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Theme restaurants are primarily run based on spatial planning, decor and entertainment arrangements, with a distinctive theme or specific style to attract consumers and create a value in the minds of consumers. However, after a rapid growth in popularity in the early to mid-1990s, theme restaurants began to lose market share, and many once popular brands were forced to downsize. This study explores the physical factors of theme restaurants that influence consumer perceptions to develop an assessment tool for the planning and design stage. First, various dimensions and facets were identified and developed into questionnaire items after referencing publicly available scales. The "Theme Restaurant Physical Factor Scale" was established after testing the pilot samples of 279 people and the official samples of 286 people. The analysis results indicate that a two-order confirmatory factor analysis of structural equation models is effective for verifying the theme restaurant physical factor scale. Among them, five latent variables, including aesthetics, ambient condition, space/function, seating comfort, and cleanliness, and 18 observable variables can be used as effective evaluation measurement indicators. The scale has relatively high reference value and can be applied to the restaurant industry and by designers for evaluation. Keywords: servicescape; physical factors; theme restaurant; confirmatory factor analysis 1. Introduction lose market share, and many once popular brands were Consumers' product and service purchasing forced to downsize (Weiss et al., 2004). According decisions depend not only on satisfaction with the to the commerce and service industry census data, "physical function," but also spiritual satisfaction with for every 100 restaurants, only 57.39% continued to the "psychological function." Pine II and Gilmore operate after five years. The survival rate for restaurant (1999) contended that economic development is sectors is significantly lower than the 70.82% for the moving toward a new era. Economic behavior has entire service industry (Directorate-General of Budget, focused on the stages of experience, which is beyond Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, 2008), the traditional product and service selling method. demonstrating the intensity of the competition. With the evolution of consumption patterns, themed Although the theme restaurant market currently architectural spaces have begun to appear to satisfy provides numerous options, homogeneity is high, different purchase behaviors and provide various which increases the difficulty of operation. In order intricately designed experiences. to increase profit by improving customer evaluation Theme restaurants are primarily run based on spatial in service firms, most previous marketing research planning, decor and entertainment arrangements, has focused on variable resources (e.g., recruiting, with a distinctive theme or specific style to attract selecting, training, compensating, or motivating) on consumers and create a value in the minds of service employee personnel or service quality such as consumers. However, after a rapid growth in popularity reliability, responsiveness, and empathy (Parasuraman in the early to mid-1990s, theme restaurants began to et al., 1994; Zeithaml et al. , 1996). Baker et al. (1992) indicated that when markets struggle to create advantages based on merchandise, pricing, *Contact Author: Chih Jen Lee, Ph.D. Candidate, promotion, and location, transforming the store Graduate School of Design, National Yunlin University of environment becomes an ideal opportunity to create Science and Technology, 123 University Road, Section 3, market differentiation. Kotler (1973) stated that the Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan, R.O.C. place, more specifically the atmosphere of the place, is Tel: +886-4-727-5668 Fax: +886-4-723-1563 more influential than the product itself in the purchase E-mail: email@example.com decision. Levitt (1981) found that when consumers ( Received April 1, 2014 ; accepted October 15, 2014 ) Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering/January 2015/104 97 assess intangible products (such as services), their et al., 1999). This complex of distinctive signs is evaluation is typically based on appearance and surface derived from a complete and identifiable narrative or impressions. In other words, for dining services, the concept of public culture. A restaurant's theme is not average consumer judges the physical aspects (such necessary associated with the type of meals it offers, as the restaurant's appearance or interior decoration). Gottdiener (1997) takes three theme restaurants; Planet Customers typically spend at least a moderate amount Hollywood, TGI Friday's and Hard Rock Café as of time in the facility hoping to enjoy the decor and examples, the dishes are salad, burgers, sandwiches, the employees' service in theme restaurants. The food and grilled chicken wings. Compared to other American usually takes a backseat to the theme, which is what restaurants in any town in the United States, it is hard these restaurants use to attract customers (Turley to distinguish which of several theme restaurants they and Fugate, 1992). Therefore, physical factors in the are from. The impression remaining with consumers servicescape not only affect the consumer's overall is the nostalgic atmosphere of the restaurant, an array assessment of theme restaurants, but they are also of rock and roll musical instruments and memorable important evidences. film world. Space designers transform this narrative or When the environment atmosphere is used for concept into an experience that enables consumers to commercial purposes, the planning direction and perceive the theme. detail design are crucial for forecasting consumption. 2.2 Relevant Dimensions of the Servicescape However, the design and decoration of the designer The initial definition and discussion of the service during the planning of theme restaurants must follow environment can be traced back to the 1950s. the traditional design criteria or be attached to the Martineau (1958) believed that applying the image individual design style, with less consideration given concept to the retail field provided motivation for to the preference of the target consumers. Engel et al. consumers' store selection decisions. Martineau (1968) indicated that to understand consumer behavior, referred to this motivational force as the store image, personal and situational factors must be examined. which was defined as how consumers mentally Kim and Moon (2009) also pointed out that the characterized a store. Kotler (1973) regarded physical environment attributes in theme restaurants atmosphere as environmental cues and argued that the are likely to play a significant role in improving consumer environment is designed to emit a unique customers' perceptions and behaviors. Accordingly, atmospheric style and elicit a particular emotional to enhance professional service categories, study of response from the consumer. Kotler defined store spatial design must include the physical factors that atmosphere as designed retail areas. The primary goal shape consumers' perceptions. This study compiles is to manipulate consumer sentiment, by allowing related studies on servicescape, filters various physical consumers to purchase not just products, but also factors, and establishes a "Theme Restaurant Physical packaging, sales or post-sales services, and, most Factor Scale." Furthermore, a two-order confirmatory importantly, the atmosphere. factor analysis is used to analyze the scale's stability Based on a space-time background and evolving and goodness of fit, to verify whether the model consumer needs, various scholars have adopted applies to the "Theme Restaurant Physical Factor different foci regarding the service environment. Scale" evaluation, and to provide feedback for design Bitner (1992) compiled past studies and coined the professionals and practical applications. term "servicescape" to describe how service providers use various physical factors in the environment to 2. Literature Review influence customer and employee behavior. Bitner 2.1 The Theme-Oriented Dining Space defined servicescape as the physical environment Consumer space is the consumption context that which customers can experience, and classified three is decorated to meet consumers' desires and needs dimensions of the physical environment: 'ambient (Sack, 1988). Space is no longer merely a traditional conditions,' 'spatial layout and functionality,' and accommodation area; it also possesses the symbolic 'signs, symbols and artifacts.' 'Ambient conditions' value of "atmosphere" and "meaning." If consumer include background characteristics of the environment space is discussed from this perspective, then space such as temperature, lighting, noise, music, and can be considered an integration of various signs or scent. 'Spatial layout' refers to the ways in which part of the product itself. Occasionally, space may even machinery, equipment, and furnishings are arranged, surpass the product and become the principal aspect. the size and shape of those items, and the spatial Therefore, space is becoming increasingly symbolic relationships among them. 'Functionality' refers to in numerous fields. The personality of a space can be the ability of the same items to facilitate performance shaped by various signs to present a context with a and the accomplishment of goals. 'Signs, symbols, particular "theme" effect. and artifacts' displayed on the exterior and interior of Theme restaurants are dining places decorated with a structure are examples of explicit communicators. a complex of distinctive signs that are independent For consumers, the servicescape can provide clues and from the eating and drinking activities (Beardsworth create an immediate perceptive impression, but also on 98 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee Table 1. Prior Research on the Servicescape Dimensions Author Servicescape dimensions Attributes Bitner (1992) 1. Ambient conditions 1. Temperature, air quality, noise, music, and odor 2. Space/Function 2. Layout, equipment, and furnishings 3. Signs, Symbols and Artifacts 3. Signage, personal artifacts, and style of décor Wakefield and Blodgett (1994) 1. Spatial layout & functionality 1. Stadium seats, ticket windows/gates, hallways/walkways, 2. Aesthetics entrances/exits, food service areas, and rest-rooms (men's) 2. External environment, exterior construction, interior construction, score-boards, and facility cleanliness Wakefield and Blodgett (1996) 1. Layout accessibility 1. Layout of exit and entry, furnishing, and equipment layout 2. Facility aesthetics 2. Architectural design, color, and interior design 3. Seating comfort 3. Physical seat and space of seat 4. Electric equipment / displays 4. Signs, symbols, and artifacts for leisure experience 5. Cleanliness 5. Facility cleanliness Wakefield and Blodgett (1999) 1. Building design and décor 1. Outside appearance, interior design, layout, and seats 2. Equipment 2. Electric equipment 3. Ambience 3. Cleanliness, temperature, and neatness of employees' appearance Lucas (2003) 1. Layout navigation 1. Architecture, interior design, and spatial layout 2. Cleanliness 2. Clean slot floor 3. Seating comfort 3. Padding, backrests, fabric/heat-dissipating seat, and 4. Interior décor uncrowded seat 5. Ambience 4. Lighting, color, and floor décor 5. Internal climate, music, and visual graphic Newman (2007) 1. Space 1. Spatial density 2. Way-findings 2. Legibility of internal design such as central passageways and meeting places Ryu and Jang (2008) 1. Facility aesthetics 1. Architectural design, color, and interior design 2. Lighting 2. Type of lighting and illumination 3. Ambience 3. Music, temperature, and scent 4. Layout 4. Object (e.g., machinery, equipment, and furnishings) layout 5. Dining equipment 5. High-quality flatware, china, glassware, and linen Edwards and Gustafsson (2008) 1. Internal variables 1. Music, noise, and odor 2. Layout and design 2. Table layout and seating Kim and Moon (2009) 1. Ambient condition 1. Lighting level, temperature, aroma, and background music 2. Facility aesthetics 2. Architecture, interior, décor, color, and overall attractiveness 3. Layout 3. Tables, service areas, and passageways 4. Electric equipment 4. Audio/video equipment 5. Seating comfort 5. Comfortable seat and uncrowded seat Lee and Kim (2014) 1. Attractiveness 1. Finishes, colors, and facilities 2. Cleanliness 2. Clean facilities, entrances, corridors, and restrooms 3. Layout 3. Easy access to designated places 4. Comfort 4. Comfortable air, temperature, and brightness the surrounding environment to form beliefs as a basis sections, the physical factors of the theme restaurant to infer service quality. servicescape and respondents' personal socioeconomic Relevant scholars have supported the perspective background. The theme restaurant servicescape physical proposed by Bitner (1992). Wakefield and Blodgett factor scale was based on prior work. The contents of (1994) used Major League Baseball (MLB) stadiums as the scale were reviewed by three spatial design doctoral research subjects and classified servicescape elements researchers and two spatial design professionals into two aspects: (1) spatial layout and functionality; (practical experiences for 11 and 15 years) to assess and (2) elements related to aesthetic appeal. Lee and the goodness of fit of the questionnaire regarding its Kim (2014) found that servicescape (attractiveness, descriptions, concepts, meanings, and application value. cleanliness, layout, and comfort) influenced perceived The questionnaire comprised 22 questions (Table 2.). A quality, which resulted in higher satisfaction. As five-point Likert scale, which ranged from 1 point for shown in Table 1., scholars have different suggestions "very dissatisfied" to 5 points for "very satisfied," was regarding the attribute foci of various industries. adopted. The respondents' socioeconomic background information included gender, age, education level, 3. Research Methodology occupation, and allowance. 3.1 Pre-Test Version of Scale Construction 3.2 Pre-Test Version of Scale Pilot Test The research tools used in this study included an on- Taichung is located in central Taiwan; the population site self-administered questionnaire comprising two growth rate is the first among three other major JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee 99 Table 2. The Dimensions of the Theme Restaurants Servicescape Dimensions Variables Author Aesthetics n This restaurant's architecture gives it an attractive character. Bitner (1992); Wakefield This restaurant's interior décor is decorated in an attractive style. and Blodgett (1996); n This restaurant's style meets the theme. Wakefield and Blodgett The use of artifacts in the décor scheme adds excitement to this theme restaurant (1999); Ryu and Jang environment. (2008) This restaurant is painted in attractive colors. Ambient n The temperature in this restaurant is comfortable. Lucas (2003); Ryu and conditions The aroma in this restaurant is pleasant. Jang (2008); Edwards and n The background music, played overhead, makes a more enjoyable place. Gustafsson (2008); Kim This restaurant does not have the noise of the outdoors or indoors. and Moon (2009) n The overall lighting level in this restaurant's environment is appropriate. Space / The seating between neighbors is well spaced out. Bitner (1992); Wakefield Function n The aisles between the tables are wide enough to pass through easily. and Blodgett (1996); Lucas The signs in this restaurant provide adequate direction and help you find your way . (2003); Newman (2007); n Overall, this facility's layout makes it easy to get where you want to go. Kim and Moon (2009) The audio/video machines add excitement to the place. n Exquisite tableware adds dining atmosphere. Seating The chairs allow me to sit at a comfortable distance from the table. Lucas (2003); Ryu and comfort n It is easy to get in and out of the seats at this theme restaurant. Jang (2008); Kim and This theme restaurant's seats are comfortable. Moon (2009) Cleanliness n Employees are neat in appearance. Wakefield and Blodgett n This theme restaurant maintains clean restrooms. (1996); Wakefield and n Overall, this theme restaurant is kept clean. Blodgett (1999); Lucas (2003) metropolitan areas (Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung). Table 3. Demographic Characteristics of Participants (N=279) Due to the rising and flourishing economy, requests Characteristics Category N % concerning dining quality for clients are higher than Gender Male 142 50.9 ever in the area. The theme restaurants on Museum- Female 137 49.1 Park Avenue, which have highly integrated multiple Education Level Junior High and below 1 0.4 design elements and materials, have created exotic Senior High 52 18.6 and nostalgic dining spaces in recent years. There are College 185 66.3 nearly 40 theme restaurants located on both sides of Graduate and above 41 14.7 the street over a distance of 650 meters, which is the Allowance US$ 330 and below 39 14.0 highest density in the area (see Fig.1.). The research US$ 331~600 75 26.9 populations were consumers of theme restaurants on US$ 601~1515 130 46.6 Museum-Park Avenue in Taichung. US$ 1516~3030 27 9.7 Data were collected during four holiday periods US$ 3031 and above 8 2.9 between May 13, 2011, and June 5, 2011. The Poll Age 19 and below 16 5.7 Center of Chienkuo Technology University (Taiwan) 20~29 99 35.5 was commissioned to conduct the survey. Additionally, 30~39 113 40.5 8 professional interviewers were evenly spaced in pairs 40~49 43 15.4 (approximately 150 meters apart) on the street where 50 and above 8 2.9 theme restaurants were located to survey consumers Occupation Student 62 22.2 who had finished dining. The interviewees were Public Servant and Teacher 30 10.8 initially asked whether they would participate in the Service Industry 95 34.1 survey. If they refused, the interviewers approached the Unemployed 29 10.4 next candidate. When the interviewee's response was Manufacturing Industry 20 7.2 unclear, the interviewers provided further guidance. Professional Jobs 35 12.5 A total of 285 questionnaires were collected. After Others 8 2.9 eliminating the questionnaires that were more than one- Bartlett spherical test was less than 0.001, indicating third incomplete (regarded as invalid questionnaires), that the factor extraction was appropriate for this study 279 valid questionnaires remained, for an effective (Kaiser, 1974). Subsequently, we adopted principal recovery rate of 97.8% (see a description of the sample component analysis with a varimax orthogonal rotation characteristics in Table 3.). to obtain an eigenvalue greater than 1; and a loading 3.3 Pre-Test Version of Scale Analysis of 0.5 was used as the critical value for deleting The primary goal of the exploratory factor analysis questions (Lederer and Sethi, 1991). According to the (EFA) is to assess the pros and cons of the foregoing analysis results, six main factors were extracted from questionnaire items. The KMO value for the Pre-Test 22 questions. By assessing the factor content, we found Version of Scale was 0.862 and the p value for the 100 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee Table 4. Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis Factors and items Loadings Factor 1: Aesthetics (Eigenvalue=2.995, Variance =16.639%, Alpha =0.864) (A1) This restaurant's architecture gives it an attractive character. .840 (A2) This restaurant's interior décor is decorated in an attractive style. .775 (A3) This restaurant's style meets the theme. .694 (A4) This restaurant is painted in attractive colors. .796 Factor 2: Ambient condition (Eigenvalue=2.497, Variance =13.874%, Alpha =0.776) (E1) The temperature in this restaurant is comfortable. .860 (E2) The aroma in this restaurant is pleasant. .797 (E3) The background music, played overhead, makes this restaurant a more enjoyable place. .703 (E4) The overall lighting level in this restaurant environment is appropriate. .649 Factor 3: Space / function (Eigenvalue=2.782, Variance =15.457%, Alpha =0.845) (F1) In this theme restaurant, the seating between neighbor are well spaced out. .685 (F2) In this theme restaurant, the aisles between the tables are wide enough to pass through easily. .830 (F3) The signs in this restaurant environment provide adequate direction and help you find your way. .730 (F4) Exquisite tableware adds dining atmosphere. .766 Factor 4: Seating comfort (Eigenvalue=1.980, Variance =10.998%, Alpha =0.707) (S1) This theme restaurant's chairs allow me to sit at a comfortable distance from the table. .786 (S2) It is easy to get in and out of the seats at this theme restaurant. .814 (S3) This theme restaurant's seats are comfortable. .730 Factor 5: Cleanliness (Eigenvalue=2.564, Variance =14.245%, Alpha =0.930) (C1) Employees are neat in appearance. .829 (C2) This theme restaurant maintains clean restrooms. .846 (C3) Overall, this theme restaurant is kept clean. .766 that item distribution generally conforms to the five 3.4 Formal Scale Measurement dimensions of design during the planning stage. After Hinkin (1998) argued that when developing a new the questionnaire items were reviewed sequentially, scale, various samples must be collected to implement items with an independent factor or low loading, such EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to confirm as "The use of artifacts in the décor scheme adds whether the measurement items accurately indicate the excitement to this theme restaurant's environment," corresponding factors and the stability of the test factor "This restaurant does not have the noise of the outdoors structure. During the pilot test stage, five stable factors or indoors," or "proper arrangements," "Overall, this in the scale were identified using EFA. During the facility's layout makes it easy to get where you want formal measurement, structure equation modeling (SEM) to go," and "The audio/video machines add excitement was used to analyze various factors obtained from EFA to the place" were excluded. During this stage, 4 and the relationship stability between variables. The items were eliminated and 18 items were retained in physical factor scale used in this study is shown in Fig.1. the formal scale. The factor analysis and associated The data collection method was identical to that statistics are presented in Table 4. Combined factor used in the pilot test stage. Data were collected on loadings accounted for 71.211% of the total variance in the four weekends (including Friday nights) between the factor pattern. June 24, 2011, and July 17, 2011. We collected 300 The theme restaurant physical factor scale Ambient condition Space/function Seating comfort Cleanliness Aesthetics λ18 λ1 λ2 λ3 λ4 λ5 λ6 λ7 λ8 λ9 λ10 λ11 λ12 λ13 λ14 λ15 λ16 λ17 A A A A E E E E F F F F S S S C C C 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 ε1 ε2 ε3 ε4 ε5 ε6 ε7 ε8 ε9 ε10 ε11 ε12 ε13 ε14 ε15 ε16 ε17 ε18 Fig.1. Two-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Theme Restaurant Physical Factor Scale JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee 101 questionnaires; after deleting 14 incomplete responses, As shown in Table 6., the standardized coefficients 2 8 6 su r v e y s we r e u se d f o r f i n a l a n a l y si s ( 9 5 . 3 % ranged from 0.70 to 0.91, which exceeds the 0.45 response rate). Table 5. summarizes the demographic standard without negative error variances. Additionally, profile of the respondents. the t value exceeded 1.96, meeting the 0.05 level of significance. The standard errors ranged between 0.043 Table 5. Demographic Characteristics of Participants (N=286) and 0.063, indicating that the standard errors were Characteristics Category N % relatively small. Under the theoretical mode of this Gender Male 177 61.9 study, the preliminary fit criteria were fully established. Female 109 38.1 Table 6. Preliminary Fit Criteria of the Theme Restaurant Education Level Junior High and below 2 0.7 Physical Factor Scale Senior High 59 20.6 Observed Standardized Error Standard College 188 65.7 t value Variables Coefficient Variances Errors Graduate and above 37 12.9 A1 0.81 0.34 -- -- Allowance US$ 330 and below 48 16.8 A2 0.91 0.17 17.32 0.045 US$ 331~600 82 28.7 A3 0.71 0.50 12.87 0.048 US$ 601~1515 124 43.4 A4 0.77 0.41 14.31 0.047 US$ 1516~3030 23 8.0 E1 0.71 0.49 -- -- US$ 3031 and above 9 3.1 E2 0.84 0.29 12.23 0.053 Age 19 and below 24 8.4 E3 0.71 0.50 10.76 0.054 20~29 106 37.1 E4 0.74 0.45 11.20 0.051 30~39 111 38.8 F1 0.83 0.31 -- -- 40~49 41 14.3 F2 0.72 0.49 12.85 0.043 50 and above 4 1.4 F3 0.86 0.26 15.83 0.045 Occupation Student 71 24.8 F4 0.70 0.50 12.59 0.050 Public Servant and Teacher 28 9.8 S1 0.72 0.48 -- -- Service Industry 101 35.3 S2 0.71 0.49 10.30 0.051 S3 0.82 0.33 10.81 0.056 Unemployed 31 10.8 C1 0.76 0.42 -- -- Manufacturing Industry 18 6.3 C2 0.83 0.31 11.14 0.063 Professional Jobs 26 9.1 C3 0.71 0.50 10.70 0.057 Others 11 3.8 4. Results 4.2 Overall Model Fit Test of the Theme Restaurant This study employed LISREL 8.8 software Physical Factor Scale to process the CFA statistics. However, before Table 7. Overall Model Fit of the Theme Restaurant Physical conducting statistical analysis using LISREL, the Factor Scale data characteristics were fully examined to ensure Index Criteria Results compliance with the SEM assumption and to avoid Absolute Fit Measures influencing the model assessment and test results. For χ (p) Non-significant p = 0.00003 the 286 samples examined in this study, the skewness χ /df <3 1.58 values ranged from -1.102 to -0.553, with the absolute GFI >0.9 0.93 value less than the extreme value of 3. The kurtosis AGFI >0.9 0.90 values ranged from -0.532 to 1.021, with the absolute RMR <0.05 0.032 value less than the extreme value of 10, conforming SRMR <0.05 0.050 to the variable distribution standard (Kline, 1988). RMSEA <0.08 0.045 Therefore, we implemented the maximum likelihood Relative Fit Measures model and adopted the suggestions of Bagozzi and CFI >0.9 0.98 Yi (1988) to evaluate the goodness of fit of the model NFI >0.9 0.95 regarding preliminary fit criteria, overall model fit, and NNFI >0.9 0.98 fit of internal structure of the model. IFI >0.9 0.98 4.1 Preliminary Fit Criteria Test of the Theme RFI >0.9 0.94 Restaurant Physical Factor Scale Parsimonious Fit Measures This study adopted the following three criteria PNFI >0.5 0.81 for assessing the preliminary fit criteria: (1) the PGFI >0.5 0.70 standardized coefficients must be between 0.45 to 0.95; CN >200 242.30 (2) no negative error variances are present and all error AIC < Independence AIC Model AIC = 287.81 variances must meet the level of significance (t values < Saturated AIC Independence AIC =4290.91 > 1.96); and (3) no very large standard errors are Saturated AIC = 342.00 observed (Bentler and Wu, 1993). 102 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee The overall model fit test was employed to evaluate indicating good internal consistency. The AVE values the goodness of fit of the entire model and the observed ranged between 0.57 and 0.65, with all five dimensions data, and can be considered as the external quality exceeding 0.5, indicating that the latent variable evaluation of the model. This study referenced the measurements had good variation explanation. guidelines provided by Jöreskög and Sörbom (1993), and used absolute fit measures, relative fit measures, 5. Conclusion and parsimonious fit measures to describe the overall This study explores the physical factors of theme model fit. Table 7. shows that p < 0.1 is significant, restaurants that influence consumer perceptions to and the χ test is influenced by the size of the sample develop an assessment tool for the planning and design numbers. Therefore, the χ /df assessment model is stage. The "Theme Restaurant Physical Factor Scale" a more appropriate indicator to assess the model's was established after testing the pilot samples of 279 goodness of fit. Related studies have recommended people and the official samples of 286 people. The using no more than 2 or 3 for the standard (Hoyle, 1995; analysis results indicate that a two-order confirmatory Chin and Todd, 1995). The χ /df ratio for this model was factor analysis of structural equation models is effective 205.81/130 = 1.58, which agrees with the recommended for verifying the theme restaurant physical factor scale. values. Overall, the physical factor scale analysis model Among them, five latent variables, including aesthetics, constructed in this study approached a goodness of fit. ambient condition, space / function, seating comfort, and 4.3 Fit of Internal Structure of Model Test of the cleanliness, and 18 observable variables can be used as Theme Restaurant's Physical Factor Scale effective evaluation measurement indicators. The scale A fit of the internal structure of the model test has a relatively high reference value and can be applied was used to evaluate the reliability of the observable to the restaurant industry and by designers for evaluation. variables and latent variables and the level of Regarding planning and design, the environmental significance of the estimated parameters. This can be space is an area to display products and enhance product considered the internal quality evaluation in this model. value. The problems faced by designers are often poorly Bagozzi and Yi (1988) recommended the following defined. Typically, designers are instructed to design standards for an ideal fit of the internal structure of spaces that "have appropriate usable areas and a pleasant the model: (1) the individual item reliability (R ) is appearance," which is general and unspecific. Therefore, greater than 0.50; (2) the composite reliability (CR) the ability to successfully solve design problems for individual latent variables is greater than 0.60; and depends on whether the problems can be identified from (3) the average variance extracted (AVE) for the latent among the general confusion, which is also known as the variable is greater than 0.50. demand for clarity. However, the demand clarity cannot Table 8. shows that the reliability of the observable be determined by the theme restaurant industry or the variables ranged between 0.50 and 0.83, with 18 designer alone; it must be based on a consensus between variables exceeding 0.5, indicating good reliability for both sides. According to empirical evidence, the theme the measurement indicators of this study. The composite restaurant physical factor scale developed in this study reliability for latent variables ranged between 0.80 is appropriate for both theme restaurant manager and and 0.88, with five latent variables exceeding 0.6, designer to reach a consensus on design guidelines. The physical factors of the servicescape play a Table 8. Fit of the Internal Structure of the Model of the strategic role in the operation of theme restaurants (Table Theme Restaurant's Physical Factor Scale 9.). The results of the survey can be used as a guideline: Latent Observable 2 R CR AVE in terms of aesthetics, to convey the characteristics of the Variables Variables consumer space through the shapes, lines, proportions, Aesthetics A1 0.66 0.88 0.65 and colors of the architecture and interior design; in A2 0.83 terms of ambient condition, to use temperature, smell, A3 0.50 music, and overall illumination to create the appropriate A4 0.59 Ambient E1 0.51 0.84 0.57 atmosphere that allows consumers to experience the condition E2 0.71 theme through their sensory perceptions; in terms of E3 0.50 space/function, to appropriately configure the traffic flow E4 0.55 connections of the dining area with other areas to meet Space / F1 0.69 0.86 0.61 consumers' needs; in terms of seating comfort, to provide function F2 0.51 comfortable seating to promote diverse activities, such F3 0.74 as talking, dining, and relaxation; in terms of cleanliness, F4 0.50 to maintain clean and tidy field facilities, and ensure staff Seating S1 0.52 0.80 0.57 have a clean appearance and appropriate work clothes comfort S2 0.51 that reflect the overall image of the restaurant. S3 0.67 The reasons consumers visit theme restaurants are Cleanliness C1 0.58 0.81 0.59 diverse. Although the servicescape plays a key role in C2 0.69 attracting consumers, other aspects, such as the food C3 0.50 JAABE vol.14 no.1 January 2015 Chih Jen Lee 103 10) Gottdiener, M. (1997) The theming of America: Dreams, visions, Table 9. The Definition of Physical Factors and commercial spaces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Dimensions Definition Illustrations 11) Hinkin, T. R. (1998) A brief tutorial on the development of Aesthetics Aesthetics are a function of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational architectural design, as well Research Methods, 1(1), pp.104-121. as interior design and décor, 12) Hoyle, R. H. (1995) Structural equation modeling: Concepts, both of which contribute issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. to the attractiveness of the 13) Jöreskög, K. G. and Sörbom, D. 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Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 1, 2015
Keywords: servicescape; physical factors; theme restaurant; confirmatory factor analysis
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