible and affordable health- the traditional practitioners. Plant specimens as pointed out care regime and are an important source of livelihood by the practitioners were collected and dried and sent to for indigenous and rural populations. Continuous and Dhaka for identification to the Bangladesh National overuse of the medicinal plants in drugs has resulted Herbarium, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh. The medic- in decline in their numbers. Therefore, there is a need to inal plant voucher specimens’ numbers are DACB37960– conserve medicinal plants on the basis of ethno-botani- DACB38077. cal knowledge gained through local people (Said 1994). Leaves and roots generally form the most frequently used plant parts in traditional medicine (Giday et al. Results 2003; Wondimu et al. 2007). Our survey results indi- The recognized medicinal plants and their ethno-medicinal cated a similar statement of plant parts used in this area, uses along with accession number, common name, family where leaves formed 24% of the total uses. Whole plant name, life form and part used are summarized in Table 1. formed 35% of the uses, while fruits and roots used A total of 119 medicinal plants belonging to 64 families formed 14% and 4%, respectively, of the total uses. were recognized. Major families contributing plant species The amount of medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes towards treatment of various diseases included the of this area are reported in the traditional medicinal sys- Apocynaceae, Combretaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, tems to be effective against cough and cold, fever, asthma, Euphorbiaceae, Piperaceae and Poaceae families. Among jaundice, bronchitis, diarrhoea and dysentery, skin dis- the medicinal plants, the maximum contribution was eases, cuts and wounds, joint pain, headache, digestive 332 M.M. Rahman et al. Table 1. Characteristics of medicinal plants obtained from the folk medicinal practitioners of 16 villages in study area. Scientific name Family name Local name Life form Accession number Part used Medicinal uses Andrographis paniculata Acanthaceae Kalomegh S DACB37960 WP Whole plants are used in diabetes, cholera, dysentery, (Burm.F.) constipation and liver complaints. Abutilon indicum L Rutaceae Bel* T DACB37961 F Fruit pulp is used for diarrhoea and dysentery. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Fabaceae Khayar T DACB37962 B Bark powder and paste are used for intestinal pain and skin diseases. Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae Fulkuri H DACB37963 WP Leaves and stems are used boiled as purgative, febrifuge, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, analgesic, antidiarrhoeic, anti- inflammatory, against colic and for headache relief. Leaves are used for skin disease. Flower buds cure cancerous growth. Aloe barbadensis Mill. Aloaceae Gheetokumari H DACB37964 L Leaf is used for stomach disorders, lung disease and skin burns. Acacia nilotica L. Mimosaceae Babla T DACB37965 L Leaf is used for eucoderma and gonorrhoea. Areca catechu L. Arecaceae Supari T DACB37966 R Root paste cure toothache. Aegle marmelos L. Malvaceae Potari S DACB37967 WP Whole plants are used for cough, fever, stones in bladder and piles. Averrhoacar ambola L. Oxalidaceae Kamranga T DACB37968 F Fruit pulp is used for dandruff, cold and cough. Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Kathal T DACB37969 G Gum is used to dry haemorrhoids and cracked heels. Lam. Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Satamuli H DACB37970 R Tuberous roots are used as tonic, aphrodisiac and demulcent. Willd. Alstonias cholaris L. Apocynaceae Chatim T DACB37971 B Bark is used for swellings of mouth, scurvy and ulcer. Anthocephalus chinensis Rubiaceae Kodom T DACB37972 L Leaf juices cure fever. (Lam.) Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Neem T DACB37973 WP Various parts of the plant are used in inflammation of gums, sores, fever, gingivitis, spleen complaints, tumours and smallpox. Borassus flabellifer (L.) Arecaceae Tal P DACB37974 F Fruit juices are used to treat coughs and pulmonary inffection. Achyranthes aspera L. Amaranthae Apang H DACB37975 WP Whole plants are used in pneumonia, coughs, kidney stone, colic and piles. Abroma augusta L.f. Sterculiaceae Ulotkombol T DACB37976 B Bark paste is given for menstrual problems and urinary troubles. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Scorphulariace Braham H DACB37977 WP Plant juice is given orally as memory enhancer, diuretic and Pennel cardiac tonic. Boerhaavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae Punarnav, H DACB37978 WP Root and leaf juice is effective as diuretic and dropsy. Leaves Gandhaprna and roots are also useful in ascites ophthalmia, gonorrhoea, jaundice and anaemia. Adhatoda vasica Nees. Acanthaceae Basak S DACB37979 WP The root, bark and leaves are used in asthma and cough. Bambusa arundinacea Poaceae Bans T DACB37980 WP Root, stem and leaf are useful in joint pains, leucoderma and (Retz.) Willd cough, cold, respectively. Blumea lacera (Burn.f.) Asteraceae Shealmoti H DACB37981 WP Leaf juice is used for bronchitis and bleeding piles. Roots and DC. rhizomes are useful in cholera and dysentery. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Brassicaceae KaloSarisha H DACB37982 Se Powdered seeds are used as rubefacient and vesicant. Buettneria pilosa Roxb Sterculiaceae Harjora C DACB37983 St Paste of stem used on fractured bones. Borreria articularis (L. F.) Rubiaceae Madnabata H DACB37984 WP Whole plants are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery and F. N. Will. inflammation of eye. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 333 Bombax ceiba L. Bombacaceae Shimul T DACB37985 R Root decoction is given as anti-dysenteric tonic and in urinary troubles. Catharanthus roseus (L.) Apocynaceae Noyontara H DACB37986 L Leaf pastes are used for diabetes, fungal infection and cancer. G. Don Centella asiatica (L) Apiaceae Thankoni H DACB37987 WP Whole plant is given for leprosy, skin diseases and mental disorder. Leaf juices are useful for indigestion. Calotropis gigantean (L) Asctopiadaceae Akand S DACB37988 WP Extracts of roots and leaves are given for skin diseases, W.T abdominal tumours, syphilis, leprosy, piles and insect bites. Canna indica L. Cannaceae Kalaboti H DACB37989 WP Roots are used in fevers and dropsy. Seed juice and rhizome are given in curing earaches and ringworm, respectively. Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Papa S DACB37990 La Latex is used for blood dysentery and fever. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. Rutaceae Labu S DACB37991 L Leaves are chewed to expel intestinal worms. Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae Kachamorich H DACB37992 F Fruit is given for gastric problems and ulcer. Convolvulus obscurus L. Convolvulaceae Ban kalmi C DACB37993 L Leaf juices cure aphthous affection. Coccinia grandis (L.) Cucurbitaceae Telakachu C DACB37994 L Leaf juices are used for diabetes, hypertension and indigestion. Carissa carandas L. Apocynaceae Koromcha T DACB38075 F Fruits are given for cold and cough. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Poaceae Durba grass C DACB3795 WP Plant pastes and juice are used for curing wounds, earache and Pers. cuts. Roots are used for bleeding piles and indigestion. Cissus quadrangularis L. Vitaceae Harjod S DACB37996 WP Whole plants are used for bone fractures. Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae Mutha gas H DACB37997 Tu Tuber infusion with sugar or salt is given orally in dysentery. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb Fabaceae Shissu T DACB37998 WP Bark and leaf juice are used for diarrhoea, dysentery and gonorrhoea. Datura metel L. Solanaceae Dhutura H DACB37999 WP Seeds, leaves and roots are used for fever with catarrh, skin diseases, diarrhoea and cerebra. Dillenia indica L. Dilleniaceae Chalta T DACB38000 F Fruits are used as sex stimulant. Dendrophthoe falcate Loranthaceae Manda T DACB38001 B Barks are given for skin diseases, menstrual problems and (L.f) Etting. asthma. Diplazium esculentum Woodsiaceae Dhekishak S DACB38002 L Leaves and stems are cooked and eaten as vegetable for fevers. (Retz.) Euphorbia tirucalli L. Euphorbiaceae Latadaona T DACB38003 St Stem is useful in whooping cough, asthma, gonorrhoea, enlarged spleen, leprosy and dyspepsia. Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Ada H DACB38004 Rh Rhizomes are used for coughing, cold, bronchial infections, Roscoe fever, indigestion and constipation. Eclipta prostrata L. Asteraceae Kesraj H DACB38005 L Leaf juices are given orally for bronchitis, night blindness and hair fall. Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae Kochuripana H DACB38006 WP Whole plant juice is given orally for fevers and goitre. (M.) Solms Euphorbia antiquorum L Euphorbiaceae Bojbaran S DACB38007 La Latexes are used for toothache, rheumatism and nervine diseases. Enhydra fluctuans Lour Asteraceae Helencha* H DACB38008 WP Whole plant parts are used for treating inflammation and biliousness. Foeniculum vulgare Mill Apiaceae Muhori H DACB38009 Se Seed and seed oil cures amenorrhoea, eye diseases, cough, asthma and hook-worms. Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae Dumur S DACB38010 F Fruits are cooked with mustard oil and taken as vegetable in jaundice and diabetes. (Continued) 334 M.M. Rahman et al. Table 1. (Continued). Scientific name Family name Local name Life form Accession number Part used Medicinal uses Ficus rumphii blume. Moraceae Ashok, Pakur T DACB38011 B Juice obtained from crushed bark is taken with honey for haematuria (passing of blood with urine). Ficus hispida L Moraceae Joggodumur T DACB38012 F Fruits are taken for diabetes Ficus benghalenis L. Moraceae Bot* T DACB38013 G Gum is used for curing kidney pain. Flacourtia indica (Burm. Flacourtiaceae Boichi T DACB38014 WP Fruits, bark, root, gum are useful in jaundice and enlarged f.) Merr. spleen, eczema, nephritic colic and cholera. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Apiaceae Panmuhori H DACB38015 Se Seeds are taken for spleen disease, kidney diseases, amenorrhoea, cough and asthma. Gloriosa superb L. Liliaceae Karihari C DACB38016 Rh Rhizome pastes are used orally for ringworms and skin diseases. Glycosmis arborea (R.) Rutaceae Matmati H DACB38017 L Leaf juices are used in treatment of ascaris and liver A. DC. complaints. Gastrochilus longiflorua Zingiberaceae Shoti H DACB38018 Rh Rhizome is applied on forehead to cure cataract. Wall. Heliotropium indicum L. Boraginaceae Hatishur* H DACB38019 L Leaf juices are taken for conjunctivitis. Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Asclepiadaceae Anantamul S DACB38020 R Root pates cure paralysis, leucoderma, asthma and cough. R. Br. Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Rubiaceae Titkuipata H DACB38021 WP Whole plants are used for jaundice and liver complaints. Link. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Malvaceae Jaba S DACB38022 F Flower juice cure acute dysentery and hair fall. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Lamiaceae Tokma H DACB38023 L Leaf pastes are used for tumours and cancer. Poit. Ipomoea batatus (L.) Convolvulaceae Misti alu H DACB38024 WP Whole plants are taken against low fevers and skin diseases and Lamk. roots in strangury and diarrhoea. Ipomoea reptans Poir. Convolvulaceae Kalmishak H DACB38025 WP Whole plant parts are used for different diseases. For example, leaf juice for arsenic poisoning, leaves and seeds for cooling, buds for ringworm, flower for inflamed eyes as a drop and the root juice for diarrhoea. Ixora cuneifolia Roxb. Rubiaceae Musea S DACB38026 L Leaf is given for fevers. Ixora coccinea L. Rubiaceae Rangan S DACB38027 WP Whole plant parts are used in different diseases. For example, root for fever, gonorrhoea, dysentery, flower for bronchitis and leaf for diarrhoea. Ipomoea mauritiana Convolvulaceae Vuikumra S DACB38028 L Leaf is taken for sexual disorders. Jacq. Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae Asuro S DACB38029 L Juice of leaf is inhaled for nose bleeds. Leaf is used to cure asthma and cough. Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Patharkuchi H DACB38030 L Leaf is used for kidney stones, bronchial affections, blood (Lam.) Pers. dysentery, gout and jaundice. Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae Aparajita H DACB38079 L Leaf juices are useful for colds, polyuria (excessive urination) and abdominal pain. Lannea coromandelica Anacardiaceae Jiga T DACB38031 B Bark and leaves are commonly used for diarrhoea, dysentery, (Houtt.) Merr. ulcerative dyspepsia, general debility, gout, cholera, sore eyes, leprosy and bruises, wound, snakebite, stomachache, vaginal troubles, etc. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 335 Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae Tishi H DACB38032 Se Seed and seed oil are used for burns and boils and seed poultice for rheumatic and swellings. Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae Mehedi S DACB38033 L The leaves are emetic, diuretic and given for jaundice. Leucas aspera (Willd.) Lamiaceae Dulfi H DACB38034 WP Plant pastes are taken for snake bite. Leaf juice is used for Link. psoriasis and chronic skin. Lantana aculeata L. Verbenaceae Chotra S DACB38035 L Leaf juice is treatment for measles, malaria and tetanus. Mimosa pudica L. Fabaceae Lajjaboti* H DACB38036 WP Leaf paste is applied on hydrocele. Leaf and root are used in piles. Mimuso pselengi L. Sapotaceae Bokul T DACB38037 B Barks are used for coughs and toothache. Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringaceae Sajnagach T DACB38038 L Leaf juice is taken for diabetes, acidity and hypertension. Musa sapientum L. Musaceae Kola H DACB38039 L Leaf juice is taken for diabetes, diarrhoea, blood purifier, coughs, dysentery and insect bite. Menispermum Menispermaceae Gulancha C DACB38040 WP Whole plant parts are used for curing pimples, gonorrhoea, cordifolium Willd. fever, skin disease and cough. Momordica charantia L. Cucurbitaceae Usta C DACB38041 F Fruits are used for skin disorder, diabetes, cancer and headache. Mesuana gassarium Clusiaceae Nageshwar H DACB38042 F Flowers are used for fever. (Burm. F.) Kosterm. Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae Aam T DACB38043 L Leaves are used for diarrhoea and headache. Nerium indicum Mill. Apocynaceae Korobi S DACB38044 WP Whole plant parts are used for curing different diseases. For example, leaves against itching skin, flowers for headache, scabies, root and root bark for cancer, ulcers, roots and leaf for skin diseases and leprosy. Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae Tamak, Tobacco H DACB38045 L Leaf is used for the treatment of rheumatic swellings and skin diseases. Nigelia sativa L. Ranunculacee Kalojira H DACB38076 Se Seeds are used as purgative drugs; against jaundice, cough and piles. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Oleaceae Shefali* T DACB38046 WP Whole plant parts are used against different diseases. For L. example, leaves in rheumatism, bark in curing bronchitis, flowers to lessen inflammation and seeds for skin diseases. Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaeaceae Shapla H DACB38047 WP Whole plant parts are used to cure different diseases. For Burm. F. example, flower for coughs, bile, vomiting, worms; filament in piles; seeds in cutaneous disease. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Lamiaceae KaloTulsi H DACB38048 WP Whole plant is given for fever, cough, cold, headache, nausea and skin diseases. Opuntia elatior Mill. Cactaceae Phanimansa S DACB38049 WP Whole plants juices are given for whooping cough, asthma and gonorrhoea. Oxalis corniulata L. Oxalidaceae Amrul H DACB38050 WP Whole plant juice is used for fever and anaemia. Piper betel L. Piperaceae Pan, Betel-leaf C DACB38051 L Leaf juice is useful for sexual problems, indigestion, colic, diarrhoea and headache. Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Euphorbiaceae Arboroi, Harbori T DACB38052 F Used for curing bronchitis, biliousness, urinary concretions and piles; useful in case of thirst, vomiting and constipation. Phyllanthus emblica L. Euphorbiaceae. Amaloki* T DACB38053 F Fruits decoction is given orally against sore throat and as tonic. Physalis micrantha link. Solanaceae Phutka H DACB38054 F Fruits decoction is given orally for gonorrhoea and spleen disorder Phoenix sylvestris L. Arecaceae Khajur P DACB38055 L Leaf juices are given for gonorrhoea, cough and fever. Polygonum orientale L. Polygonaceae Bishkatali H DACB38056 WP Whole plants are used for healing wounds. (Continued) 336 M.M. Rahman et al. Table 1. (Continued). Scientific name Family name Local name Life form Accession number Part used Medicinal uses Punicagra natum L. Lythraceae Dalim S DACB38057 B Bark juice is taken for dysentery. Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae Golmorich S DACB38058 F Fruits are used for jaundice, cold, rabies, ulcer, gastric problems and dysentery. Psidium guyava L. Myrtaceae Peyara T DACB38059 WP Young leaf extracts containing antibacterial and antifungal properties are used for diarrhoea and dysentery. Paederia foetida L. Rubiaceae Gondhovadal H DACB38060 L Leaf is used for indigestion, gout and urinary stone. Rauvolfia serpentina Apocynaceae Sarpagandha S DACB38061 R Root infusion is given orally for intestinal disorders. Benth. exKurz Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Bherenda S DACB38062 WP Leaves and seeds paste are used for headache and counter irritant. Santalum album L. Santalaceae Shetchondon T DACB38063 St Stem paste is given orally against dysentery and for enhancing beauty. Shorea robusta C. F. Dipterocarpaceae Shal T DACB38064 B Bark juice is used as eardrop for alleviating earache. Gaertn. Smilax zeylanica L. Smilacaceae Kumrakhata C DACB38065 WP Whole plants are used for sexual problems. Solanum violaceum Orteg Solanaceae Tit baegun H DACB38066 F Fruits are given for curing snake bite and itches. Saccharum officinarum L. Poaceae Kushul, Aakh H DACB38067 St Stem pastes are useful for indigestion and jaundice. Syzygium cumini (L.) Myrtaceae Jam T DACB38068 WP Barks, leaves and seed-powder are given orally to reduce sugar Skeels level in blood. Tamarindus indica L. Caesalpiniaceae Tetul T DACB38069 F Fruits are used for asthma, fever and topically in loss of sensation in paralysis. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Combretaceae Arjun* T DACB38070 B Barks are used for dysentery, low sperm count and heart ex DC.) disease. Terminalia belerica Combretaceae Bohera T DACB38071 WP Bark juices are given orally for cuts, wounds and skin diseases. (Gaertn.) Roxb. Fruit powders are used for colds, coughing and respiratory problems. Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae. Horitoki T DACB38072 WP Barks are used for urinary problems and fruits are given for fevers, colds, coughing and respiratory complaints. Typhonium trilobatum Araceae Ghetkol H DACB38073 WP Whole plants are useful for stomach complaints. (L.) Schott. Vitex negundo L. Vitaceae Nishindah S DACB38074 L Leaf juices are given orally for fevers, coughs, colds, stomach problems and sinusitis. Wedelia chinensis (O.) Asteraceae Kesraj H DACB38077 L Leaf juices are used orally for coughing and colds. Merr. Notes: S – Shrub, H – Herb, T – Tree, P – Palm, C – Climber, WP – Whole Plant, L – Leaf, F – Fruit, Se – Seed, B – Bark, St – Stem, F – Flower, J – Juice, Rh – Rhizome, Tu – Tuber, G – Gum, R – Root, La – Latex. * indicates threatened species. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 337 problems, cancer, skin burns, diabetes, sexual disorders, References etc. However, various parts from the same plant were Adewoye EO, Taiwo VO, Olayioye FA. 2009. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of Musa sapientum root observed to be used to treat different diseases. For exam- extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Afr J Med Med ple, Ipomoea reptans Poir leaf juices are used for arsenic Sci. 38:109–117. poisoning. Ipomoea reptans Poir leaves and seeds are Ahmed F, Urooj A. 2010. In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic taken for cooling and buds remove ringworm. Ipomoea potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark. 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International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management – Taylor & Francis
Published: Dec 1, 2013
Keywords: medicinal plants; Kavirajes; ethno-medicinal; cultivation; conservation biodiversity
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