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GeoloGy, ecoloGy, and landscapes, 2017 Vol . 1, no . 3, 184–189 https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2017.1361145 INWASCON OPEN ACCESS Md. Imran Ullah Sarkar, Md. Nazrul Islam, Afsana Jahan, Aminul Islam and Jatish Chandra Biswas s oil s cience division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh ARTICLE HISTORY ABSTRACT Received 2 June 2017 Rice crops uptake large amounts of potassium (K), which is mainly supplied from inorganic a ccepted 20 July 2017 fertilizer. Alternate K sources are essential to preserve natural reserves and to recycle unused K containing stubbles. We have evaluated the performance of rice straw (RS) in farmers’ field KEYWORDS following integrated plant nutrient system (IPNS) for supplementing K requirement of rice and paddy soil; grain yield; Ipns; compared with agro-ecological zone (AEZ)-based chemical f ertilizer and farmers’ practice in Tista K uptake −1 Meander Floodplain soils of Bangladesh during 2013–2015. Application of RS @ 4.5 t ha + IPNS- based fertilizer replaced full dose of chemical K fertilizer without significant reduction in grain yield of Boro rice. The K uptake with RS incorporation was similar to AEZ-based chemical fertilizer use. Considering soil health and environmental issue, RS + IPNS-based fertilizer management was the best option for growing wetland rice. 1. Introduction essential for sustaining soil fertility and crop produc- Adequate rice (Oryza sativa L.) production is the key to tivity, although organic manures alone cannot ensure ensure food security in Bangladesh (Kabir et al., 2015) sustainable rice production. Therefore, use of organic because rice security is synonymous to food security and inorganic sources in an integrated approach is the in this country. Production of rice requires nitrogen best management practices for sustaining soil health and (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) as major crop productivity (Sarkar, Rahman, Rahman, Naher, & nutrient elements. These elements are important both Ahmed, 2016) under varied agro-ecological zones (AEZ) in terms of the extent of their deficiencies in the soils, of Bangladesh. and their potential for crop yield increase or decrease Rice plants uptake K in larger amounts compared to (Kamrunnahar, Ahmad, Iqbal, Akter, & Islam, 2017). N and P (Islam, Chandrabiswas, Karim, Salmapervin, & Since N, P, and K nutrient removals are increasing grad- Saleque, 2015; Islam, Saha, Biswas, & Saleque, 2016). In −1 ually (Islam & Muttaleb, 2016), farmers are generally general, about 103 kg K is removed for 7.0 t ha grain utilizing chemical fertilizers to meet greater nutrient harvest (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council requirement for crop production. Chemical K fertilizer [BARC], 2012); but K requirement varies with rice is produced from underground K salt deposits, which varieties and yield goal (Islam & Muttaleb, 2016). This requires complex and expensive technique. No K depos- luxurious K uptake depletes soil K reserve because of its are available in Bangladesh to produce muriate of pot- limited applications by the farmers from chemical fer- ash (MoP) fertilizer, although its demand is increasing tilizer (Biswas, Islam, Biswas, & Islam, 2004). Moreover, for more crop production. In Bangladesh, the demands intensive cropping with modern high yielding vari- of MoP has increased in an exponential growth rate (6.15 eties are enhancing soil K depletion in light textured per annum) during 1981–2010 and its projected demand soils of Bangladesh (Saha, Miah, Hossain, Rahman, will be 361.32 thousand metric tons in 2020 (Naher & Saleque, 2009) resulting in a negative K balance of −1 −1 −1 et al., 2015) requiring huge amounts of foreign exchange 100–225 kg ha yr (Rijmpa & Islam, 2002; Zhang to import. u Th s, an alternative K source can save foreign et al., 2010). Tista Meander Flood Plain soils of currencies and reduce rice production cost. Bangladesh are light textured and acidic, but farmers Extensive use of inorganic fertilizers not only degrade are growing more than two crops in a year with or soil physicochemical properties along with soil organic without adequate fertilizer application ad in most cases matter (OM) depletion (Ali, Islam, & Jahiruddin, 2009; no organic materials are applied. Since OM content is Singh, Verma, Ansari, & Shukla, 2014), but also unable decreasing in most soils of Bangladesh (Ali, Shahid, to sustain desired yield goal. A good supply of OM is Kubota, Masunaga, & Wakatsuki, 1997), looking for CONTACT Md. Imran Ullah s arkar firstname.lastname@example.org © 2017 The a uthor(s). published by Informa UK limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an open a ccess article distributed under the terms of the creative c ommons a ttribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 185 alternate avenues of enriching soil carbon is very much 89.2167°E), Badarganj (25.40°N 8903°E) and Taraganj essential for sustaining crop production. (25.8111°N 89.0167°E) of Rangpur district, Nageshawry Rice straw production is plenty in Bangladesh, but (25.9792°N 89.7083°E) and Kurigram Sadar (25.8167°N its removal from the field resulting in loss of K and Si 89.6500°E) of Kurigram district, Lalmonirhat Sadar reserves (Dobermann & Fairhurst, 2002). This resource (25.9153°N 89.4500°E) of Lalmonirhat district and can be recycled because it is a rich source of K (1.6%), Nilphamari Sadar (25.9417°N 88.8444°E) of Nilphamari N (0.5%), P (0.08%), S (0.09%), and 0.01% Zn (Saha, district (Figure 1). Experimental sites belong to Tista Hossain, Naher, & Saleque, 2004) along with 0.40% cal- Meander Floodplain (AEZ 3). Non-calcareous Grey cium, 0.24% magnesium, and 6.30% silicon. Use of rice Floodplain soils and Non-calcareous Brown Floodplain straw in paddy soil not only improved organic C, N, and soils are predominant and the climate is subtropical. available P, K, and Si (Ponnamperuma, 1984) but also Generally, three distinct seasons: a hot, humid summer showed more than one ton per hectare yield advantage from March to June; a cool rainy monsoon season from of Boro rice (Saha et al., 2009). Not many studies on the June to October; and a cool dry winter from October to use of RS under farmer’s field conditions are reported, March prevail in this region. Some basic soil chemical although a plenty of literature is available in inorganic properties of the study locations are presented in Table 1. K management. Therefore, this study was carried out in farmers’ fields with IPNS approach to assess the suit- 2.2. Experimental design and treatments ability of RS as an alternative to inorganic K fertilizer application for wetland rice production under rice–rice Randomized complete block design with three treat- cropping system. ments were followed and each field was considered as a block (replication). In a season, the experiment was car- ried out in six farmers’ field in three upazilas. Farmers’ 2. Materials and methods fields were selected through group discussion with the 2.1. Site description farming communities to ensure fertilizer management e exp Th eriment was conducted in the farmer’s fields practices of selected farmers are representative of the having rice–rice cropping system during 2013–2015. respective location. The treatments were: AEZ-based −1 e exp Th erimental sites were located in Rangpur region chemical fertilizer, rice straw (RS) @ 4.5 t ha + IPNS- covering seven upazilas viz. Gongachora (25.8500°N based chemical fertilizer, and farmers’ practice (FP). Figure 1. Geographic position of the study location. 186 M. I. U. SARKAR ET AL. Table 1. s ome major soil chemical properties of the study locations. Soil characteristics Total organic K (meq per −1) −1) Locations pH carbon (%) Total N (%) 100 g soil) Available P (mg kg Available S (mg kg Badarganj 6.0–6.3 1.10–1.30 0.10–0.13 0.12–0.15 15.47–18.0 20.50–26.12 Taraganj 5.8–6.0 1.21–1.37 0.12–0.14 0.12–0.17 12.02–14.31 17.31–22.22 Gongachora 6.0–6.2 1.20–1.44 0.11–0.13 0.11–0.18 13.23–16.68 16.40–23.00 nageshawry 5.5–5.8 0.90–1.10 0.10–0.12 0.10–0.13 8.58–12.05 12.54–17.80 Kurigram sadar 5.5–6.0 0.91–1.11 0.09–0.11 0.10–0.15 10.15–13.33 15.11–17.53 lalmonirhat sadar 5.7–6.2 0.88–0.95 0.09–0.11 0.11–0.15 9.25–12.10 16.43–19.23 n ilphamari sadar 5.6–6.0 0.92–1.20 0.09–0.11 0.12–0.14 10.51–12.50 20.10–22.21 Table 2. nutrients rates for different treatments and seasons. Nutrient rate (kg/ha) T. Aman Boro Treatments N P K S Zn N P K S Zn aeZ-based fertilizer dose 70 10 33 10 3.0 170 20 59 15 4.0 Rs + Ipns 47 6 – 6 2.8 147 15 – 11 3.8 Fp 60 15 20 – – 114 16 60 13 – a −1 Rice straw @ 4.5 t ha was applied. e uni Th t plot size was 8 m × 6 m. Nutrient rate for the nitric-perchloric acid digestion method (Yamakawa, respective treatments is presented in Table 2. 1992). The nutrient uptake was calculated as: −1 Nutrient uptake kg ha = Nutrient content (%) (1) −1 2.3. Transplanting and management × Yield t ha × 10 (2) (1) e t Th est varieties were BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan58 in Boro season and BRRI dhan49 and BRRI dhan52 in 2.6. Harvesting T. Aman season. Two to three 30 days old seedlings in T. Aman and 40 days old in Boro seasons were trans- Crops were harvested manually at maturity. Grain yield planted at 20 cm × 20 cm spacing. In T. Aman season, was calculated from 5 m area and adjusted to 14% mois- transplanting was done in the second week of July and in ture content. Straw yield was calculated on oven dry Boro season; it was in the first week of January. Nitrogen, basis from randomly collected 16 hills from the ground P, K, S, and Zn were applied as Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum, level (Sarkar et al., 2016). and Zinc sulphate, respectively. Full dose of TSP, MoP, Gypsum, Zinc sulphate, and 1/3rd of urea were applied 2.7. Statistical analysis as basal. The remaining 2/3rd of urea was applied at maximum tillering stage and before one week of panicle e Th box plot is a standardized way of displaying the initiation at equal split. All the intercultural operations distribution of data based on the five number summa- and appropriate plant protection measures were taken ries: minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, when necessary. and maximum. The yield data of grain and straw were presented in box plots. The data of nutrient concentra- tion and uptake were analyzed statistically by applying 2.4. Soil analysis analysis of variance. The mean comparisons were made Initial soil samples were collected from each field and by least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% level of processed for chemical analysis. Soil samples were ana- significance, where significance was indicated by F-test lyzed for pH, total organic carbon, total N, exchangea- (Gomez & Gomez, 1984). Statistical Tool for Agricultural ble K, and available S following the standard procedure Research (STAR 2.0.1, International Rice Research described by Jacson (1973), Black (1965), Olsen, Calc, Institute, Philippines) was used for computation. Watanabe, and Dean (1954) and Page, Miller, and Keency (1982). 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Grain and straw yields 2.5. Plant sample analysis Considering median values, grain yield in Boro season Plant samples were collected at harvesting for N, P, and −1 −1 was 7.93 t ha with RS + IPNS and 7.87 t ha with AEZ- K analysis and nutrient uptake by rice plants. Total N based fertilizer management, which were greater than FP was determined by Micro Kjeldhal method (Bremner, (Figure 2(a)). Slightly higher grain yield in RS + IPNS 1965) and P, K, and S contents were determined by GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 187 b. T. Aman a. Boro AEZ based RS+IPNS FP AEZ based RS+IPNS FP fertilizer fertilizer Figure 2. Grain yields of Boro and T. aman rice as influenced by fertilizer management. b. T. Aman a. Boro AEZ based RS+IPNS FP AEZ based RS+IPNS FP fertilizer fertilizer Figure 3. s traw yields of Boro and T. aman rice as influenced by fertilizer management. indicates that RS create favourable soil conditions for 3.2. Nutrient concentration in grain and straw better rice growth and development. In a study Singh, Nitrogen, P and K concentrations in rice grain and straw Singh, and Reddy (2001) also reported that incorpo- were analyzed in T. Aman 2014 and Boro 2015 seasons. ration of straw improves soil fertility and increases e N, P Th , and K concentrations significantly varied crop yield. Almost similar trends were observed in T. with different fertilizer management practices (Tables 3 Aman season (Figure 2(b)). In general, grain yields were and 4). In T. Aman 2014, the highest N concentration in −1 greater than 5 t ha in 50% and above cases with AEZ grain was found in AEZ-based chemical fertilizer, which and RS + IPNS-based fertilizer management. However, was statistically similar to RS + IPNS-based chemical fer- gap between lower and higher grain yields was more tilizer. Die ff rent fertilizer management did not inu fl ence −1 (about 2.5 6 t ha ) in AEZ-based fertilizer management the straw N concentration. Application of AEZ-based than RS + IPNS treatment. Straw yield distributions are chemical fertilizer dose and RS + IPNS-based chemical shown in Figure 3(a) and (b). In Boro season, more than fertilizer resulted in similar P concentration in rice grain 50% and above cases straw yields were greater than 7.4 and straw. Farmers’ practice always had significantly −1 t ha with AEZ and RS + IPNS-based fertilizer man- lower NPK in grain and PK in straw. Straw K concentra- agement which was higher than FP. Incorporation of tions were higher in AEZ-based chemical fertilizer com- RS along with inorganic fertilizers not only improved pared to RS + IPNS-based chemical fertilizer (Table 3). grain yield in Boro season, it might have maintained In Boro 2015 season, AEZ-based chemical fertilizer soil N, P, K, and Si reserves and may even be increased and RS + IPNS-based chemical fertilizer showed statis- (Dobermann & Fairhurst, 2002). In T. Aman season, tically identical effect on P and K concentrations in rice −1 straw yield was more than 5.42 and 5.16 t ha with AEZ grain and straw. Nitrogen concentration in rice grain was and RS + IPNS-based fertilizer management, respec- significantly higher in AEZ-based chemical fertilizer than tively. Increase rice yield due to RS incorporation was RS + IPNS-based chemical fertilizer. However, N concen- reported by Islam, Sarkar, Ali, Islam, and Saha (2016), tration in rice straw was similar for these two treatments Saha et al. (2009), Watanabe et al. (2009). However, in T. (Table 4). Our findings correspond to Saha et al., (2009). Aman season, the effect of RS incorporation was not as prominent as AEZ-based fertilizer management. High 3.3. Nutrient uptake C: N ratio in RS sometimes results in initial nutrient starvation for plants (Rautaray, Ghosh, & Mittra, 2003), In T. Aman 2014 and Boro 2015 seasons, total NPK uptake which might be the reason of lower rice grain yield with by rice plant was significantly higher in AEZ-based and RS incorporation in T. Aman season. RS + IPNS-based fertilizer managements compared to -1 -1 Grain yield (t ha ) Grain yield (t ha ) -1 -1 Grain yield (t ha ) Grain yield (t ha ) 188 M. I. U. SARKAR ET AL. Table 3. Treatment effects on the nutrient (npK) concentration in rice grain and straw in T. aman 2014 −1 Nutrient concentration (mg g dry weight) Grain Straw Treatment N P K N P K aeZ-based fertilizer dose 11.66 ± 0.32 a 2.83 ± 0.10 a 2.23 ± 0.05 a 4.40 ± 0.26 1.92 ± 0.02 a 20.71 ± 0.23 a Rs + Ipns 11.21 ± 0.22 a 2.80 ± 0.07 a 2.14 ± 0.04 ab 4.37 ± 0.07 1.08 ± 0.04 a 20.07 ± 0.32 b Fp 9.36 ± 0.31 b 2.61 ± 0.09 b 2.01 ± 0.01b 3.95 ± 0.06 0.93 ± 0.04 b 18.19 ± 0.34 c significance level *** * * ns ** *** CV (%) 4.59 4.31 5.03 8.27 9.23 2.27 notes: Results are the mean of six replication ± se (standard error). Means in each column having similar letters do not differ significantly at the 5% prob - ability level using the l east significant different (lsd ) test. The denoted symbols indicate significant difference at the 0.001 (***), 0.01 (**), and 0.05 (*) levels. ns: non-significant. Table 4. Treatment effects on the nutrient (npK) concentration in rice grain and straw in Boro 2015. −1 Nutrient concentration (mg g dry weight) Grain Straw Treatment N P K N P K aeZ-based fertilizer dose 10.85 ± 0.16 a 2.00 ± 0.09 a 2.66 ± 0.07 a 4.96 ± 0.19 a 1.70 ± 0.05 a 22.85 ± 0.98 a Rs + Ipns 10.44 ± 0.17 b 1.96 ± 0.06 a 2.75 ± 0.07 a 4.72 ± 0.27 a 1.69 ± 0.08 a 22.66 ± 1.22 a Fp 8.87 ± 0.07 c 1.67 ± 0.08 b 2.41 ± 0.04 b 4.03 ± .012 b 1.44 ± 0.03 b 19.37 ± 0.39 b significance level *** * *** ** ** ** CV (%) 1.76 10.10 3.3 8.23 7.10 7.82 notes: Results are the mean of six replication ± se (s tandard error). Means in each column having similar letters do not differ significantly at the 5% prob - ability level using the l east significant different (lsd ) test. The denoted symbols indicate significant difference at the 0.001 (***), 0.01 (**), and 0.05 (*) levels. Table 5. eec ff t of different fertilizer managements on the total (grain + straw) nutrient (npK) uptake by rice in T. aman 2014 and Boro 2015. −1 Total nutrient uptake (kg ha ) 2014 2014–15 Treatment N P K N P K aeZ-based fertilizer dose 91.86 ± 5.82 a 22.97 ± 1.32 a 131.96 ± 7.01 a 121.34 ± 2.72 a 28.04 ± 1.01 a 185.88 ± 6.04 a Rs + Ipns 82.25 ± 2.63 b 20.44 ± 0.54 b 120.36 ± 6.10 a 119.98 ± 3.65 a 28.56 ± .037 a 194.6 ± 11.64 a Fp 64.15 ± 4.26 c 16.93 ± 0.99 c 102.21 ± 7.62 b 87.40 ± 1.83 b 20.91 ± 0.70 b 142.30 ± 3.17 b significance level *** *** ** *** *** *** CV (%) 8.78 7.79 9.15 4.76 7.16 10.17 notes: Results are the mean of six replication ± se (s tandard error). Means in each column having similar letters do not differ significantly at the 5% proba- bility level using the l east significant different (lsd ) test. The denoted symbols indicate significant difference at the 0.001 (***), and 0.01 (**) levels. farmers’ practice. In T. Aman 2014 season, total uptake of 4. Conclusion −1 −1 N (90.83 kg ha ) and P (23.16 kg ha ) were significantly e co Th mbined application of rice straw and chemical fer - higher in AEZ-based fertilizer than RS + IPNS. However, tilizer resulted in similar rice grain yield with AEZ-based AEZ-based chemical fertilizer and RS + IPNS showed chemical fertilizer application in Boro season. Use of rice similar effect on total K uptake by rice plant. straw showed similar K uptake with chemical K source In Boro 2015 season, AEZ-based chemical fertilizer both in T. Aman and Boro seasons. Since organic matter and RS + IPNS showed statistically similar effect on total depletion is a major problem in Bangladesh, rice straw −1 N, P, and K uptake by rice. The highest N (121.34 kg ha ) can be effectively utilized following IPNS technique. uptake was found in AEZ-based chemical fertilizer, while application of RS + IPNS gave the highest P −1 −1 Acknowledgements (28.56 kg ha ) and K (194.65 kg ha ) uptakes by rice plant (Table 5). Potassium in RS is water soluble and This study was a part of “Integrated Agricultural is readily available to rice. Incorporating RS increases Productivity Project (IAPP).” We deeply acknowledge the available K content of the soil which reflected in World Bank and Government of Bangladesh for pro- increased K uptake by rice (Ponnamperuma, 1984). viding financial support for this study. Ali et al., (2009) found that application of RS @ 5 −1 t ha + 75% NPKS once in a year resulted in similar Disclosure statement NPK uptake with 75% NPKS fertilizer which supports No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. our findings. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 189 Naher, U. A., Shah, A. L., Sarkar, M. 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Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jul 3, 2017
Keywords: Paddy soil; grain yield; IPNS; K uptake
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