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International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 3 (2007) 234–251 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India S. S. Samant, Shreekar Pant, Man Singh, Manohar Lal, Ashok Singh, Aman Sharma and Sakshi Bhandari GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Himachal Unit, Himachal Pradesh, India Key words: Medicinal plants, diversity, endemism, Himachal Pradesh, conservation, prioritization SUMMARY Himachal Pradesh, in the Indian Himalaya, has a rich diversity of medicinal plants, which are widely used. This paper brings together existing information with the results from recent field surveys. A total of 643 species of medicinal plants are identified; many differ- ent plant parts are used for the treatment of various ailments. The number of medicinal plant species decreased with increasing altitude. The plants are classified according to nativeness, endemism, and rarity, and prioritized for cultivation. Existing strategies for in-situ and ex-situ conservation, cultivation and propagation are reviewed and a range of actions for cooperative implementation by all stakeholders are suggested. INTRODUCTION The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is a mega hot Pant 2003) and 121 rare-endangered plants (Nayar spot of biological diversity (Myers 2000). It com- and Sastry 1987, 1988, 1990). prises about 18% of India, is more than 2,800 km A large number of studies on medicinal plants long and 220 to 300 km wide, with altitudes from have been carried out in the IHR (Jain 1991; 200–8000 m (Anonymous 1992). The flora in- Samant et al. 1998; Rai et al. 2000). However, in cludes about 8,000 species of angiosperm (40% particular in Himachal Pradesh, such studies are endemic), 44 species of gymnosperm (16% ende- fragmentary and mainly focused on inventory mic), 600 species of pteridophyte (25% endemic), (Chauhan 1988, 1989, 1990, 1996, 1999; Jain 1991; 1737 species of bryophyte (33% endemic), 1,159 Samant et al. 1998, 2001; Badola 2001; Sood et al. species of lichen (11% endemic) and 6,900 species 2001; Badola and Pal 2003, Bhattacharya and of fungi (27% endemic) (Singh and Hajra 1996; Uniyal 1982; Gammie 1898; Kapahi 1990; Rau 1960; Samant et al. 1998). These include some 1748 species Samant and Pant 2006; Kala 2006a). Some workers of medicinal plant with various traditional and mod- (Collett 1902; Chauhan 1989, 1990, 1999; Aswal ern therapeutic uses (Samant et al. 1998), 675 species and Mehrotra 1994; Sharma and Singh 1996; of wild edible plants (Samant and Dhar 1997), 118 Dhaliwal and Sharma 1997, 1999; Sharma and species of medicinal plants yielding essential oils, Dhaliwal 1997a, 1997b; Singh and Rawat 2000; Kaur 279 species of fodder, 155 sacred plants (Samant and and Sharma 2004) have mentioned medicinal uses Correspondence: S. S. Samant, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu-175 126, Himachal Pradesh, India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com 234 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. of plants in ethnobotanical notes, floristic and covers 55,673 km : 9% of the IHR (Figure 1). Like biodiversity studies. other states of the IHR, Himachal Pradesh has a Medicinal plants are used in the Ayurvedic, representative, natural, and socio-economically Unani and other traditional systems of medicine important biodiversity. It has a large altitudinal and in plant-based pharmaceutical industries. The range (200–7109 m), with diverse habitats, species, Tibetan system of medicine is also based on Himala- populations, communities and ecosystems. Tropi- yan species (Samant et al. 1998). Estimates indicate cal vegetation is distributed in the lower parts that at least 90% of medicinal plant species are (Shiwalik hills) of the state and includes broadleaf extracted from the wild (Anonymous 1997); and deciduous and evergreen forests of Shorea robusta, that 69% of the material is collected through Tectona grandis and Dalbergia sissoo. Subtropical veg- destructive harvesting, which suggests that medici- etation ranges from 500 to1800 m and is dominated nal plants are significantly threatened (Dhar et al. by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forests and 2000). Excessive anthropogenic pressures have evergreen coniferous forests of S. robusta, mixed been identified as the main causes of decline in the S. robusta–Pinus roxburghii, mixed Pinus roxburghii– population and availability of the medicinal plants Quercus leucotrichophora and Q. leucotrichophora. in the Himalayan region (Samant et al. 1998). With Temperate vegetation ranges from 1801 to 2800 m increasing demand and renewed global interest in and comprises Cedrus deodara, Aesculus indica, Alnus traditional ethnopharmacy, coupled with the in- nitida, Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana, Q. leuco- creasing preference for natural substances in the trichophora and Q. floribunda forests. Subalpine healthcare system, the natural stock of medicinal vegetation ranges from 2801 to 3800 m and is domi- plants of Himachal Pradesh is under tremendous nated by Q. semecarpifolia, Picea smithiana, Abies pressure (Samant et al. 1998). To provide the infor- pindrow and Betula utilis forests. Alpine vegetation is mation necessary to support further action, this usually found above 3800 m but goes down to paper brings together existing information with 3300 m in the valleys. While it mainly comprises results from recent field surveys. herbaceous species, scattered patches of shrubs such as Rhododendron campanulatum, Rh. antho- pogon, Juniperus indica, Rosa macrophylla, R. sericea STUDY AREA and Salix lindleyana are widespread. The State of Himachal Pradesh (30°22′40″- Both state and central governments have under- 33°12′40″ Nto75°45′55″-79°04′20″ E) includes taken initiatives for the conservation of species, parts of the Trans and Northwest Himalaya and habitats and ecosystems. At present, Himachal Abbreviations used: CDBR=Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve; MWLS=Manali Wildlife Sanctuary; KWLS=Kais Wildlife Sanctuary; and GNHP=Great Himalayan National Park Figure 1 Location map of the Himachal Pradesh International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 235 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. Pradesh has one proposed biosphere reserve, two the intensive survey sites in different seasons. national parks, and 32 wildlife sanctuaries for the During the intensive surveys, local knowledgeable in-situ conservation of biodiversity. These protected persons from each of the sites were interviewed and areas are distributed across all the altitudinal zones information on indigenous uses of the medicinal (Gulati et al. 2004). For example, both the Manali plants was collected. One such person from each Wildlife Sanctuary and the proposed Cold Desert site was hired to collect samples of medicinal plants Biosphere Reserve have temperate, subalpine and from the natural habitats. Fresh samples of each alpine habitats, and the Great Himalayan National species were collected and identified with the help Park has subtropical, temperate, subalpine and of local flora (Collett 1902; Chowdhery and alpine habitats. Wadhwa 1984; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Sharma The population of the Himachal Pradesh is and Singh 1996; Dhaliwal and Sharma 1999; Singh 6,077,248 according to the provisional results of the and Rawat 2000; Kaur and Sharma 2004). Informa- Census of India 2001 (www.himachal.nic.in). Most tion on altitudinal range, part(s) used, life forms live in villages and belong to diverse cultures and and indigenous uses was collected during the communities, with specific traditional knowledge. surveys. The Gujjars, Gaddis, Lahules, Spitians, Pangwalas The secondary sources include a study of the and Kinnaure tribes have permanent and semi- flora of the Great Himalayan National Park (Singh permanent dwelling places in Pangi and Gadderan and Rawat 2000) and literature on the medicinal (Chamba and Bharmaur), Lahaul and Kinnaur. plants of Himachal Pradesh (Samant et al. 1998; Since ancient times, the local communities have Chauhan 1989, 1990, 1999; Chowdhery and Wadhwa used plants for various purposes, such as food, 1984; Aswal and Mehrotra 1994; Sharma and Singh medicine, fodder, fuel, agricultural tools and reli- 1996; Dhaliwal and Sharma 1997, 1999; Sharma gious and other purposes (Samant et al. 1998). They and Dhaliwal 1997a,b; Singh and Rawat 2000; Kaur trade some of the high-value medicinal plants for and Sharma 2004; Samant and Pant 2006; Samant income generation. et al. 2007; Kala 2006a,b). For nomenclature and nativity of the species, Anonymous (1883–1970) and Samant et al. (1998) were followed. Endemism METHODS of the species was assessed based on biogeographi- A range of primary and secondary sources were cal distribution: species restricted to the IHR were used. The primary sources derive from two sets of identified as endemic, while those species also surveys: surveys of the floristic diversity of protected found in adjacent countries were identified as areas (Kais and Manali Wildlife Sanctuaries, Cold near-endemic (Dhar and Samant 1993; Samant Desert Biosphere Reserve: Figure 1); and extensive et al. 1998). Rarity categorization is based on and intensive field surveys conducted from January Samant et al. (1998), Dhar et al. (2002), and Ved 2004 to September 2006. Extensive surveys covered et al. (2003). The prioritization of species for culti- most of the state while the intensive surveys were vation in each altitudinal zone was determined conducted in 15 biodiversity-rich areas in tropical according to medicinal uses (Ved 2001), availability and subtropical (< 1800 m), temperate (1801– (based on the primary surveys carried out in the 2800 m), subalpine (2801–3800 m) and alpine state), trade values (Sultan and Singh 2006), (> 3800 m) zones of Kullu, Lahaul and Spiti, demand in local, national and international Mandi, Shimla, Bilaspur, Solan, Sirmaur and markets and pharmaceutical preparations (Ved Kangra districts. Several visits were made to each of 2001) (Table 1). Table 1 Criteria used for prioritization of the medicinal plants for cultivation in Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Score Medicinal uses Availability Trade values Demand Pharmaceutical preparation 10 > 15 High High High > 150 6 5–15 Moderate Medium Medium 50–150 2 < 5 Low Low Low < 50 236 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Polygonacea Fabaceae A iaceae Ranunculaceae Rosaceae Lamia ceae Asteraceae Tot al Famili es Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. RESULTS Native and endemic species A total of 269 species were native to the Himala- Diversity yan region, while 374 species were non-native, The study identified 643 species of medicinal plants from biogeographic regions including Africa, in 388 genera and 137 families. Of these, the ende- Australia, Oriental India, Tropical Asia, Europe, mic, near-endemic and rare endangered species America, China, Malaya, Java, Japan, New are listed in Appendix 1, which also shows their dis- Zealand and Sri Lanka. A total of 17 species were tribution in Kais and Manali Wildlife Sanctuaries, endemics restricted to the IHR; 131 species the Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve and the Great were identified as near-endemics. The number Himalayan National Park. These 643 species repre- of native, endemic and near-endemic species sent different life forms: trees (106 spp.), shrubs appears to increase along an altitudinal gradi- (121 spp.) and herbs (416 spp.). The dominant ent irrespective of the total species richness families and genera are presented in Figures 2 and (Appendix 1). 3. Fifty-one families are monotypic, indicating a poor genetic base. Utilization and commercial exploitation Distribution Different plant parts, such as roots/rhizomes/ Along an altitudinal gradient, the maximum tubers (224 spp.), whole plants (185 spp.), leaves number of medicinal plants (417) was found in (164 spp.), seeds (82 spp.), fruits (81 spp.), bark (72 the tropical and sub-tropical zone (< 1800 m), spp.), flowers (49 spp.), stems (24 spp.), latex (13 followed by the temperate (1801–2800 m) (356 spp.), resin (10 spp.), aerial parts (8 spp.), inflores- spp.), subalpine (2801–3800 m) (303 spp.) and cences (7 spp.), fronds, gum, nuts, wood, oil and alpine (> 3800 m) (158 spp.) zones. The represen- grain (2 spp. each), and wax, cones and twigs (1 tative species of each altitudinal zone are given in spp.) are used by native communities for pharma- Table 2. Many species were found in more than ceutical preparations. Species used in > 50 pharma- one zone. ceutical preparations are presented in Table 3 (Ved 2001). The interviews with knowledgeable persons indicated that the local inhabitants exploit some of the commercially-viable medicinal plants from the wild for income generation. They are traded either in the local markets of the state or in the national markets. Exact trade values of the exploited species could not be obtained from the inhabitants; how- ever, recent available trade values for some of the Dominant families species known from different markets of the coun- Figure 2 Dominant families of medicinal plants in try are presented in Table 4 (Sultan and Singh Himachal Pradesh 2006). Rarity Using the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), 12 species were categorized as critically endangered, 21 species as endangered, 27 species Ge n e ra as vulnerable, 2 species as near threatened and 3 species as data-deficient (Ved et al. 2003) Figure 3 Dominant genera of medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh (Appendix 1). International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 237 Artemisi a Saussurea Euphorbia Polygonum Aconitum Prunus Nepeta Nos. No. of Species Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. Table 2 The representative medicinal plants of the different altitudinal zones in Himachal Pradesh Altitudinal zones Representative species Tropical and Justicia adhatoda, Achyranthes aspera, Mangifera indica, Apium graveolens, Rauwolfia serpentina, Acorus Sub-tropical calamus, Calotropis gigantea, Asparagus adscendens, A. racemosus, Azardirachta indica, Artemisia < 1800 m absinthium, A. japonica, Tagetes minuta, Berberis asiatica, Rorippa indica, Bauhinia variegata, B. vahlii, Caesalpinia decapitala, Cassia fistula, Terminalia atata, T. arjuna, T. chebula, Cyperus rotundus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Emblica officinalis, Swertia angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum, Curculigo orchioides, Ajuga parviflora, Mentha arvensis, M. piperata, Ocimum canum, O. sanctum, Salvia plebeia, S. lanata, Cinnamomum tamala, Aloe barbadensis, Woodfordia fruticosa, Tinospora cordifolia, Syzygium cuminii, Malaxis acuminata, Zizypus mauritiana, Prinsepia utilis, Rubia cordifolia, Zanthoxylum armatum, Sapindus mukorossii, Bergenia ligulata, Bacopa monnierii, Withania somnifera, Atropa belladonna, Urtica parviflora, Hedychium spicatum, Elaeagnus conferta Temperate Ferula jaeschkeana, Heracleum candicans, Asparagus filicinus, Ainsliaea aptera, Berberis aristata, Betula 1801–2800 m alnoides, Sagina saginoides, Corylus jacquemontii, Rosularia rosulata, Gentiana kurroo, Skimmia laureola, Geranium nepalense, Elsholtzia fruticosa, Rhododendron arboreum, Malva verticillata, Oxalis corniculata, Phytolacca acinosa, Polygala sibirica and Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana Subalpine Allium humile, Bunium persicum, Malaxis muscifera, Carum carvii, Geranium wallichianum, Angelica 2801–3800 m glauca, Archangelica himalaica, Bupleurum falcatum, Heracleum lanatum, Arisaema flavum, Saussurea auriculata, S. costus, Tanacetum gracile, T. tenuifolium, T. tomentosum, Impatiens gladulifera, Arnebia benthamii, Eritrichium canum, Rhododendron campanulatum, Ribes orientale, Polygonatum multiflorum, P. verticillatum, Plantago depressa, Aconitum ferox, A. leave, A. heterophyllum, A. falconeri, Pedicularis pectinata, Polygonatum verticillatum, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Picrorhiza kurrooa Alpine Cortia depressa, Selinum tenuifolium, Heracleum wallichii, Inula royleana, Saussurea graminifolia, > 3800 m S. obvallata, S. simsoniana, S. gossypiphora, Arnebia euchroma, Corydalis meifolia, C. govaniana, Iris kumaonensis, Fritillaria roylei, Polygonum affine, Rhododendron anthopogon, Rheum australe, R. moorcroftianum, R. webbianum, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Aconitum heterophyllum, A. rotundifolium, A. violaceum, A. spicatum, Delphinium cashmerianum, D. vestitum, Nardostachys grandiflora Table 3 Some important medicinal plants used in Prioritization of medicinal plants for pharmaceutical preparations cultivation Vernacular No. of Past studies have shown that the cultivation of Botanical name name preparations medicinal plants within the distribution range has Terminalia chebula Hararrh 219 been more successful than cultivation of species out- Terminalia bellirica Bahera 219 side the distribution range (Samant and Pal 2003). Embelica officinalis Amla 219 Cultivation outside the distribution range affects the Glycyrrhiza glabra Yashtimadhu 141 concentration of active ingredients (Samant and Justicia adhatoda Vasaka 110 Pal 2003). The prioritization of medicinal plants for Withania somnifera Ashwagandha 109 cultivation within different altitudinal zones of Cyperus rotundus Mustaka 102 Himachal Pradesh is shown in Table 5. Most of these Tinospora cordifolia Gulancha 88 species have also been prioritized by the National Berberis aristata Daruharidra 65 Medicinal Plant Board, constituted by the Govern- Tribulus terrestris Gokshuru 65 ment of India (www.nmpb.nic.in). Aegle marmelos Bael 60 Boerhaavia diffusa Punarnava 52 Acorus calamus Vacha 51 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS (Source: Ved 2001) This paper provides comprehensive information on the diversity, distribution pattern, nativity, ende- Himachal Pradesh. The finding that 37% of the mism, rarity and uses of medicinal plants in total recorded species of medicinal plants of the 238 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. Table 4 Trade values of some medicinal plants in different markets of the country (Source: Sultan and Singh 2006) Rates (Rs/Kg) Botanical name Part(s) used Delhi Saharanpur Dehradun Amritsar Solan Aconitum heterophyllum Rt – 3500–4000 3600–4100 4150–4600 3300–3800 Acorus calamus Rh 40–45 40–48 35–42 38–42 35–40 Aegle marmelos Bk, Lf, Fr 16 17–20 18–22 20 18 Aloe vera Ghritkumari 70 65–70 70–72 68–74 75 Andrographis paniculata Shoot 20 23–26 24–30 18–22 18–25 Asparagus racemosus Rt 200–240 200–220 210–230 225–250 180–250 Berberis aristata Rt, St 10–12 12 15–18 14–17 15 Bergenia ligulata Rh, Rt 37 30–35 40 20 25 Boerhaavia diffusa Lf, Rt, Wp 26 22 25–36 24 22 Cassia fistula Fr, Gum, Sd 18–25 22–25 26–30 23–28 20–22 Centella asiatica Lf 55–65 58 60–70 62–72 60–68 Cinnamomum tamala Lf 20–35 22–28 20–28 25–28 25 Commiphora wightii Gum 160–173 180 200–210 200–250 200–240 Curculigo orchioides Rt 50 52 50–55 52–55 48 Dactylorhiza hatagirea Rt 1450–1700 1050–1100 1100–1150 950–1120 500–900 Derris indica Sd 40 45–50 40–50 44–48 42 Eclipta alba Shoot 13–15 16–22 24 18–23 – Embelica officinalis Fr 39 30–32 40–45 38 18–24 Eulophia campestris Rt 4000–4300 4000–4600 – 4300–5000 4200–4600 Evolvulus alsinoides Wp 19–21 19–20 20–25 17–18 18–20 Glycyrrhiza glabra Rt 30–35 36–42 40–46 36–40 40 Gymnema sylvestre Sd 28–32 30 28–34 30–36 20–25 Hedychium spicatum Rh, Rt 15 19 19–22 15–18 20 Malaxis muscifera Rt 65 70 – 68–72 65 Mucuna pruriens Sd 10–15 18–20 12–18 13–17 15–20 Murraya koenigii Lf 19 21–25 20–26 22–25 18 Myrica esculenta Bk 26–30 34–38 – 42–50 25 Nardostachys grandiflora Rh/Rt 180 190–200 200–210 170–190 160–175 Ocimum sanctum Lf 140 145 150 145–155 150 Picrorrhiza kurrooa Rh, Rt 250–260 250–280 250–270 240–250 230–250 Piper longum Fr 115–135 132 140 120–130 115–125 Pistacia integerrmia Lf 83–88 70–80 80 58–64 50–60 Plumbago zeylanica Rt 11–13 28–33 – 30 28–32 Rauvolfia serpentina Rt 100–120 90–110 110–120 148–155 145–150 Sapindus mukorossii Fr 34 45 35–42 42–47 42–45 Saussurea costus Rt 120–130 135–140 150 136–145 130–150 Solanum nigrum Wp, Lf 50–60 50–65 60–70 70–80 55–60 Swertia chirata Wp 160 – 200–220 210 – Syzigium cumini Sd 12–15 16 12–15 13–16 18 Terminalia arjuna Bk 10–11 12–15 12–16 11–13 10 Terminalia bellirica Fr 11–12 10 12–15 13–15 12–13 Terminalia chebula Fr 40 32 45 43–46 42–48 Tinospora cordifolia St 8–10 10 11–14 9–12 10 Tribulus terrestris Fr – 25 35–45 28 25–30 Valeriana jatamansi Rh 90–100 105–115 110–120 85–100 90–100 Withania somnifera Rt 65–70 73–75 80–100 71–78 60–70 Abbreviations: Rt = Root, Rh = Rhizome; Tb = Tuber; Bk = Bark; Wp = Whole plant; Lf = Leaf; Fr = Fruit; Fl = Flower; Res = Resin; Sd = Seed International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 239 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. Table 5 Prioritization of medicinal plants for cultivation at different altitudinal zones in Himachal Pradesh Altitude zone Taxa Score Taxa Score < 1800 M Emblica officinalis 42 Zanthoxylum armatum 30 Terminalia chebula 42 Terminalia arjuna 30 T. bellirica 42 Justicia adhatoda 30 Acorus calamus 40 Thalictrum foliolosum 26 Rauvolfia serpentina 38 Gloriosa superba 26 Asparagus racemosus 38 Mentha piperata 26 Tinospora cordifolia 36 Tagetes minuta 26 Azadirachta indica 34 Bergenia ligulata 24 Withania somnifera 34 Gymnema sylvestre 22 Aegle marmelos 34 Glycyrrhiza glabra 22 Solanum nigrum 34 Coleus forskohlii 22 Bacopa monnierii 32 Cinnamomum tamala 22 1801–2800 M Swertia chirayita 34 Hedychium spicatum 26 Valeriana jatamansi 30 Skimmia laureola 24 Taxus baccata ssp. wallichiana 30 Dioscorea deltoidea 22 Angelica glauca 30 Bergenia ligulata 22 Plantago ovata 28 Polygonatum verticillatum 18 Swertia angustifolia 26 Heracleum candicans 18 Swertia chirayita 34 Berberis lycium 18 > 2801 M Podophyllum hexandrum 38 Dactylorhiza hatagirea 30 Picrorhiza kurrooa 38 Nardostachys grandiflora 30 Jurinella macrocephala 38 Sassurea costus 30 Aconitum heterophyllum 34 Inula racemosa 22 Rheum australe 34 Carum carvi 22 Angelica glauca 30 Artemisia maritima 22 IHR are found in the state indicates the rich diver- et al. 1998). The diversity of the native, endemic and sity of its medicinal plants (Samant et al. 1998). near-endemic species increases along an altitudinal Sixty-five per cent of these species occur in the gradient irrespective of the species richness. This altitudinal zone < 1800 m, identifying this zone as indicates relatively less anthropogenic pressure on having high potential for supplying medicinal the higher altitude habitats. However, the case is plants and also for conservation efforts. The rich reversed in the diversity of non-native medicinal diversity may be due to mild climatic conditions plants. This may be due to high anthropogenic and diverse habitats, together with a large number pressure on the natural habitats and invasion by of human habitations with diverse cultures and non-native species at lower elevations. communities that utilize this diversity for the treat- Utilization of roots/rhizomes/tubers of 35% of ment of various ailments (Samant and Dhar 1997; species, the whole plant of 29%, seeds of 13%, fruits Samant et al. 1998). The finding that 42% of species of 13%, bark of 11%, flowers of 8% and stem of are native, 21% near-endemic and 2.6% endemic 4% of species of the medicinal plants indicated a indicates the importance of conservation. These high degree of threat to these species. Medicinal species are well adapted to the local environmental species are used in the plant-based pharmaceutical conditions and are likely to be resistant to pests and industries in traditional systems of medicine and diseases. Therefore, they can play a vital role in trac- most are extracted from natural habitats. Accord- ing the evolution of the species in the region ing to the All India Trade Survey of prioritized (Samant et al. 1998). As in the IHR as a whole, the medicinal plants, demand for some high-value topography, wide altitudinal range and macro- and medicinal plants has increased 50%, whereas avail- micro-environmental conditions of Himachal ability has declined by 26% (Anonymous 2001). Pradesh play important roles in speciation (Samant The ever-increasing demand for these species in 240 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. the pharmaceutical industries has increased habitat technologies for most medicinal plant species are degradation and levels of overexploitation from not available. Therefore, the development of agro- wild habitats. If the overexploitation of entire techniques for commercially viable medicinal medicinal plants and their various parts continues, plants and their large-scale cultivation in farmers’ many species may decrease in, and ultimately dis- fields are necessary for their conservation and to appear from, their natural habitats. This applies reduce pressures on natural habitats. Further, the particularly to medicinal plants with multiple uses establishment and maintenance of nurseries and (Samant et al. 1998; Samant and Pal 2003). This herbal gardens in different altitudinal zones with study has also found that 65 species (10% of the stocks of medicinal plants are required to ensure total) were critically endangered, endangered, vul- the availability of quality planting material and to nerable, near threatened or data deficient. Many introduce medicinal plants as cash crops. other species face high pressures, indicating a need Attempts have been made to develop propaga- for adequate planning for the in-situ conservation tion protocols for commercially viable medicinal of all these species beyond the existing protected plants using tissue culture. Organizations including areas. While notifications of protected areas have the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology helped to a great extent in in-situ conservation, the (IHBT, Palampur), Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of status of biodiversity including medicinal plants is Horticulture and Forestry (Solan), Choudhary known for only a few protected areas. Similarly, Saran Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvad- there are a number of reserve forests and unpro- hyala (Palampur), and Himachal Pradesh Univer- tected biodiversity-rich areas in different alti- sity (Shimla) are actively engaged in developing tudinal zones whose status is still unidentified. in-vitro techniques for some commercially viable The inventory and monitoring of medicinal plants medicinal plants. of these protected and unprotected areas would In summary, to ensure the long-term conserva- help in identification of the status of medicinal tion of medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh and plants and prioritization of these areas for in-situ the availability of the derived medicines to the conservation. millions who depend on them for their health, a Complementing existing in-situ conservation range of actions are required. These include: 1) initiatives, there has been some development of more effective in-situ conservation based on ex-situ conservation within Himachal Pradesh. comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of Central and state government organizations, NGOs species and levels of extraction; 2) identification and pharmaceutical industries have promoted of endangered and commercially-viable species; 3) some development of herbal gardens, medicinal documentation of indigenous uses and traditional plant nurseries and cultivation in farmers’ fields. practices, linked to analysis and identification of Recently, the State Medicinal Plant Board was active ingredients for quality certification, which established to promote the medicinal plants sec- requires well-equipped laboratories that are tor, to fund conservation of medicinal plants (Kala currently not available; 4) development of agro- and Sajwan 2007). techniques and propagation protocols using nurs- In order to satisfy the increasing demand for eries and in-vitro methods; 5) capacity-building medicinal plants, cultivation of commercially viable for farmers, including the organization of training species will be essential. Unfortunately, in spite of programmes, exposure visits and awareness camps efforts in agrotechnological innovation and prog- on various aspects of medicinal plants, to enhance ress in biotechnology, only a few Himalayan their skills in cultivation, conservation and market- medicinal plants are under cultivation by a few ing; and 6) development of cooperatives of farmers and NGOs – and at a small scale. These farmers growing medicinal plants in order to facili- species include Saussurea costus, Humulus lupulus, tate marketing and ensure the maximum benefits Artemisia maritima, Bunium persicum, Carum carvi, to local communities, which will require effective Podophyllum hexandrum, Inula racemosa, Angelica linkages between the farmers and pharmaceutical glauca, Acorus calamus, Heracleum candicans, Dios- industries. All of these actions require increased corea deltoidea, Valeriana jatamansi, Picrorhiza kurrooa attention by central and state governments, and Hedychium spicatum (Samant et al. 2001). How- pharmaceutical industries, research organizations, ever, appropriate agrotechniques and post-harvest NGOs, and farmers, all working together. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 241 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. facilities. The inhabitants of the districts of the state ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS are acknowledged for their help during the surveys The authors thank U. Dhar, Director, GB Pant Insti- in information generation. The anonymous review- tute of Himalayan Environment and Development, ers are acknowledged for their helpful comments. Kosi-Katarmal for encouragement and necessary REFERENCES Anonymous. Conservation Assessment and Management Dhaliwal DS and Sharma M. Phytogeographic Plan Workshop Process. 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Bangalore, India: Founda- diversity, distribution, conservation status and tion for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions; preparation of management plan for the 2003 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 243 Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. 244 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Appendix I Diversity, distribution pattern and indigenous uses of the endemic, near-endemic and rare endangered medicinal plants in the Himachal Pradesh Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Acanthaceae Strobilanthes atropurpureus Nees* 1300–3600 Infl, Oil Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Diarrhoea Alliaceae Allium humile Kunth* 3200–3700 Bb Reg Himal H 2,3,4 Stomach ache & related problems A. stracheyi Baker 3000–4200 Wp VU Reg Himal H 4 Stomach ache & related problems Apiaceae Angelica glauca Edgew.** 2000–3800 Rt E(G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Dysentery, gastric complaints, menorrhoea, stomach complaints, vomiting Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedts. 3000–4000 Fr VU Persea H 4 Liver complaints, gastric Bupleurum longicaule var. himalayense 3300–4500 Wp Reg Himal H – Colic, gastrointestinal diseases, renal complication (Kl.) Cl.* B. lanceolatum Wall. ex DC.* 2200–2800 Rt Reg Himal H 2,3,4 Snake bite B. thompsoni Cl.* 1500–2500 Fr Reg Himal H Stomach ache Cachrys pabularia (Lindl.) Herrnst. 2000–3000 Wp Reg Himal H – Carminative, diarrhea, diuretic, itching, &Heyn.* stimulating, stomachic, veterinary galactagogue Cortia depressa (Don) Norm.* 3300–4900 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Abdominal diseases, antiinflammatory, rheumatism, sedative, stomach ache Ferula jaeschkeana (L.) Vatke 2800–3800 Rt, Res VU Reg Himal H 1,4 Rheumatism, toothache, wounds, poultices Bor Occ Turkest Heracleum nepalense D.Don* 1800–3600 Rt Reg Himal H 1 Menstrual complications, leucoderma Heracleum lanatum Michx. 2500–4500 Rt, Wp, Fr VU Amer Bor As Occ H 1,2,3,4 Menstrual complaints, leucoderma, piles Pleurospermum angelocoides (DC.) Cl. 2500–4000 Rt DD Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Antihelminthic, gastric, stomach ache P. candollii (DC.) Cl.** 3500–4200 Fr Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Dyspepsia, renal pain, stomach ache P. densiflorus Hk.f.** 3000–4000 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Incense, insecticidal, cough and cold Selinum tenuifolium Wall.* 2500–4800 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Incense, insecticidal, nervine, sedative Apocynaceae Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz Up to 1000 Rt CR Ind Or Java Sh – Antihelminthic, antidote, blood pressure, fever, stomach trouble Araliaceae Aralia cachemirica Decne* 2500–4000 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Gastric complaints Arecaceae Zalacca beccarii Hk.f.** Up to 1000 St, Rt Ind Or T – Stomach disorder Asclepiadaceae Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. Up to 1500 Tb DD Ind Or H – For vitality Asteraceae Ainsliaea aptera DC.* 1500–3500 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Stomach ache Artemisia roxburghiana Bess. * 2400–5600 Lf Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Eczema,pimples,sores A. maritima L. 2600–4500 Wp NT Europe Reg Caucas H 1,2,4 Antihelminthic, cuts, gastric complaints, blood Sibir purifier Aster tibeticus Hk.f.* 3000–4000 Rt Tibet Occ H 4 Malaria Carduus edelbergii Reich.f. * 2700–4000 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Blood purifier, diuretic, tonic Erigeron bellidioides (Don) Benth.* 1400–4300 Wp Reg Himal H 3,4 Blood purifier Inula racemosa Hk.f.** 2500–3700 Rt, Infl Reg Himal H – Gastrointestinal, rheumatism, incense Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 245 Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses I. royleana Cl.* 2100–4000 Wp Reg Himal H – Dermitis, stimulant, high blood pressure Jurinella macrocephala (Royle) 3200–4300 Rt E Reg Himal H 2,3,4 Antiseptic, colic, fever, laxative Aswal et Goel* Ligularia jacquemontiana (Decne) 3200–4000 Rt Reg Himal H – Unripe boils Rau* Saussurea auriculata (DC.) Sch.-Bip.* 3000–3800 Lf Reg Himal H – Renal diseases S. bracteata Decne.** 3800–4800 Wp Reg Himal H – Cold,cough,fever S. ceratocarpa Decne* 3500–5000 Wp Reg Himal H – Colic, headache, lumbar pain, renal pain S. graminifolia Wall.* 3500–5000 Wp Reg Himal H 4 Headache, fever S. gossypiphora D. Don 3800–5600 Wp CR Reg Himal H 1,4 Burns, cuts S. heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Maz.* 3000–4000 Sd Reg Himal H 2,3 Carminative, horse bite S. obvallata (DC.) Sch. – Bip. 3600–4500 Wp, Rt CR Reg Himal H 1,4 Burns, cuts S. simpsoniana (Field & Gard.) 3800–5600 Inf Reg Himal H 1,2 Fever, snakebite Lipsch* Tanacetum dolichophyllum Kitam.* 3000–4400 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Fever, headache, body ache T. gracile Hk.f. & Th.* 2800–3600 Wp Reg Himal H 1,3,4 Febrifuge T. tenuifolium Jacq.* 3400–4200 Wp Reg Himal H – Angina, body ache, headache, renal colic T. tomentosum DC.* 3500–4500 Wp Reg Himal H – Colic, diarrhoea, earache Balanophoraceae Balanophora involucrata Hk.f. 2100–3500 Wp DD Reg Himal H 1 Cough, cold Begoniaceae Begonia picta Sm.* 600–2800 Lf Reg Himal H – Bristles on tongue, ulcer on mouth Berberidaceae Berberis aristata DC.* 1500–3000 Rt, Bk Reg Himal Sh 1,2 Bite of rat, snakes, boils, eye complaints B. jaeschkeana Sch.* 3000–3500 Rt Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Astringent, blood purifier, diuretic, eye disease, jaundice, menorrhoea, skin disease B. kashmiriana Ahrendt.** 2000–3300 Rt Reg Himal Sh – Fever B. lycium Royle* 1600–3000 Rt,St, Bk,Fr Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Fever, eye complaints B. pseudumbellata Parker** 2000–2800 Rt, Lf Reg Himal Sh 1,4 Intestinal disorder B. petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don** 1800–2700 Rt Reg Himal Sh – Eye & skin complaints Betulaceae Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.* 1000–2700 Bk Reg Himal T 1,2,3 Antipoisonous Betula utilis D. Don 3000–4500 Bk, Res, E Reg Himal Japon T 1,2,3,4 Antiseptic, fever, cuts, ear complaints, hysteria, jaundice, wounds Boraginaceae Arnebia benthamii (Don) John.* 3000–4500 Rt CR (G) Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Antiseptic, boils, cuts, wounds, hair tonic, fungal hair infection Arnebia euchroma (Wall. ex G.Don) 3000–4800 Rt, Wp CR Reg Himal H 1,4 Antiseptic, boils, cuts, wounds, hair tonic, fungal John. Turkest hair infection Eritrichium canum (Benth.) Kitam.* 3500–4600 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Facilitates children birth Lindelofia longifolia (Benth.) Baill.* 3200–4600 Lf Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Diarrhoea Microula tibetica Benth.* 5600 Wp Reg Himal H – Cough, pulmonary disorder Buxaceae Buxus wallichiana Baillon* 1800–2700 Lf, Bk, Wd Reg Himal T 1 Combs, purgative, diaphoretic, rheumatic, syphilis Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. 246 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Campanulaceae Codonopsis affinis Hk.f. & Th.** 2500–3500 Rt Reg Himal H 4 Rheumatism, swollen joints, bruises C. ovata Benth.* 3000–4200 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Swollen joints, bruises Caprifoliaceae Lonicera angustifolia Wall. ex DC.* 2700–3600 Fr Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3 Gastric troubles Viburnum cotinifolium D.Don* 1800–3600 Bk Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Menorrhea Caryophyllaceae Cerastium cerastioides (L.) Britt.* 1500–4700 Wp Reg Himal H – Backache, body ache, headache, renal pain, cough Celastraceae Euonymus pendulus Wall.* 1800–2600 Ap Reg Himal T – Eye complaints, constipation Corylaceae Corylus jacquemontii Dcne.* 2400–2800 Nut Reg Himal T 1,2,3,4 Tonic Crassulaceae Rhodiola heterodonta (Hk.f. & Th.) 3000–5000 Rt VU (G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Sexual potency, stomach ache, intestinal Boiss. discomfort Cupressaceae Juniperus polycarpos C.Koch 3000–3600 Lf, E Reg Himal T 4 For animals, the oil is used for wound healing, repel flies, nervous disorder Cyperaceae Carex obscura Nees* 3000–4500 Wp Reg Himal H – Antiviral Datiscaceae Datisca cannabina L. 1000–2500 Lf, Rt E Oriens Reg Himal H 4 Diuretic, febrifuge, purgative, rheumatism, sedative Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Royle 2000–3500 Tb E(G) Ind Or H 1,2,3,4 Fever, gout, digestive problems Elaeagnaceae Hippophae rhamnoides L. 2600–3500 Sd, Fr VU Europe As Trop Sh 4 Aphrodisiac, lung disease H. salicifloia D. Don 2600–3500 Bk, Fr NT Nepal T 1,3,4 Cuts, ulcers, wounds Ephederaceae Ephedra saxatilis Stapf.** 2300–5200 Lf, Rt, St Reg Himal Sh – Asthma Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf. 2800–4000 Lf, Rt, St E Europe As Bor H 4 Asthma, blood purifier, headache, hepatitis, rheumatism Ericaceae Rhododendron anthopogon Don* 3000–5200 Lf VU Reg Himal As Bor Sh 1,2,3,4 Bronchitis, cold, cough R. anthopogon Wall. 3300–5000 Lf Reg Himal Sh 1 Bronchitis, cold, cough subsp. hypenanthum (Balf.f.) Cullen** R. campanulatum Don* 3000–4000 Rt, Lf, Fl VU Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Boils, cold, cough, headache, rheumatism, sciatica, skin disease, syphilis, tonic, fever R. lepidotum Wall. ex D. Don 2400–4500 Rt, Lf, Fl VU Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Boils, cold, cough, headache, rheumatism, sciatica, skin disease, syphilis, tonic, fever Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia fusiformis Don* Up to 600 Rt Ind Or H – Fever, gout, rheumatism E. royleana Boiss.* 1000–1500 Lt Reg Himal Sh 1 Bleeding, burns, cuts, ear complications, skin diseases, wounds E. thomsoniana Boiss.* 3000–4000 WP Reg Himal H – Purgative, skin diseases, eruptions E. tibetica Boiss.* 3200–4500 Lt, Rt Reg Himal H – Nausea Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 247 Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Fabaceae Astragalus candoleanus Royle 3400–4500 Rt Persia H – Blood purifier, cough, skin disease ex Benth.* Indigofera pulchella Roxb.* 800–1500 Lf, Rt Reg Himal Sh – Cough, epilepsy, mennorhagea, swelling face in labor Oxytropis mollis Royle ex Benth. * 2500–3000 Wp Reg Himal H 4 Wounds Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC.* 300–1500 Rt Reg Himal Sh – Abdominal pain, antiemetic, asthma, body ache, chest pain, cholera, diarrhoea, fever, lactation, mennorhoea, rheumatism, skin disease, swelling, syphilis, tonic, ulcers, veterinary lactation Fumariaceae Corydalis flabellata Edgew. * 3000–4400 Wp Reg Himal H 4 Fever Gentianaceae Gentiana carinata (D.Don) Grises.* 1500–3500 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Fever, headache Gentiana kurroo Royle 1800–4200 Rt CR (G) Reg Himal H 1,4 Appetite, gastric secretion, stomachic, fever, urinary complaints Gentianella moorcroftiana (Wall. 2900–5200 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Blood purifier, cold, cough, fever, headache ex Griseb.) Airy Shaw* G. tenella (Rottb.) Borner* 3000–5000 Wp Reg Himal H 2,3,4 Fever Gentianopsis detonsa (Rottb.)* 3200–4200 Fl Reg Himal H – Cough, fever, headache, nausea Jaeschkea oligosperma (Griseb.) 2700–4300 Wp Reg Himal H 2,3,4 Blood purifier, fever Knobl.* Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Flem.) 1500–2600 Wp CR Reg Himal H 2 Antiemetic to pregnant women, asthma, bilious, Karstem* blood purifier, bronchitis, fever, inflammation, leprosy, scabies, skin diseases, stomach ache, thirst, tonic S. petiolata Don* 3800–5600 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2 Body ache, headache, gall disorder S. thomsonii Cl. ex Hk.f & Th.* 3000–3800 Wp Reg Himal H – Fever, headache Geraniaceae Geranium himalayense Klot.* 2500–4200 Rt Reg Himal H 3,4 Bruises, stomach ache G. wallichianum Don ex Sw.* 2100–4200 Rt Ind Or China H 1,2,3,4 Astringent, ear & eye disease, toothache Gesneriaceae Didymocarpus pedicillata R.Br. 800–1700 Lf VU Reg Himal H – Kidney & bladder stones Hippocastanaceae Aesculus indica Leb. ex Camb.* 1500–2500 Bk,Fr, Rt,Sd Reg Himal T 1,2,3 Anthelmintic, dislocated joints, diuretic, leucorrhoea, skin fissures, cracks, veterinary medicine, wounds Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. 1000–2500 Lf, Oil VU Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Antidepressant,cancer, tumors, antiviral, lung ailments Iridaceae Iris nepalensis Don* 1800–4000 Bb Reg Himal H – Rheumatic pain I. kashmiriana Baker** 2800–4200 Bb Reg Himal H 1,3,4 Rheumatism Juglandaceae Juglans regia L.* 1000–3000 Bk, Lf, Fr As Occ H 1,2,3,4 Antihelminthic, astringent, frost bite, rheumatism, Reg Himal sores of toes, toothache Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. 248 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Lamiaceae Ajuga parviflora Benth.* 600–1500 Wp Reg Himal H 1,3 Ascariasis, febrifuge Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. Up to 1000 Lf VU (G) Reg Himal H – Enhanced lactation Hyssopus officinalis L. 2800–4200 Lf, Fl VU Ind Or H 4 Stimulant, carminative, nervous disorders, urinary trouble Nepeta ciliaris Benth.* 2300–3600 Wp Reg Himal H 4 Eye disorders, fever N. eriostachya Benth.* 2300–4000 Wp Reg Himal H 3,4 Eye complications N. glutinosa Benth.* 3300–4400 Wp Reg Himal H – Pneumonia, fever N. royleana Stew.* 2400–3600 Wp Reg Himal H – Cerebral tonic, in madness Roylea cinerea (Don) Baill.* 1200–3700 Lf, Rt VU (G) Reg Himal Sh – Blood purifier, fever, pimples, snuff in tonsil Salvia bisor Wall.* 2200–3200 Sd Reg Himal H – Astringent, antihelminthic S. moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth.* 1500–2700 Sd Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Emetic,hemorrhoids,colic,dysentery S. lanata Roxb.* 1000–1600 Rt, Sd Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Adulterant, colic, diarrhoea, cold, cough Lauraceae Cinnamomum tamala Nees* 400–2000 Br, Lf VU Reg Himal T – Heart & throat complaints Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) Robins. 300–1500 St, Bk, Wp, Lf VU Reg Himal T – Boils, bone facture, cold, cough Liliaceae Colchecum luteum Baker* 1000–2700 Rt VU (G) Reg Himal H – Carminative, laxative, aphrodisiac, allergy, appetizer, gout, rheumatism, spleen inflammation Eremurus himalaicus Baker 2100–3800 Bb LC Reg Himal H 4 Wounds, stomach disorder Fritillaria roylei Hk.* 3000–4600 Bb/Rt E(G) Reg Himal H 1,2 Asthma, bronchitis, burns, stomach disease, tonic Gloriosa superba L. 600–1500 Rt, Rh, Lf VU As Trop H – Abortifacient, antihelminthic, snake bite, fever, gout,scabies,leprosy Lilium polyphyllum Don 2100–3300 Bb/Rt CR Reg Himal H 2,4 Tonic, aphrodisiac, refrigerant Paris polyphylla Sm. 1800–3000 Rh E Reg Himal H 1 Diarrhoea, fever Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle 2000–2800 Tb, Tender E Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Fever, blood purifier, cuts, wounds P. multiflorum (L.) All. 2000–3000 Tb VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Appetite, nerve tonic, aphrodisiac, P. verticillatum (L.) All. 2000–35000 Tb VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Appetite, nerve tonic, urinary problems Malvaceae Lavatera kashmiriana Camb.** 1800–3600 Rt Reg Himal H 1 Urinary irritation, throat problems, mild laxative Morinaceae Morina coulteriana Royle* 3000–3600 Rt VU Reg Himal H 1,4 Abscesses M. longifolia Wall. ex DC.* 3200–3800 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Boils, wounds, burns Myrsinaceae Embelia tsjeriam-cottam A.DC. Up to 1400 Fr,Bk, Rt,Lf, Sd VU Ind Or Sh – Blood purification, bronchitis, cholera, fever, itch, pneumonia, pregnancy problems, sores, throat complaints, ulcers Oleaceae Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G. Don) DC.* 2000–3000 Ap VU Reg Himal T 4 Abdominal disorder in animals Orchidaceae Dactylorhiza hatagirea (Don) Soo* 2800–4000 Tb CR Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Astringent, bone fracture, expectorant, tonic, wounds Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Ktze. 2800–4400 Tb CR Reg Himal H – Tonic for kidney Habenaria intermedia D. Don* 2000–3000 Tb E(G) Reg Himal H 2,3 Tonic Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 249 Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Papaveraceae Meconopsis aculeata Royle* 3200–3800 Wp E(G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Backache, colic, renal pain, tonic Parnassiaceae Parnassia pusilla Hk.f.* 2200–4400 Rt Reg Himal H – Washing burns & other wounds Pittosporaceae Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle** 600–1400 Br, Rt Reg Himal T – Bronchitis,expectorant,febrifuge,rheumatism Pinaceae Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud.* 1500–2500 Res, St Reg Himal T 1,2,3,4 Antihelminthic, rheumatism, ulcers Pinus roxburghii Sarg.* 1100–2100 Res Reg Himal T 1 Boils, bone fracture, cracks in sole of feet, leprosy, skin diseases, snakebite, sprains, swelling, ulcers, urine complaints P. gerardiana Wall. ex Lam.* 1800–3000 Sd, Res Reg Himal T – Carminative, stimulant, expectorant P. wallichiana Jacks.* 1800–3600 Res, Bk Reg Himal T 1,2,3,4 Abscess, dislocation of joints, ulcers, unconsciousness Abies spectabilis (D. Don) Mirb.* 2400–4400 Res, Bk Reg Himal T 1 Carminative A. pindrow Spach.* 2100–2500 Res, Bk Reg Himal T 1,2,3,4 Rheumatism, ulcers Plantaginaceae Plantago himalaica Pilg.* 1500–3000 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Diarrhoea, dysentery Podophyllaceae Podophyllum hexandrum Wall. 2300–4000 Rh, Fr, Sd E Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Cancer,cough,cuts, wounds,fever,ulcer,tumor ex Royle Polygonaceae Polygonum affine Don* 1600–4800 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Cold, diarrhoea P. recumbens Royle ex Bab.* 1800–2700 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Abscess, blood purification, boil, skin disease P. rumicifolium Royle ex Bab.* 3200–4400 Lf, Fl, Rt Reg Himal Sh 1,2,4 Abscess, antidote to aconite poison, diarrhoea, giddiness, headache, thirst P. stewartianum Diels.* 3500–4300 Wp Reg Himal H – Tonic Rheum australe Don* 3000–4200 Rt E(G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Abdominal pain, appetite, asthma, bronchitis, fever, cuts, dysentery, laxative, eye disease, piles, skin disease, sprain, swelling ulcers, wounds R. moocroftianum Royle* 3500–4800 Rt E Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Cuts, wounds, appetite R. webbianum Royle* 2400–4200 Lf, Rt VU (G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Abdominal disease, appetite, boils, astringent, purgative, wounds R. spiciforme Royle* 3600–4800 Rt VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Wounds, boils, cuts, abdominal diseases Ranunculaceae Aconitum chasmanthum Stapf. 3000–4200 Rt (G) Reg Himal H 1 Rheumatism ex Holms.* Aconitum deinorrhizum Stapf. 2800–4500 Rt E Reg Himal H – Poison, sedative A. falconeri Stapf. var. latilobum** Above 3000 Rt Reg Himal H 1 Diarrhoea, fever, rheumatism A. ferox Wall.** 2100–3800 Rt Reg Himal H 4 Stimulant, cardiac tonic, febrifuge A. laeve Royle** 2000–3500 Rt Reg Himal H 4 Antihelminthic, cough, diarrhoea, digestive complaints,dysentery,fever,gastric,stomach ache, vomiting A. heterophyllum Wall.* 3000–3700 Rt CR (G) Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Antihelminthic, cough, diarrhoea, digestive complaints,dysentery,fever,gastric,stomach ache, vomiting Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. 250 International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses A. violaceum Jacq.* 3500–4000 Rt VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Gastrointestinal complaints, renal pain, rheumatism, stomach ache A. spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf.* 3400–4500 Rt Reg Himal H – Antipyretic, analgesic Adonis chrysocyathus Hk.f. & Th.* 2700–4600 Wp Reg Himal H – Poison Clematis graveolens Lindl.* 900–3000 Wp Reg Himal Sh 1,2 Skin aliments, antiseptic Delphinium cashmerianum Royle** 2700–4800 Wp Reg Himal H 1,3,4 Abdominal pain, cuts, dropsy, dyspepsia, headache, renal pain, stomach ache, swelling, wounds D. denudatum Royle* 1500–2500 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Abdominal pain, antihelminthic, respiratory complaint, toothache, ulcer, lice, ticks D. vestitum Wall. ex Royle* 2700–4700 Wp Reg Himal H – Snakebite, cuts, wounds, fever, diarrhoea D. viscosum Hk. & Th.* 3000–5200 Rt Reg Himal H – Oedema, rheumatism Thalictrum minus L. var. majus 2000–4000 Wp Europe As et Afr H 4 Eye disorders, fever (Jacq.) Hk. f. et Th.* Bor Rhamnaceae Rhamnus triqueter (Wall.) Brandis* 1500–2100 Fr, Br Reg Himal T 1,2,3 Blood purifier, boils, scabies, skin disease, veterinary tonic R. purpureus Edgew.* 1500–3000 Fr, Rt Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3 Purgative Rosaceae Cotoneaster marginatus Sch.* 2000–2500 Ap Reg Himal Sh – Cuts, wounds C. bacillaris Wall. ex Lindl.* 1700–3200 Lf Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3,4 Scabies, rheumatism, arthritis C. nummularia Fisch. & Meyer* 600–3600 Fr, Bk, Lf Reg Himal Sh – Cuts, wounds Geum elatum Wall. ex G. Don* 3400–4200 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Astringent, dysentery, diarrhoea Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hk.f.* 1600–4800 Rt Reg Himal H 1 Gum, tooth complaints, tonic P. nepalensis Hk.* 2000–2700 Rt Reg Himal H 1 Cuts,burns,wounds Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle* 2300–3800 Fl Reg Himal Sh 1,4 Hepatitis, jaundice, stomach ache Rubiaceae Randia tetrasperma Lamk.* 1000–2000 Fr, Bk, Rt Reg Himal Sh – Wash hair and clothes Rutaceae Dictamnus albus L. 1800–3300 Rt LC Europe As Bor H – Skin diseases, arthritis, jaundice, scorbutic, scabies, eczema Skimmia laureola (DC.) Zucc.* 2400–3200 Lf Reg Himal Sh 1,2,3 Antiseptic, boils, gastric pains, rheumatism, scabies, smallpox Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 800–2000 Sd,Fr, Rt,St, Bk E Reg Himal China Sh 1,3 Antihelminthic, carminative, cough, cholera, fever, eczema,itch, smallpox,snakebite,stomach disorder, tonic, tooth complaints Saurauiaceae Saurauia napaulensis DC.* 600–2000 Br Reg Himal T – Poultice to extract splinters Saxifragaceae Bergenia ligulata Engl.* 1600–3200 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Asthma, boils, cuts, wounds, burns, fever, liver complaints, ophthalmia, piles, thirst, kidney stones, urine complaints; diarrhoea of cattle B. stracheyi (Hk.f.& Th.) Engler* 3600–4200 Rt VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Antiascorbic, astringent, diuretic, fever, ophthalmia, tonic, cuts, wounds Scrophulariaceae Lagotis cashmiriana (Royle) Rupr.** 3300–4500 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,4 Adulterant, fever, dyspepsia Medicinal plants in Himachal Pradesh Samant et al. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management 251 Altitudinal Part/s Taxa range (m) used Status Nativity Lifeform Occurrence Indigenous uses Picrorhiza kurrooa Benth. 3000–4500 Rh, Rt E Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Abdominal pain, anaemia, asthma,cholera,cold, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, jaundice, stomach disorder Pedicularis pectinata Wall. ex Benth.* 3200–3800 Wp Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Body ache, sedative Solanaceae Atropa acuminata Royle 2400–3600 Lf, Rt CR Europe Or Ind Or H 1 Antidote, sedative, narcotic, anodyne Hyoscyamus niger L. 2100–3300 Sd,Lf, Fl,Wp E Europe As Occ Reg H 4 Astringent, hysteria, muscular pain, sedative, Himal toothache, whooping cough Physochlaina praealta (Decne) Miers.* 3500–4600 Wp, Sd, Lf VU Reg Himal H 4 Epilepsy, liver complaints, boils, ulcers Symplocaceae Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Decne 1000–2800 Bk, Lf LC Japan T 1,2 Astringent, diarrhoea Taxaceae Taxus baccata L. subsp. wallichiana 2000–3000 Lf, Fr, Bk E Reg Bor Temp T 1,2,3,4 Cancer, aromatic, tumor (Zucc.) Pilger Thymelaeaceae Daphne papyracea Wall.* 1400–2300 Rt Reg Himal Sh 1,2 Intestinal complaints Trilliaceae Trillidium govanianum Wall * 2800–3600 Tb Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Dysentery Ulmaceae Ulmus wallichiana Planch.* 2000–3000 Bk Reg Himal T 1 Bone fracture, dislocation of joints Valerianaceae Valeriana jatamansi Jones 2000–3500 Rt VU Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Hysteria, urine complaints, hair oil tonic Nardostachys grandiflora DC. 3000–4000 Rt E Reg Himal Malaya H 1 Blood purifier, cooling, cough, diarrhoea, tonic, ulcer, snakebite Zingiberaceae Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Sm.* 1000–2000 Rh Reg Himal H 1,2,3 Asthma, blood purifier, bronchitis, nausea Roscoea alpina Royle* 200–3500 Rt Reg Himal H 1,2,3,4 Wounds, cuts of cattle, tonic R. purpurea Sm.* 1500–3000 Rt Reg Himal Burma H 2,3,4 Wounds, cuts of cattle, tonic Abbreviations: H = Herb; Sh = Shrub; T = Tree; Rt = Root; Rh = Rhizome; Tb = Tuber; Bb = Bulb; Bk = Bark; Wp = Whole plant; Lf = Leaf; Fr = Fruit; Fl = Flower; Res = Resin; Ap = Aerial part; Sd = Seed; St = Stem; Infl = Inflorescence; Lt = Latex; Wd = Wood; Reg Himal = Himalayan region; Ind Or = Indian Oriental; Bor = Boreal; Occ = Occidental; As = Asia; Amer = America; Trop = Tropical; Afr = Africa; Temp = Temperate; * = Endemic; ** = Near endemic; CR = Critically endangered; EN = Endangered; VU = Vulnerable; NT = Near threatened; DD = Data deficient; LC = Least concern; G = Global; 1 = Great Himalayan National Park; 2 = Manali Wildlife Sanctuary; 3 = Kais Wildlife Sanctuary; 4 = Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve
International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management – Taylor & Francis
Published: Dec 1, 2007
Keywords: MEDICINAL PLANTS; DIVERSITY; ENDEMISM; HIMACHAL PRADESH; CONSERVATION; PRIORITIZATION
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