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Monitoring the Character of Place in the Historical Site of Sanandaj, Iran

Monitoring the Character of Place in the Historical Site of Sanandaj, Iran Historical sites are special places not only due to the cultural heritage that they house, but also due to their natural resources. Many such sites are in a danger of losing their historical character if relevant measures are not put in place to ensure the continuity of this character. This paper is concerned with the character of place in historical site of Sanandaj considering two main factors of physical substance and pattern of material which were recognized as basic aspects contributing to the character of place (Kropf, 1996). The paper also proposes the SWOT analysis as an effective framework for identifying and assessing the qualities of place to derive an appropriate decision-making in conservation plan of historic site. The outcome of the case study is that the historical site of Sanandaj has the potential for natural and cultural resource-management plans, but this has not been explored as of yet. Keywords: urban character; SWOT analysis; Sanandaj; cultural and natural heritage 1. Introduction in mind set". "The underlying intension of a strategic Historical sites are special places not only due to approach is to identity what is available in a historic the cultural heritage that they house, but also due to site, qualities that should be protected and enhanced; their natural resources. They can be considered as and along with identifying these, to determine where irreplaceable assets representing the investment of negative factors could be removed or mitigated and to centuries of knowledge and lessons which weave identify where the opportunities for enhancement lie" t h e v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s a n d s p a t i a l u n i t s (Doratli et al. 1980). In this line, the SWOT model t o g e t h e r i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , was recognized "the basis for virtually all formalized such environments are "a treasure house of human strategy formulation processes", where it provides the experience – of successes and failure" (Rapoport, preliminary stage of decision making and possible 1989), good examples of "problem solving a total strategies for intervention (Moughtin et al. 1999, response to the challenge of climate and topography" Burton et al. 2002). and demonstrating an adaptation of man to the ebb This paper is concerned with the character of place and flow of social and political history of particular in the historical site of Sanandaj considering two nations in a long process of trial and error (Ahmad and leading questions: Malcolm, 2001). Many such sites are in a danger of 1. How was the historic core of Sanandaj formed? losing their historical aspects if relevant studies are not 2. What socio-spatial qualities it contained which put in place to measures those aspects and ensure the gave birth to its character? continuity of their qualities. These has been dealt considering two main factors As Rowley et al. (1997) state, "…conventional of physical substance and pattern of material through p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s t e n d t o b e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d document analysis, observation of the built form of looking at problems based on current understanding, the city and physical survey of existing built form and or an inside-out mind set; whereas strategic planning its natural context (taking photograph and analytical requires an understanding of the nature of the issue, drawings). Then, the technique of SWOT analysis has and then of an appropriate response, or an outside- been applied as an effective framework for identifying a n d a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f p l a c e t o d e r i v e a n appropriate decision-making in conservation plan of *Contact Author: Hooshmand Alizadeh, Assistant professor, historic site. Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, (Kurdistan), Iran 2. Geophysical Setting Tel: +98-871-666-0076 Fax: +98-871-666-0073 From "the concept of place which implies an inside E-mail: hoshali@yahoo.co.uk and an outside character, as integral parts of existence, ( Received April 1, 2008 ; accepted July 22, 2008 ) it is clear that the city in itself is meaningless to be Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/November 2008/208 201 imagined without the scale of its regional space within The only interruption is a narrow valley (Doule Haft- which it was given more of its character" (Norberg- âsiaw) between the two Âwears, Bouchek (small) and Schulz, 1980). It means that "the natural elements are Gawrah (big), along which seven mills supplied the the primary components of the given, and the city, the city and its surroundings. The eastern edge is defined positive shape of space, is defined in its geographical by two more ranges of hills, lower than those in the terms" (Norberg-Schulz, 1980). first setting, separated by a river (Dara-bayân) leading The site now occupied by the city of Sanandaj was from the slopes of Âwear Mountains to the main river, originally a low laying basin in Zagros Mountain, Fig.1. These heights can be imagined as natural walls w h e r e t h e Z â g r o s f o l d s a b u t t h e r e s i s t a n t b l o c k s separating the city from the regional corridor. While that form the plain of Hamadân. This setting can be the city was maintained behind these heights, two divided into two regional halves. The first comprises passes in gorges overlooking the main corridor served a relatively large bowl which contains many hills, arrivals and departures. These boundaries are such positive spaces, and a river (Cham-e Gheshlagh) that a visitor or traveller cannot see the city on the first flowing from north to south. This geo-physical rim can and even second approaches from the corridor. Beside be imagined as two strong curved walls, the western these heights, other small hills limit views of the city one formed by the Âwear Mountains and the eastern even from the summit of the two passes. Although, the one by the heights of Salawât-âwâ, bisected by the city was set back from the main corridor, it maintained Main River, Fig.1. In this view, several villages are set another corridor along the Dara-bayân River, Fig.1., to alongside the river, which is the main regional corridor. make a connection and a longitudinal axis along which T h e s c a l e o f t h e s e c o n d s e t t i n g s h r i n k s a s w e humans could settle. approach the city. In this sense, the western rim -- The realisation of the two levels of boundaries is the Âwear Mountains -- of the first setting is still the consistent with Leatherbarrow (1993), who believes major natural barrier to the city site from this side. that "every location is really defined by physical o b j e c t s " a n d t h a t e a c h e l e m e n t o f p o s i t i v e s p a c e c o n v e y s t h e f e a t u r e s o f i t s b o u n d a r y i n o r d e r t o manifest the character of place (Kite, 2002). This means a "symbolic interaction" between prominent site and built form (Kite, 2002). In justifying this interaction, the two fortified walls of the city (based on the 1850 map of the city), the interior wall around the Qalâ and the exterior one around the quarter of the Khâns or political elites, can be seen as a reflection of two levels of natural edginess that enhance the d e f e n s i v e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e c i t y. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e four gates (Darwâza) of the city wall can be seen as a reflection of the four passes through the city's boundary on the second level. This means that the city was founded, and given a structure and meaning that conformed to the surrounding natural environment. 3. Historical Background The city of Sanandaj is the capital of Kurdistan, the province which contains a majority of the Kurdish people in Iran. It gained its peculiar character due to its well known location within the Zâgros mountain range – the mountains which define the western edge of the Iranian plateau – and to the cultural background of the Kurdish people. The Zâgros Mountains have been recognised as the single physical phenomenon which has had a major influence in shaping Kurdish history, people, traditions, and culture (Idady, 1992). It was a majestic border between two rival empires: on the one side the Ottoman Empire was part of the Hanafite (Sunni tradition) and on the other the Safavid Empire was a part of the Shiite sect, which has had a major role in the formation of castellated city structures, often located Fig.1. The First (A) and Second (B) of the Geophysical Setting on inaccessible places. Within these rival empires, the Shapes of the City, the Concept of these Boundaries was Derived from Ardalan and Bakhtiar, 1973 202 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh Fig.2. The Main Features of the City Site Before its Foundation majority of Kurdish Muslims adhered to the Shâfi'ite far outweighed its economic function. This means that Sunni rites contrary to both empires to distinguish their its political dimension was the main stimulus for city identity from the surrounding lands. formation and even its later development. In line with The nature of the challenges between those empires this view and that the founders of the city, mainly Wâli and the independent status of castellated city structures Sulaymân-khân Ardalân, were aware of four centuries in the "Perso-Turkish" frontiers (Minorsky, 1943) experience of castellated-cities as a strong point for contextualised the idea of departure from that structure security, the core of the city was again settled on the to a new city to some extent capable of control by top of a hill, where it gave a convincing sense of being the Ir anian s ide (A lizad eh , 2 005 ). F o r Vas ily ev a and the possibility of overlooking the surrounding (2000), the main inducement to return to the city areas. However, the new experience of place needed was the conclusion of the Iran-Turkey peace treaty to be different from the previous one (mound-cities) of Zuhâb on 17 May 1639 – "they decided to destroy because it was intended to project a structure for a all Kurdish citadels". Under the terms of this peace new city. From this perspective, the seat of power, treaty, Sulaymân-khân Ardalân (who was one of the in contrast with previous generations, needed to be commanders of Shâh Safi's army) was ordered to settled in a position which could facilitate the structure move his residential site from the fortresses and to of a medium size city, the city was to be known in the destroy them. This meant centralizing the government future as the capital of Ardalân by merging the mobile of Kurdistan in a single point accessible to the Iranian capitals in the Qalâs. This means that the seat of power state, creating a gateway for the government to control is still the main core but in a joint structure with other the region through local representatives. Considering parts to create an entity named the city of Sennah-dej these points, the city of Sanandaj was founded in 1639 (Sanandaj). In line with this argument, although, there by the Ardalân family with an unusual urban form are many hills on the site of the city with different distinct from other Iranian cities. dimensions, for instance the large hill of Toos-Nauzar w h i c h d o m i n a t e d t h e m a c r o a n d m i c r o - r e g i o n a l 4. Evolution of Character settings of the city (the close and distant boundaries From the first review of the background of the city, of the site of the city) in the east, but the seat of power it was found that the political importance of the city was fixed on a hill in the centre of the site, where it JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 203 th Fig.3. The City's Main Components in the First Period of the 19 Century Fig.4. The Course of the Principal Route Across the City 204 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh was possible for the other elements of the city to be with Qalâ, the first Friday mosque was located close to structured around it, Fig.2. the bazaar accessible to the populace. But its location Other factors were also important in selection the was gradually set way from the main foci of the city as seat of power. The main one is the sacred site of Peer it was maintained in the quarter of ruling class due to Omar close to the top of the hill which gives a ritual some political conflicts over history . importance to the place. The next one could have The above structure of the city remained unchanged been the availability of the remnants of an old Qalâ up to 1750, when Karim-Khân Zand sacked and burned on the hill and settlements around which gave a point most of the city (Sharafkandi, 2002). Reconstruction of reference to the founders to settle there. In addition of the city saw great change that permanently affects to those factors, we can mention the existence of a t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c i t y. N e w C h a h â r- b â q ( f o u r caravan road to the other parts of Kurdistan in the gardens) was built or reconstructed named Bâqa- west of Zâgros close to the site of the Qalâ which also mayân northeast of the city, which later became the formed the course of second wall of the city around the Quarter of Chahâr-Bâq. The creation of this garden is quarter of nobles, Fig.2., 3. an important event in the city structure which implies a With this move from castellated cities, the Wâli, particular idea of the time, that later became a basis for who had lived in Isfahân and experienced it as a the city development in a rectangular form following splendid city, tried to build a city similar in splendour the existing quarter of Chahâr-Bâq, Fig.3. to Isfahân but on a smaller scale. For this reason, he Another major change to the structure of the city was invited professions such as architects, stonemasons and initiated by Aman-Allah Khan the great (1799-1825). carpenters from Isfahân "to revive what was left from He undertook important works relating to the site of the city which had actually disappeared" Vasilyeva, the Jumaa mosque and a new Chahâr-Bâq south-west 2 0 0 0 ) a n d t o b u i l d n e w m o s q u e s , H a m m â m s , of the city, on the opposite side from the first Chahâr- Madrassa, the bazaar and bridges around the Qalâ and Bâq, Fig.3. The previous Jumaa mosque, close to the a range of Qanâts (subterranean canals) for the main seat of government and the bazaar, was destroyed mansions of the city. and the existing one was erected elsewhere far from More important is that the settling of the people the bazaar and core of the city in the quarter of ruling on the site reflected the interests of the Khâns so that class. This means that the Jumaa mosque became they occupied the central area and allocated the other detached from the commoners not only by its location areas to people with regard to their socio-professional in that quarter but also by the image of the wall as backgrounds. This was due to the structure of the semi- a strong barrier and its action as a symbol of power feudal community, where the leader (Khân) is a source and status. This is somewhat in contrast to that of the of both continuity and change. He is a decision-maker Islamic city in general and Iranian one in particular, and a determiner of social organisation. From this where either the bazaar was adjacent to the Jumaa point and by reference to the Russian map (Mehriar mosque or its continuation created a spatial structure et al. 1998), it can be seen that the social structure of for their interaction. the city was conceived based on four parts in order From evidence in the local chronicles, the creation to convey the function of the city in that period. This of the new Chahâr-bâq caused the deterioration of the means building a physical structure which comprised former Chahâr-bâq (Vasilyeva, 2000 & Sharafkandi, a core in the middle, as the seat of power and nobles 2002). This point alongside the natural growth of the with the dominant features of the Qalâ (named Miyân- city population, especially those who engaged with the Qalâ, which means the citadel in between), a quarter functioning of the bazaar due to the city's economic for servants adjacent to the nobles in the north (called prosperity at that period, led to the occupation of the Jawr-âwâ, meaning the place developed by toilers/ site and its gradual construction as another quarter. As workers), the site of merchants with the dominant the second place of power, it also influenced the course feature of the bazaar at the bottom of the Qalâ's hill of principal route. in the east (named the quarter of Bazaar), the quarter Due to the pre-eminence of the political dimension of transport organisers situated on the other side of of the city over other socio-economic factors, the the river to the south (with the name Qatâr-chyân, the course of principal route as the backbone of the city people that used mules to transfer goods), Fig.3. This was directed alongside the poles of power (Qalâ structure is similar to that conceived by Kostof (1992: Emarat and the garden complex of Khusrau-ãwâ) 73): instead of the main bazaar in the whole structure of the "The hilltop is where a town usually begins, with city, Fig.4. Other Iranian cities in contrast represent a princely citadel, a cathedral [or Mosque], a basic different structural pattern within which the poles of nucleus of feudal authority. Down in the valley is a gravities were not bound to the same characters; on civil core of craftspeople and traders". the one hand to the palace precincts, but on the other From the above quotation, the only exception is in hand to the city's symbolic heart (Masjid-e Jumaa) the location of the Jumaa Mosque (Friday mosque) as as two separable entities (Ardalan, 1973). Therefore, the main element of an Islamic city. Instead of being it is a logical point to make that the role of power JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 205 Table 1. SWOT Analysis of the Sanandaj's Historic Core through Moughtin's Approach The level of Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Analysis Natural setting - Geophysical setting and - Hilly pattern of the - Decay of natural beauty climate condition which is city site, this is an attractive for tourism opportunity to site the - Existence of Awear symbolic elements, Mountain and Toos-nawzar extracted from the value hill which have symbolic of Kurdish culture, on values to the city the top of the hills - The course of Gheshlagh river which directed the city development to the east Built - Being the main foci of the - Limited area for - Opportunity to - More deterioration in environment city development renovate the principal the monumental and - Existence of identical - Scarce amount of route traditional houses quarters and some spaces for any change - More visual misery monumental buildings (the to supply other needs - Physical, functional, site of Qalâ, covered bazaar, - Car parking problems locational and image baths, mansions, …) - Inadequate and obsolescence within the - Mix-use within the historic inappropriate street quarters bordered by site furnishing elements crossroads - Existence of reference - Inappropriate additions - Lack of maintenance in points in each quarter to the building facades private, semi-private and - Predominant human scale such as architectural and public spaces pattern advertisement boards - Weaknesses in the - Existence of various - Lack of unity and master plan traditional housing dwellings harmony among the old - Some misery which represent the concept and new buildings intervention through of duality: introverted and implementing the extroverted structure crossroads, demolition - Existence of some of traditional buildings well defined urban form to erect multi-story ones components which make it addition to the traditional unique among other Iranian human scale pattern cities and create sense of abutting to the crossroads place Socio- - Being the capital of - Lack of commitment - Tourism potential from - Loss of the historical economic Kurdistan to the environment both cultural heritage heritage environment - A shared culture - Immigration of and environmental - Loss of commitment to - Responsiveness of Kurdish the actual owners of resources and the place culture to the Genius Loci, the houses to new - Existence of - Loss of sense of place to the setting of the city as a developing suburbs department of - Decrease of public whole and to the dwelling in - High unemployment architecture in two activities a particular relationship to rate universities - More migration of the landscape - Existence of many - Existence of some the main residents and immigrant low-income NGO which work their replacement by settled in the historic for preserving and other people with rural core and poor areas in enhancing the city background the suburbs cultural heritage - Limited area for - Economic crisis - Sensitivity of some development increased - Inadequate local people (mainly the land prices, this municipality services historians) to the affected the land to - Inadequate mass historic core and its became the main urban transportation relevant environmental commodity which - Inadequate use of policies changed the people public transportation - Existence of and even authorities' systems organization of tourism perception to the - Lack of social welfare and cultural heritage historic core as the - Lack of any urban - Existence of best alternative for transportation plan organization of housing development - Daily routine activity and urban planning - speculative increase in of municipality - cultural events land values - Increase of interest to - Weak financial the cultural tourism in background of world scale municipality -Cultural minority -Existence of different which increase the organization (means sense of place and different approaches commitment to the towards the historic core) value of the culture dealing with historic core 206 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh relationships had a major influence on the structure of 6. Conclusion urban spaces in the city of Sanandaj. The perceived structure of the city to some extent F o l l o w i n g d e m o l i t i o n o f t h e c i t y w a l l s a n d shows a particular character which no other traditional construction of the first crossroads initiated by the Iranian city had shown during the Islamic period. wave of modernization, some major changes happened Its main structure sprang from the castellated cities, in the social structure of the city. This mainly affected which contained three layers of urban spaces; the the middle part of the city recognized as the quarter of citadel or Qalâ on the top of a hill in the centre of the Khâns. The inhabitants of this part, which contained city's setting was surrounded by a wall, the quarter most valuable features of the city architecture, moved occupied by the ruling class was again enclosed by to suburb or upper cities in search of new life style a wall, and, beyond these two parts, is the rest of the imposed by modernization. They replaced by wave city comprising three main quarters and one newer o f m i g r a t i o n f r o m r u r a l a r e a s f o r c e d b y t h e l a n d quarter free of man-made walls. These three quarters reform policy . The continuation of such policies led as a collection of villages circled the nucleus of power to expansion of the city suburbs in expense of the and were partitioned mostly based on the professions old part. As the growth of the urban fabric has been to build the third layer of city walls and to supply the constrained by the mountains, this expansion, in both needs of the ruling class and whatever else a medium rich and poor areas, happened in the remote areas sized city needed to function. Therefore, as a founded either by leveling the heights or organic occupying city it can be recognised as an important built form them. which presents the Kurdish understanding of the As the city alongside new emerging suburbs still environment. remained on the functioning of the civic core (Bazaar), For the first time, the principal route of the city was the historic core, based on pedestrian movement, was identified. It was the backbone of the city in structuring gradually became detached by orthogonal network of the old quarters (Jawrâwâ, Chahâr-bâq, Myân-qalâ roads, "an open matrix which would ease the flow of and Qatâr-chyân) and various other physical and people and resources into and around urban space" spatial urban elements. It served as an articulation of (Madanipour 1999). On the one hand this affected the entry, and a means of leading high-ranking authorities integrated image of the historic core, but on the other (the Wâli and the King) and their escorts to the seat hand it intensified its function for the whole city and of power within the Qalâ. As described, it ran from even surrounding villages. Now, the place of traditional north (the route towards other Iranian cities) to south bazaar and surrounding lines of streets act as the foci of (the slopes of the Âwér Mountains) crossing the Dara- the city in unifying the streams of life from dispersed bayân River. The Dara-bayân River, as the structure suburbs. of natural setting, defined the longitudinal axis and A lthough, the perceived image of the city w as the principal route, as the man-made environment, gradually changed due to the removal of the Ardalâns' structured the latitudinal axis. These two linear forms family from the power and socio-cultural forces of the had major roles in the organisation and orientation of time, the structuring elements of the historic core (old the spaces. Contrary to the common notion about the quarters, the site of Qalâ/citadel, bazaar and the course course of principle route in other Iranian cities which is of principal route) alongside the features of the terrain mainly bound with the structure of bazaar, the principal are still the main components of urban character. route was mainly oriented by the poles of powers More importantly, the main residents still recognize within the inner-shâr due to the political dimension themselves with the name and places of old quarters. of place and even continued towards the slope of the For non-residents the name of Sanandaj reflects its well Âwér Mountains where the second seat of power was defined location in the intermountain basin of Zagros, located (the mansion and garden complex of Khusrau- particularly on the slope of Âwear Mountains. âwâ) along which the Arg square, the Qatâr-chyân bazaarché, hammâms, mosques and many architectural 5. SWOT Analysis of the Historic Site buildings evolved. Following the general portrait of the historic core, it Apart from the first review of the city's evolution is time to answer the second research question (What c h a r a c t e r, w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e c i t y ' s u r b a n socio-spatial qualities it contained which gave birth components and their arrangement (physical substance to its character?) To do this, it is necessary to identify and pattern of material), the outcome of the SWOT and assess the quality of place using the research analysis is that the historical site of Sanandaj has the findings and through four elements of SWOT analysis: potential for natural and cultural resource-management Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. plans, qualities (strengthens and opportunities) that This part has been summarized in the following table, should be protected and enhanced. Thus, conservation which is based on the above review and some findings plan need to emphasis the city's unique selling out: presented in the author's theses (Alizadeh, 2005) . what makes it distinctive and different from competing JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 207 tourist destinations. As clarified, the city of Sanandaj Endnotes Shah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. has attractive natural and built environments, it should For more information, reader is referred to author's article, strive to enhance and develop its distinctiveness and Alizadeh (2005). authenticity. In line with this, a pragmatic, rather than 3 None of the historical books mentioned anything about the a purist, approach to conservation is most beneficial in destruction of the wall. Based on the evidence from other Iranian the cultural resource-management plans. The historic cities, where most were destroyed in the period of Naser o-Din Shâh (1848 – 1896), we can understand that the city walls were buildings should not be retained as artefacts, relics destroyed after the fall of the Ardalân family because it coincided of a bygone age. New uses should be allowed in the with the period of Naser o-Din Shâh-e Qajâr in 1868. buildings and sensitive adaptations facilitated, when 4 A significant land reform was part of Muhammad Rezad Shah's so the original use of a historic building is no longer called white revolution of 1963. The last Wâli of the Ardalân family died in 1867. This can be relevant or viable. marked as the end of Ardalâns government over Kurdistan. After this, the city walls and even the prosperous image of the Qal were References destroyed. 1) Ahmad, K. and Malcolm, P. (2001) Traditional Settlements, User This has been done through Moughtin's approach. Participation and 'No Harm' Principle Toward a contemporary participatory process in low-income public housing in Islamic cities. In H. Turgut and P. Kellett, eds. Pro. Of the 2nd Int. Conf. On Traditional Environments in a New Millennium. Turkey: Istanbul Technology University: pp.69-74. 2) Alizadeh, H. (2004) The Kurdish City of Sanandaj: an analysis of its formation and historical development until 1930. Journal of Kurdish Studies, 5: pp.103-126. 3) Alizadeh, H. (2005) The design principles of traditional urban cores in Iran: A case study of Qatâr-chyân quarter, Sanandaj. Unpublished theses, UK: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. 4) Ardalan, N. and Bakhtiar, L. (1973) The Sense of Unity: the Sufi tradition in Persian architecture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 5) Burton, R M, et al. (2002) Return on assets loss from situational and contingency misfits. Informs, 48(11), pp.1461-1485. 6) D o r a t l i , N , e t a l . ( 2 0 0 4 ) A n a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y f o r revitalization strategies in historic urban quarters: a case study of the Walled City of Nicosia, North Cyprus. Cities: 21(4), pp.329-348. 7) Izady, M. R. (1992) A Concise Handbook: the Kurds. Washington, Philadelphia & London: Crane Russak (Taylor & Francis). 8) Kite, S. (2002) The Poetics of Oman's Traditional Architecture: towards an aesthetic interpretation. Journal of Oman Studies, 12, pp.133-155. 9) Kostof, S. (1992) The City Assembled : the elements of urban form through history, London: Thames and Hudson. 10) Leatherbarrow, D. (1993) The Roots of Architectural Invention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11) M a d a n i p o u r, A . ( 1 9 9 9 ) C i t y p r o f i l e : Te h r a n : C i t i e s . 1 6 ( 1 ) , pp.57-65. 12) Mehriar, M, et al. (1998) Asnad-e-Tasveri Shahrha-e Irani. (The Old Maps of Iranian Cities), Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press. 13) Minorsky, V. (1943) Sanandaj. In M. Th. Houtsma, et al, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam. London: Leyden & Luzac & Co. 14) M o u g h t i n , C , e t a l . ( 1 9 9 9 ) I n U r b a n D e s i g n : M e t h o d a n d Techniques. Oxford: Architectural Press. 15) Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971) Existence, Space & Architecture. London: Studio Vista. 16) Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980) Genius Loci: towards a phenomenology of architecture. New York: Rizzoli international publications. 17) Rowley, D J. et al, (1997) Strategic Change in Colleges and Universities, Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, CA, p.36 18) Sharafkandi, A. (2002) Mejwi Ardalan. (The History of Ardalan), Tehran: Taze Nghah press. 19) Vasilyeva, E. I. (2000) The Kurdish City of Sanandaj: Ardelan's capital. Pro. Of the Int. Conf. On Kurds, Paris. 208 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering Taylor & Francis

Monitoring the Character of Place in the Historical Site of Sanandaj, Iran

Monitoring the Character of Place in the Historical Site of Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Historical sites are special places not only due to the cultural heritage that they house, but also due to their natural resources. Many such sites are in a danger of losing their historical character if relevant measures are not put in place to ensure the continuity of this character. This paper is concerned with the character of place in historical site of Sanandaj considering two main factors of physical substance and pattern of material which were recognized as basic aspects contributing...
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Taylor & Francis
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© 2018 Architectural Institute of Japan
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1347-2852
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1346-7581
DOI
10.3130/jaabe.7.201
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Abstract

Historical sites are special places not only due to the cultural heritage that they house, but also due to their natural resources. Many such sites are in a danger of losing their historical character if relevant measures are not put in place to ensure the continuity of this character. This paper is concerned with the character of place in historical site of Sanandaj considering two main factors of physical substance and pattern of material which were recognized as basic aspects contributing to the character of place (Kropf, 1996). The paper also proposes the SWOT analysis as an effective framework for identifying and assessing the qualities of place to derive an appropriate decision-making in conservation plan of historic site. The outcome of the case study is that the historical site of Sanandaj has the potential for natural and cultural resource-management plans, but this has not been explored as of yet. Keywords: urban character; SWOT analysis; Sanandaj; cultural and natural heritage 1. Introduction in mind set". "The underlying intension of a strategic Historical sites are special places not only due to approach is to identity what is available in a historic the cultural heritage that they house, but also due to site, qualities that should be protected and enhanced; their natural resources. They can be considered as and along with identifying these, to determine where irreplaceable assets representing the investment of negative factors could be removed or mitigated and to centuries of knowledge and lessons which weave identify where the opportunities for enhancement lie" t h e v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s a n d s p a t i a l u n i t s (Doratli et al. 1980). In this line, the SWOT model t o g e t h e r i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , was recognized "the basis for virtually all formalized such environments are "a treasure house of human strategy formulation processes", where it provides the experience – of successes and failure" (Rapoport, preliminary stage of decision making and possible 1989), good examples of "problem solving a total strategies for intervention (Moughtin et al. 1999, response to the challenge of climate and topography" Burton et al. 2002). and demonstrating an adaptation of man to the ebb This paper is concerned with the character of place and flow of social and political history of particular in the historical site of Sanandaj considering two nations in a long process of trial and error (Ahmad and leading questions: Malcolm, 2001). Many such sites are in a danger of 1. How was the historic core of Sanandaj formed? losing their historical aspects if relevant studies are not 2. What socio-spatial qualities it contained which put in place to measures those aspects and ensure the gave birth to its character? continuity of their qualities. These has been dealt considering two main factors As Rowley et al. (1997) state, "…conventional of physical substance and pattern of material through p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s t e n d t o b e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d document analysis, observation of the built form of looking at problems based on current understanding, the city and physical survey of existing built form and or an inside-out mind set; whereas strategic planning its natural context (taking photograph and analytical requires an understanding of the nature of the issue, drawings). Then, the technique of SWOT analysis has and then of an appropriate response, or an outside- been applied as an effective framework for identifying a n d a s s e s s i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f p l a c e t o d e r i v e a n appropriate decision-making in conservation plan of *Contact Author: Hooshmand Alizadeh, Assistant professor, historic site. Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, (Kurdistan), Iran 2. Geophysical Setting Tel: +98-871-666-0076 Fax: +98-871-666-0073 From "the concept of place which implies an inside E-mail: hoshali@yahoo.co.uk and an outside character, as integral parts of existence, ( Received April 1, 2008 ; accepted July 22, 2008 ) it is clear that the city in itself is meaningless to be Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/November 2008/208 201 imagined without the scale of its regional space within The only interruption is a narrow valley (Doule Haft- which it was given more of its character" (Norberg- âsiaw) between the two Âwears, Bouchek (small) and Schulz, 1980). It means that "the natural elements are Gawrah (big), along which seven mills supplied the the primary components of the given, and the city, the city and its surroundings. The eastern edge is defined positive shape of space, is defined in its geographical by two more ranges of hills, lower than those in the terms" (Norberg-Schulz, 1980). first setting, separated by a river (Dara-bayân) leading The site now occupied by the city of Sanandaj was from the slopes of Âwear Mountains to the main river, originally a low laying basin in Zagros Mountain, Fig.1. These heights can be imagined as natural walls w h e r e t h e Z â g r o s f o l d s a b u t t h e r e s i s t a n t b l o c k s separating the city from the regional corridor. While that form the plain of Hamadân. This setting can be the city was maintained behind these heights, two divided into two regional halves. The first comprises passes in gorges overlooking the main corridor served a relatively large bowl which contains many hills, arrivals and departures. These boundaries are such positive spaces, and a river (Cham-e Gheshlagh) that a visitor or traveller cannot see the city on the first flowing from north to south. This geo-physical rim can and even second approaches from the corridor. Beside be imagined as two strong curved walls, the western these heights, other small hills limit views of the city one formed by the Âwear Mountains and the eastern even from the summit of the two passes. Although, the one by the heights of Salawât-âwâ, bisected by the city was set back from the main corridor, it maintained Main River, Fig.1. In this view, several villages are set another corridor along the Dara-bayân River, Fig.1., to alongside the river, which is the main regional corridor. make a connection and a longitudinal axis along which T h e s c a l e o f t h e s e c o n d s e t t i n g s h r i n k s a s w e humans could settle. approach the city. In this sense, the western rim -- The realisation of the two levels of boundaries is the Âwear Mountains -- of the first setting is still the consistent with Leatherbarrow (1993), who believes major natural barrier to the city site from this side. that "every location is really defined by physical o b j e c t s " a n d t h a t e a c h e l e m e n t o f p o s i t i v e s p a c e c o n v e y s t h e f e a t u r e s o f i t s b o u n d a r y i n o r d e r t o manifest the character of place (Kite, 2002). This means a "symbolic interaction" between prominent site and built form (Kite, 2002). In justifying this interaction, the two fortified walls of the city (based on the 1850 map of the city), the interior wall around the Qalâ and the exterior one around the quarter of the Khâns or political elites, can be seen as a reflection of two levels of natural edginess that enhance the d e f e n s i v e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e c i t y. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e four gates (Darwâza) of the city wall can be seen as a reflection of the four passes through the city's boundary on the second level. This means that the city was founded, and given a structure and meaning that conformed to the surrounding natural environment. 3. Historical Background The city of Sanandaj is the capital of Kurdistan, the province which contains a majority of the Kurdish people in Iran. It gained its peculiar character due to its well known location within the Zâgros mountain range – the mountains which define the western edge of the Iranian plateau – and to the cultural background of the Kurdish people. The Zâgros Mountains have been recognised as the single physical phenomenon which has had a major influence in shaping Kurdish history, people, traditions, and culture (Idady, 1992). It was a majestic border between two rival empires: on the one side the Ottoman Empire was part of the Hanafite (Sunni tradition) and on the other the Safavid Empire was a part of the Shiite sect, which has had a major role in the formation of castellated city structures, often located Fig.1. The First (A) and Second (B) of the Geophysical Setting on inaccessible places. Within these rival empires, the Shapes of the City, the Concept of these Boundaries was Derived from Ardalan and Bakhtiar, 1973 202 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh Fig.2. The Main Features of the City Site Before its Foundation majority of Kurdish Muslims adhered to the Shâfi'ite far outweighed its economic function. This means that Sunni rites contrary to both empires to distinguish their its political dimension was the main stimulus for city identity from the surrounding lands. formation and even its later development. In line with The nature of the challenges between those empires this view and that the founders of the city, mainly Wâli and the independent status of castellated city structures Sulaymân-khân Ardalân, were aware of four centuries in the "Perso-Turkish" frontiers (Minorsky, 1943) experience of castellated-cities as a strong point for contextualised the idea of departure from that structure security, the core of the city was again settled on the to a new city to some extent capable of control by top of a hill, where it gave a convincing sense of being the Ir anian s ide (A lizad eh , 2 005 ). F o r Vas ily ev a and the possibility of overlooking the surrounding (2000), the main inducement to return to the city areas. However, the new experience of place needed was the conclusion of the Iran-Turkey peace treaty to be different from the previous one (mound-cities) of Zuhâb on 17 May 1639 – "they decided to destroy because it was intended to project a structure for a all Kurdish citadels". Under the terms of this peace new city. From this perspective, the seat of power, treaty, Sulaymân-khân Ardalân (who was one of the in contrast with previous generations, needed to be commanders of Shâh Safi's army) was ordered to settled in a position which could facilitate the structure move his residential site from the fortresses and to of a medium size city, the city was to be known in the destroy them. This meant centralizing the government future as the capital of Ardalân by merging the mobile of Kurdistan in a single point accessible to the Iranian capitals in the Qalâs. This means that the seat of power state, creating a gateway for the government to control is still the main core but in a joint structure with other the region through local representatives. Considering parts to create an entity named the city of Sennah-dej these points, the city of Sanandaj was founded in 1639 (Sanandaj). In line with this argument, although, there by the Ardalân family with an unusual urban form are many hills on the site of the city with different distinct from other Iranian cities. dimensions, for instance the large hill of Toos-Nauzar w h i c h d o m i n a t e d t h e m a c r o a n d m i c r o - r e g i o n a l 4. Evolution of Character settings of the city (the close and distant boundaries From the first review of the background of the city, of the site of the city) in the east, but the seat of power it was found that the political importance of the city was fixed on a hill in the centre of the site, where it JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 203 th Fig.3. The City's Main Components in the First Period of the 19 Century Fig.4. The Course of the Principal Route Across the City 204 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh was possible for the other elements of the city to be with Qalâ, the first Friday mosque was located close to structured around it, Fig.2. the bazaar accessible to the populace. But its location Other factors were also important in selection the was gradually set way from the main foci of the city as seat of power. The main one is the sacred site of Peer it was maintained in the quarter of ruling class due to Omar close to the top of the hill which gives a ritual some political conflicts over history . importance to the place. The next one could have The above structure of the city remained unchanged been the availability of the remnants of an old Qalâ up to 1750, when Karim-Khân Zand sacked and burned on the hill and settlements around which gave a point most of the city (Sharafkandi, 2002). Reconstruction of reference to the founders to settle there. In addition of the city saw great change that permanently affects to those factors, we can mention the existence of a t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c i t y. N e w C h a h â r- b â q ( f o u r caravan road to the other parts of Kurdistan in the gardens) was built or reconstructed named Bâqa- west of Zâgros close to the site of the Qalâ which also mayân northeast of the city, which later became the formed the course of second wall of the city around the Quarter of Chahâr-Bâq. The creation of this garden is quarter of nobles, Fig.2., 3. an important event in the city structure which implies a With this move from castellated cities, the Wâli, particular idea of the time, that later became a basis for who had lived in Isfahân and experienced it as a the city development in a rectangular form following splendid city, tried to build a city similar in splendour the existing quarter of Chahâr-Bâq, Fig.3. to Isfahân but on a smaller scale. For this reason, he Another major change to the structure of the city was invited professions such as architects, stonemasons and initiated by Aman-Allah Khan the great (1799-1825). carpenters from Isfahân "to revive what was left from He undertook important works relating to the site of the city which had actually disappeared" Vasilyeva, the Jumaa mosque and a new Chahâr-Bâq south-west 2 0 0 0 ) a n d t o b u i l d n e w m o s q u e s , H a m m â m s , of the city, on the opposite side from the first Chahâr- Madrassa, the bazaar and bridges around the Qalâ and Bâq, Fig.3. The previous Jumaa mosque, close to the a range of Qanâts (subterranean canals) for the main seat of government and the bazaar, was destroyed mansions of the city. and the existing one was erected elsewhere far from More important is that the settling of the people the bazaar and core of the city in the quarter of ruling on the site reflected the interests of the Khâns so that class. This means that the Jumaa mosque became they occupied the central area and allocated the other detached from the commoners not only by its location areas to people with regard to their socio-professional in that quarter but also by the image of the wall as backgrounds. This was due to the structure of the semi- a strong barrier and its action as a symbol of power feudal community, where the leader (Khân) is a source and status. This is somewhat in contrast to that of the of both continuity and change. He is a decision-maker Islamic city in general and Iranian one in particular, and a determiner of social organisation. From this where either the bazaar was adjacent to the Jumaa point and by reference to the Russian map (Mehriar mosque or its continuation created a spatial structure et al. 1998), it can be seen that the social structure of for their interaction. the city was conceived based on four parts in order From evidence in the local chronicles, the creation to convey the function of the city in that period. This of the new Chahâr-bâq caused the deterioration of the means building a physical structure which comprised former Chahâr-bâq (Vasilyeva, 2000 & Sharafkandi, a core in the middle, as the seat of power and nobles 2002). This point alongside the natural growth of the with the dominant features of the Qalâ (named Miyân- city population, especially those who engaged with the Qalâ, which means the citadel in between), a quarter functioning of the bazaar due to the city's economic for servants adjacent to the nobles in the north (called prosperity at that period, led to the occupation of the Jawr-âwâ, meaning the place developed by toilers/ site and its gradual construction as another quarter. As workers), the site of merchants with the dominant the second place of power, it also influenced the course feature of the bazaar at the bottom of the Qalâ's hill of principal route. in the east (named the quarter of Bazaar), the quarter Due to the pre-eminence of the political dimension of transport organisers situated on the other side of of the city over other socio-economic factors, the the river to the south (with the name Qatâr-chyân, the course of principal route as the backbone of the city people that used mules to transfer goods), Fig.3. This was directed alongside the poles of power (Qalâ structure is similar to that conceived by Kostof (1992: Emarat and the garden complex of Khusrau-ãwâ) 73): instead of the main bazaar in the whole structure of the "The hilltop is where a town usually begins, with city, Fig.4. Other Iranian cities in contrast represent a princely citadel, a cathedral [or Mosque], a basic different structural pattern within which the poles of nucleus of feudal authority. Down in the valley is a gravities were not bound to the same characters; on civil core of craftspeople and traders". the one hand to the palace precincts, but on the other From the above quotation, the only exception is in hand to the city's symbolic heart (Masjid-e Jumaa) the location of the Jumaa Mosque (Friday mosque) as as two separable entities (Ardalan, 1973). Therefore, the main element of an Islamic city. Instead of being it is a logical point to make that the role of power JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 205 Table 1. SWOT Analysis of the Sanandaj's Historic Core through Moughtin's Approach The level of Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Analysis Natural setting - Geophysical setting and - Hilly pattern of the - Decay of natural beauty climate condition which is city site, this is an attractive for tourism opportunity to site the - Existence of Awear symbolic elements, Mountain and Toos-nawzar extracted from the value hill which have symbolic of Kurdish culture, on values to the city the top of the hills - The course of Gheshlagh river which directed the city development to the east Built - Being the main foci of the - Limited area for - Opportunity to - More deterioration in environment city development renovate the principal the monumental and - Existence of identical - Scarce amount of route traditional houses quarters and some spaces for any change - More visual misery monumental buildings (the to supply other needs - Physical, functional, site of Qalâ, covered bazaar, - Car parking problems locational and image baths, mansions, …) - Inadequate and obsolescence within the - Mix-use within the historic inappropriate street quarters bordered by site furnishing elements crossroads - Existence of reference - Inappropriate additions - Lack of maintenance in points in each quarter to the building facades private, semi-private and - Predominant human scale such as architectural and public spaces pattern advertisement boards - Weaknesses in the - Existence of various - Lack of unity and master plan traditional housing dwellings harmony among the old - Some misery which represent the concept and new buildings intervention through of duality: introverted and implementing the extroverted structure crossroads, demolition - Existence of some of traditional buildings well defined urban form to erect multi-story ones components which make it addition to the traditional unique among other Iranian human scale pattern cities and create sense of abutting to the crossroads place Socio- - Being the capital of - Lack of commitment - Tourism potential from - Loss of the historical economic Kurdistan to the environment both cultural heritage heritage environment - A shared culture - Immigration of and environmental - Loss of commitment to - Responsiveness of Kurdish the actual owners of resources and the place culture to the Genius Loci, the houses to new - Existence of - Loss of sense of place to the setting of the city as a developing suburbs department of - Decrease of public whole and to the dwelling in - High unemployment architecture in two activities a particular relationship to rate universities - More migration of the landscape - Existence of many - Existence of some the main residents and immigrant low-income NGO which work their replacement by settled in the historic for preserving and other people with rural core and poor areas in enhancing the city background the suburbs cultural heritage - Limited area for - Economic crisis - Sensitivity of some development increased - Inadequate local people (mainly the land prices, this municipality services historians) to the affected the land to - Inadequate mass historic core and its became the main urban transportation relevant environmental commodity which - Inadequate use of policies changed the people public transportation - Existence of and even authorities' systems organization of tourism perception to the - Lack of social welfare and cultural heritage historic core as the - Lack of any urban - Existence of best alternative for transportation plan organization of housing development - Daily routine activity and urban planning - speculative increase in of municipality - cultural events land values - Increase of interest to - Weak financial the cultural tourism in background of world scale municipality -Cultural minority -Existence of different which increase the organization (means sense of place and different approaches commitment to the towards the historic core) value of the culture dealing with historic core 206 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh relationships had a major influence on the structure of 6. Conclusion urban spaces in the city of Sanandaj. The perceived structure of the city to some extent F o l l o w i n g d e m o l i t i o n o f t h e c i t y w a l l s a n d shows a particular character which no other traditional construction of the first crossroads initiated by the Iranian city had shown during the Islamic period. wave of modernization, some major changes happened Its main structure sprang from the castellated cities, in the social structure of the city. This mainly affected which contained three layers of urban spaces; the the middle part of the city recognized as the quarter of citadel or Qalâ on the top of a hill in the centre of the Khâns. The inhabitants of this part, which contained city's setting was surrounded by a wall, the quarter most valuable features of the city architecture, moved occupied by the ruling class was again enclosed by to suburb or upper cities in search of new life style a wall, and, beyond these two parts, is the rest of the imposed by modernization. They replaced by wave city comprising three main quarters and one newer o f m i g r a t i o n f r o m r u r a l a r e a s f o r c e d b y t h e l a n d quarter free of man-made walls. These three quarters reform policy . The continuation of such policies led as a collection of villages circled the nucleus of power to expansion of the city suburbs in expense of the and were partitioned mostly based on the professions old part. As the growth of the urban fabric has been to build the third layer of city walls and to supply the constrained by the mountains, this expansion, in both needs of the ruling class and whatever else a medium rich and poor areas, happened in the remote areas sized city needed to function. Therefore, as a founded either by leveling the heights or organic occupying city it can be recognised as an important built form them. which presents the Kurdish understanding of the As the city alongside new emerging suburbs still environment. remained on the functioning of the civic core (Bazaar), For the first time, the principal route of the city was the historic core, based on pedestrian movement, was identified. It was the backbone of the city in structuring gradually became detached by orthogonal network of the old quarters (Jawrâwâ, Chahâr-bâq, Myân-qalâ roads, "an open matrix which would ease the flow of and Qatâr-chyân) and various other physical and people and resources into and around urban space" spatial urban elements. It served as an articulation of (Madanipour 1999). On the one hand this affected the entry, and a means of leading high-ranking authorities integrated image of the historic core, but on the other (the Wâli and the King) and their escorts to the seat hand it intensified its function for the whole city and of power within the Qalâ. As described, it ran from even surrounding villages. Now, the place of traditional north (the route towards other Iranian cities) to south bazaar and surrounding lines of streets act as the foci of (the slopes of the Âwér Mountains) crossing the Dara- the city in unifying the streams of life from dispersed bayân River. The Dara-bayân River, as the structure suburbs. of natural setting, defined the longitudinal axis and A lthough, the perceived image of the city w as the principal route, as the man-made environment, gradually changed due to the removal of the Ardalâns' structured the latitudinal axis. These two linear forms family from the power and socio-cultural forces of the had major roles in the organisation and orientation of time, the structuring elements of the historic core (old the spaces. Contrary to the common notion about the quarters, the site of Qalâ/citadel, bazaar and the course course of principle route in other Iranian cities which is of principal route) alongside the features of the terrain mainly bound with the structure of bazaar, the principal are still the main components of urban character. route was mainly oriented by the poles of powers More importantly, the main residents still recognize within the inner-shâr due to the political dimension themselves with the name and places of old quarters. of place and even continued towards the slope of the For non-residents the name of Sanandaj reflects its well Âwér Mountains where the second seat of power was defined location in the intermountain basin of Zagros, located (the mansion and garden complex of Khusrau- particularly on the slope of Âwear Mountains. âwâ) along which the Arg square, the Qatâr-chyân bazaarché, hammâms, mosques and many architectural 5. SWOT Analysis of the Historic Site buildings evolved. Following the general portrait of the historic core, it Apart from the first review of the city's evolution is time to answer the second research question (What c h a r a c t e r, w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e c i t y ' s u r b a n socio-spatial qualities it contained which gave birth components and their arrangement (physical substance to its character?) To do this, it is necessary to identify and pattern of material), the outcome of the SWOT and assess the quality of place using the research analysis is that the historical site of Sanandaj has the findings and through four elements of SWOT analysis: potential for natural and cultural resource-management Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. plans, qualities (strengthens and opportunities) that This part has been summarized in the following table, should be protected and enhanced. Thus, conservation which is based on the above review and some findings plan need to emphasis the city's unique selling out: presented in the author's theses (Alizadeh, 2005) . what makes it distinctive and different from competing JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh 207 tourist destinations. As clarified, the city of Sanandaj Endnotes Shah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. has attractive natural and built environments, it should For more information, reader is referred to author's article, strive to enhance and develop its distinctiveness and Alizadeh (2005). authenticity. In line with this, a pragmatic, rather than 3 None of the historical books mentioned anything about the a purist, approach to conservation is most beneficial in destruction of the wall. Based on the evidence from other Iranian the cultural resource-management plans. The historic cities, where most were destroyed in the period of Naser o-Din Shâh (1848 – 1896), we can understand that the city walls were buildings should not be retained as artefacts, relics destroyed after the fall of the Ardalân family because it coincided of a bygone age. New uses should be allowed in the with the period of Naser o-Din Shâh-e Qajâr in 1868. buildings and sensitive adaptations facilitated, when 4 A significant land reform was part of Muhammad Rezad Shah's so the original use of a historic building is no longer called white revolution of 1963. The last Wâli of the Ardalân family died in 1867. This can be relevant or viable. marked as the end of Ardalâns government over Kurdistan. After this, the city walls and even the prosperous image of the Qal were References destroyed. 1) Ahmad, K. and Malcolm, P. (2001) Traditional Settlements, User This has been done through Moughtin's approach. 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Houtsma, et al, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam. London: Leyden & Luzac & Co. 14) M o u g h t i n , C , e t a l . ( 1 9 9 9 ) I n U r b a n D e s i g n : M e t h o d a n d Techniques. Oxford: Architectural Press. 15) Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971) Existence, Space & Architecture. London: Studio Vista. 16) Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980) Genius Loci: towards a phenomenology of architecture. New York: Rizzoli international publications. 17) Rowley, D J. et al, (1997) Strategic Change in Colleges and Universities, Jossey-Bass Publishers: San Francisco, CA, p.36 18) Sharafkandi, A. (2002) Mejwi Ardalan. (The History of Ardalan), Tehran: Taze Nghah press. 19) Vasilyeva, E. I. (2000) The Kurdish City of Sanandaj: Ardelan's capital. Pro. Of the Int. Conf. On Kurds, Paris. 208 JAABE vol.7 no.2 November 2008 Hooshmand Alizadeh

Journal

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building EngineeringTaylor & Francis

Published: Nov 1, 2008

Keywords: urban character; SWOT analysis; Sanandaj; cultural and natural heritage

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