Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.
References for this paper are not available at this time. We will be adding them shortly, thank you for your patience.
GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 2020, VOL. 4, NO. 1, 23–39 INWASCON https://doi.org/10.1080/24749508.2019.1571670 RESEARCH ARTICLE Risk assessment of heavy metals and salts for human and irrigation consumption of groundwater in Qambar city: a case study a,b b b Muhammad Farooque Lanjwani , Muhammad Yar Khuhawar , Taj Muhammad Jahangir Khuhawar , c d d b Abdul Hameed Lanjwani , Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani , Abdul Hameed Kori , Imran Khan Rind , b e Aftab Hussain Khuhawar and Jagirani Muhammad Dodo a b Dr M. A. Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; Institute of Advanced Research Studies in Chemical c d Science, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; Institute of biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, P.R. China ABSTRACT ARTICLE HISTORY Received 2 April 2018 The study investigated the water quality of groundwater for consumption of human beings Accepted 27 May 2018 and irrigation of taluka Qamber district Qamber-Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 21 representative groundwater samples were collected mostly used for human consumption. KEYWORDS According to the research work, 81% samples were not suitable for drinking purpose with Fluoride; heavy metals; TDS above the maximum permissible limit of WHO (1000 mg/L). The pH, total phosphate-P, groundwater; orth ophosphate-P, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, and arsenic were within WHO limits. The concentra- physicochemical assessment; tions of essential metals more than half samples were higher than WHO guideline. The Qamber; Sindh, Pakistan. concentrations of trace metals like Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu of all samples were within WHO limits, but the values of Cr and Ni 52.38%, Cd 57.14%, and Pb 28.57% were above the WHO limits. The concentrations of ﬂuoride in 81% were higher than permissible limits of WHO. The high consumption of water with concentration of salts and ﬂuoride above the permissible limits may be a leading factor of a number of diseases in the area. The water quality determined for irrigation based on Kelly index (KI), sodium percentage (Na%), chloride–sulfate ratio, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), chloro alkaline indices1 (CAI-1), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and chloride bicarbonate ratio indicated that 25–90% samples were suitable for irrigation purposes. 1. Introduction concern of recent life. The water quality has remained focus in many sectors for the concerns for the human Water is absolutely essential not only for the exis- life, because the increase of the use of water in dif- tence of human life but also for plants, animals and ferent processes. (Agarwal et al., 2012). Among many all living organisms. Furthermore, it is essential that sources of the water, groundwater is considered safe the required water should not comprise unwanted for drinking but agriculture, industries and public contaminations, harmful chemical substances or requirements are polluting to the groundwater. microorganisms (Raveneau & Burrough, 1988). Therefore, the availability of fresh groundwater is Unfortunately, groundwater resources are being con- necessary for a large number of inhabitations taminated by various activities, mainly due to inﬁltra- (Abbulu., 2013; Anurag et al., 2010). tion of pollutants into the soil sub-strata, site-speciﬁc The contamination of groundwater due to the all quality like soil variety, aquifer depth, climate, period reactions and processes water faces from moment it and recharge degree of an aquifer. These may aﬀect condensed in environment to time it is discharged by the possibility and severity of a speciﬁc impurity in the hand pump or well and it varies from place to water (Satish Kumar, 2015). place with its depth. The major part of the rural In the last 50 years, the development of the populations depends on the groundwater due to the groundwater resources has increased enormously unavailability of water supply and treatment of clean and it is estimated that over 2 billion people world- water. In total, 40% of deaths in Pakistan are due to wide depend on the groundwater for drinking pur- the water-borne diseases indirectly or directly (Tariq, pose (Murali & Elangovan, 2013). The discharge of Shah, Shaheen, Jaﬀar, & Khalique, 2008). industrial, urban, and cultivated wastes has increased A lot of research has been carried out on the the chemicals that enter in the water, and may change groundwater and on its suitability in the diﬀerent their physicochemical properties. Responsible reﬂec- areas of Pakistan Majidano et al., (2010) analyzed tion of water quality in many sectors is the focus of CONTACT Muhammad Farooque Lanjwani firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. M. A. Kazi Institute of chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 24 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. the physicochemical parameters of ground and sur- lakes, foothills, ponds, etc. The famous lakes like face water of taluka Nawabshah, Sindh. Samina et al., Hamal, Drigh, Saroh and Chagro are present in the (2004) examined the physicochemical parameters of taluka Qamber. The chief crops of the area are rice groundwater of Hazara strip, Pakistan. Kandhro et al. and wheat but some crops sorghum sesame, maize, (2015) reported the physicochemical quality of etc., are also found here (Chandio & Anwar, 2009). ground and surface water for consumption purpose Population and climate of the Nawabshah city, Sindh. Aziz-Ur-Rahman and The total population of taluka Qambar is 395,206 Khan (2000) examined the drinking water quality of according to the 2017 consensus. the urban parts of the Peshawar city, Pakistan part 1: Taluka Qamber is one of the hottest areas of Sindh Tube well water. Khan et al., (2005) examined the province; the reported maximum temperature is potable water characteristics of the urban parts of the 124.88°F in July 2002. The three months, May, June Peshawar city Pakistan part 2: well water. Lodi–Ii, and July, are hottest months of the taluka Qamber Akif, and Kalsoom (2003) evaluated the drinking (Chandio & Anwar, 2009). water from several sources in the Skardu-Norther parts and analyzed the heavy metals present in the water. Khan et al. (2000) examined the quality char- 2.2. Samples collection acteristics of drinking water of the Mardan city and The taluka Qamber district Qamber-Shahdadkot was its surrounding areas, Pakistan. Majidano, and selected for the research work because of being Khuhawar (2008) reported the physicochemical qual- remote area of Sindh Province and less investigated. ity of ground and surface water of Nawabshah taluka, The total 21 samples were collected from August district Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. Majidano et al. 2015 to May 2016 (Table 1). Representative samples (2010) analyzed the quality of ground and surface were collected from the town and populated villages water of Daur taluka, District Nawabshah, Sindh, to cover most of the areas where the groundwater is Pakistan. The results of the examination would used for human consumption and irrigation. The make environmental awareness to people of the water samples were collected from hand pumps and study area. tube wells. The approximate depths of pumps and The present results of groundwater of taluka wells were noted. The water samples were collected in Qamber of district Qamber-Shahdadkot showed that 1.5 L clean plastic sampling bottles after the pumps about 80% of samples were not suitable for human were allowed to drain for 5 min before collection of consumption. the sample. Two bottles were collected from each sampling site: one for physicochemical analysis and the other for metal analysis. The bottle for metal 2. Materials and methods analysis was acidiﬁed with 1 mL of hydrochloric 2.1. Study area acid/nitric acid. 2.1.1. Geography 2.2.1. Sample preparation and preservation The taluka Qamber is located at latitude 27.5859189 The samples at the site were analyzed for conductiv- and longitude 68.0060183. The border of taluka ity, total dissolved salts and salinity. The samples Kamber is only 12 km away from Larkana city. The were transferred to laboratories and were analyzed area of taluka Qamber is divided into two parts: one for the contents of pH, chloride, hardness and alka- is Kohistan area (Western tract) and the other is chief linity, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphate, orthopho- canal irrigation area. The western parts of the taluka sphate, sulfate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), contain irregular topography of mountains and sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, arsenic, uplands comprise of the Kohistan part. The range of ﬂuoride, copper, manganese nickel, cobalt, iron, cad- mountains and lime stone hills are denoted by the mium, lead and chromium. The analyses were carried “Halar” but commonly known as Khirthar range out using standard analytical procedures based on spread along the total western border of taluka spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophoto- Qamber which extents to 19–21 km in the straight metry and electrochemical techniques. The electrical line. The range of Khirthar contains of an uphill conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids and salinity series like Pinaro (saﬀron color), Karo (Black) and were analyzed using Orion 115 conductivity meter Kakrio (Broken). The maximum high peak known as and pH was analyzed using Orion 420A pH meter. Dog’s Grave and in Sindhi known as Kuti-ji-Kabar Chloride, hardness and alkalinity were analyzed by which is 2065 m higher than sea level and 300 m the titrimetry method (American Public Health higher than adjoining area. The world famous Association [APHA], American Water Works Khirthar mountain crosses from western boundary Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, & of taluka Qamber. Approximately, 35% area of taluka Water Environment Federation, 1913). Qamber is under agriculture but 65% area covers GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 25 Table 1. Name of villages sampled from taluka Qamber with GPS reading. S: ID Name of towns and villages Depth foot Source of water Latitude Longitude 1 District Court 55 Hand pump 27⁰34.24.2 18.104.22.168 2 Civil Hospital Qamber 55 Hand pump 27⁰35.02.6 22.214.171.124 3 Hussain Shah Chock 60 Hand pump 27⁰35.16.7 68.00.04.9 4 Shaheed Yadgar Chock Qamber 50 Hand pump 27⁰35.23.5 67.00.16.6 5 Shahdadkot Road Qamber 60 Hand pump 27⁰36.02.5 126.96.36.199 6 Ali Khan Mahla 55 Hand pump 27⁰36.02.6 188.8.131.52 7 Larkana Shahdadkot Chock Qamber 50 Hand pump 27⁰35.23.0 68.00.17.6 8 Ghebidero Chock Qamber 60 Hand pump 27⁰35.37.2 184.108.40.206 9 H.B Petrol Pump 50 Hand pump 10 Village Akram Khan Lanjwani 50 Hand pump 11 Ber Shareef 60 Hand pump 27⁰32.37.5 220.127.116.11 12 Gataher 60 Hand pump 27⁰32.08.3 18.104.22.168 13 Thori Bajar 55 Hand pump 14 Noor Mohd: Sheikh 50 Hand pump 15 Heesab Magsi 55 Hand pump 16 Mohd: Ali Panhwar 55 Hand pump 17 Ghebidero 60 Aaro plot 27⁰34.46.7 22.214.171.124 18 Kot Nawab 50 Tube well 19 Ghogharo 50 Hand pump 27⁰28.39.1 68.00.29.0 20 Pakho 55 Hand pump 27⁰30.49.7 68.02.44.3 21 Khairpur Juso 50 Hand pump 27⁰30.47.8 68.02.31.4 + + 2+ The sodium (Na ), potassium (K ), calcium (Ca ) calculated (Table 2). Correlation coeﬃcient (r) 2+ and magnesium (Mg ) were analyzed by using ﬂame between physicochemical parameters and metal ions atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-800 were calculated by using Microsoft Oﬃce Excel 2013. Perkin Elemer, Singapore) at 589.0 nm, 766.5 nm, The software program SPSS 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, 422.7 nm and 285.2 nm, respectively, and heavy IL, USA) was used for the validation of the results. metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were The multivariate analysis was also used for the hier- analyzed by using ﬂame atomic absorption spectro- archical cluster analysis and principal component photometer (Perkin Elemer, AA-800, Singapore) as analysis using software SPSS version 22 and Piper per the manufacturer’s instructions. The analysis was diagram was drawn with help of Aquachem software. carried in triplicate (n = 3) with integration time 4 s The results of analysis were used to calculate diﬀerent and delay time 4 s. A computer with Winlab software parameters to evaluate the suitability of groundwater controlled the instrument. For the analysis of Na, K, for irrigation. The ﬂuoride was analyzed by ion-selec- Ca, Mg, samples were appropriately diluted 10–25 tive electrode method using Hanna H1 2216 bench times with deionized distilled water, whereas for ana- top pH/ORP/ISE multimeter connected with ﬂuoride lysis of trace elements, the samples were concentrated ion-selective electrode. The arsenic was determined 10 times by evaporation of the water at 80–90 °C on by MERCK test kit (low range 0.05–0.300 mg/L) electrical hot plate. The solutions were ﬁltered and (Merck, Germany) as per the manufacturer’s kept cool till analysis (APHA, 1995). instructions. The spectrophotometric studies were carried out COD were determined by using an open reﬂux on Hitachi 220 double-beam spectrophotometer method (Apha, 1992). Then, took 5 mL of water (Hitachi Pvt. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) with dual 1 cm silica sample in 100-mL reﬂuxing ﬂask and 0.2 g of cuvettes. HgSO was added, followed by 4 mL of AgSO solu- 4 4 The basic statistics such as minimum, maximum, tion. Then the solution was cooled. After cooling, mean and standard deviation of the parameters were 3mLofK Cr O was added followed by 3 mL of 2 2 7 Table 2. Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation values of parameters. Minimum Maximum Mean Standard deviation Parameters (n = 21) (n = 21) (n = 21) (n = 21) pH 7.21 8.38 7.87 0.36 Conductivity (µs/cm) 497 11,580 3921 3046.86 TDS (mg/L) 318 7411 2626.8 1950.12 Chloride (mg/L) 28 2819 737.52 791.86 T hardness (mg/L) 150 1600 537.39 354.01 Alkalinity (mg/L) 150 520 327.39 100.46 Sulfate (mg/L) 11 1441 513.74 413.10 Sodium (mg/L) 25 1186 336.95 278.84 Potassium (mg/L) 6 117 24.39 23.18 Calcium (mg/L) 27 590 219.39 155.98 Magnesium (mg/L) 18 557 147.78 134.96 Fluoride (mg/L) 0.39 21.80 6.90 6.42 26 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. Figure 1. TDS of groundwater of study area. H SO and few boiling chips. The solution was good agreement with those obtained in the current 2 4 reﬂuxed for 2 h on hot plate. After 2 hours, the study. solution was diluted twice of its volume with deio- The EC is used to determine the capability of nized water and cooled. Then the mixture of K Cr O water to carry electric current (Jameel, 2002). EC of 2 2 7 was titrated against 0.01 N ammonium iron sulfate in study area were observed between 497 and 11,580 µS/ the presence of ferroin as indicator. The color turned cm. The EC of 4 samples were within and 17 were green blue to reddish brown at the end point. The above the permissible limits of WHO (2012) blank was measured following the same procedure (1500 µS/cm). The high concentration of EC is due with deionized water. to the soluble salts, ionic species and other soluble species present in the groundwater of the study area. The total dissolved solids are due to the elements, 3. Results and discussion minerals, salts, anions and cations dissolved in the water sample. The high concentration of total dis- The 21 groundwater samples were collected from solved solids can cause stomach irritation and long taluka Qamber. Two samples were collected from time use can cause heart diseases and kidney stones tube wells and 19 samples from hand pumps. Nine in humans (Jain, Kumar, & Sharma, 2003). The TDS samples were collected from Qamber city and 12 of the study area were found to be between 318 and samples from diﬀerent villages of taluka and analyzed 7411 mg/L, with an average value of 2626.8. TDS of for 28 parameters pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Cl, alkali- 17 samples were above and only 4 samples were 2- – – nity, total hardness, COD, SO ,NO N, NO N, T 4 3 2 within the permissible limits of WHO (2012) 3– 3– + + 2+ PO P, O PO P, essential metals like Na ,K ,Ca 4 4 (1000 mg/L). The higher values of TDS may be due 2+ and Mg and metals like Cr, Cd, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, to the geological nature of the soil present in the Pb and toxic elements like As and F. Each of the groundwater of the study area (Figure 1). determination was carried out in triplicate (n =3) The total hardness is due to the calcium and mag- and average value is reported. nesium and other metals present in the water (Jayalakshmi et al., 2011). The total hardness was observed between 150 and 1600 mg/L. The total 3.1. Physicochemical analysis hardness of 42.85% samples were above the maxi- The pH value determined the strength of alkalinity or mum permissible limits of WHO (2012) limits acidity of the water solution measured on the basis of (500 mg/L) (Shehzadi et al., 2014 reported variation −log of H concentration (Trivedy & Goel, 1984). in total hardness from 165 to 990 mg/L from district The pH values of the study area were found to be Muzaﬀerabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The result is slightly in the range of 7.21–8.38, and the pH of all samples lower than current work). were within WHO limits 6.5–8.5 (World Health The most important groundwater contaminants − − Organization [WHO], 2012). Majidano et al. (2010) include nitrate NO and NO . Nitrate in water 3 2 reported the pH value ranging from 6.64–8.18 originates from fertilizers, septic systems and indus- groundwater samples of Daur, Nawabshah district, trial eﬄuents. The WHO limit of nitrate in water is province Sindh. The results were found to be in 10 mg/L. The excess level of nitrate is very toxic to GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 27 infants because the bacteria in the infant’s digestive in water gives a bitter taste, damaging soil and there- system can change the nitrate into nitrite. Nitrite can fore decreases crop production (Sundar & lead to most signiﬁcant disease methemoglobin and Saseetharan, 2008). The alkalinity was observed can cause brain damage or even death (Gale et al., between 140 and 520 mg/L as CaCO . The alkalinity 1981). The nitrate and nitrite were observed between of 9 samples were found within limits and 12 samples 0.36 to 11.57 mg/L and 0.12 to 4.03 µg/L, respectively, were found above the permissible limits of WHO and could be due to the agricultured activities in the (2012) (300 mg/L). Taj Muhammad (Jahangir., region. The nitrate of 2 samples were above the Khuhawar., Leghari., Mahar., & Khaskheli., 2013) permissible limits and nitrite of all samples were reported alkalinity from 82 to 467 mg/L natural within WHO (2012) limits (10 mg/L and 5 µg/L), springs located in Thatta, Tharparkar, Jamshoro and respectively. Karachi districts of the Sindh province, Pakistan. Chloride is present in both surface water and The phosphorus gets into water from manure, groundwater (Wara Rao, 2011). The chloride results cultivated fertilizers, detergents, industrial wastages were observed between 28 and 2818 mg/L. The chlor- and organic substances. Phosphorus is essential ele- ide of 16 samples were found to be above and 5 ments of our human body, but its high concentration within the permissible limits of WHO (2012) can cause health problems such as osteoporosis and 3 – (250 mg/L). Majidano et al. (2010) reported that Cl kidney damage (Sittig et al., 1985). The T PO P 3– ranged from 41 to 13,953 mg/L groundwater of taluka and O PO P were observed between 0.093 to 0.58 Daur district Nawabshah. and 0.005 to 0.246 mg/L, respectively, and were 2- Sulfate (SO ) is present in all natural water. The within the WHO limits (3 mg/L and 1 mg/L), 2- high concentration of SO can cause gastrointestinal respectively. irritation. If the concentration of sulfate is more than COD is a best indicator to measure the quality of 600 mg/L in drinking water, it can cause cathartic the water. The high concentration of COD may be a eﬀect (Sajil Kumar & James, 2013). The sulfate results concern of sewage pollution (Paul Supantha & were observed between 11 and 1075 mg/L. The SO Mishra Umesh, 2011). The COD results were of 8 samples were within and 13 samples above the observed between BDL and 41 mg/L. The COD of permissible limits of WHO (2012) (250 mg/L). all samples were within WHO (2012) limits (50 mg/ 2- Mahmood et al. (2014) reported that SO ranged L), but it indicates some contaminations of ground- from 93–161 mg/L of lower Sindh district Thatta water with sewage water particularly from the town season of monsoon and post-monsoon) (Table 3). areas (Table 3). 3.3. Cations results 3.2. Anions results Sodium is a mineral found naturally in the earth crust Alkalinity in water is due to the presence of carbo- and also in our drinking water. Sodium is one of the nates, hydroxides or bicarbonate compounds. The seven essential macro-minerals along with potassium, weathering of sediments and other rocks are the magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride and main source of alkalinity in water. The high alkalinity Table 3. Physicochemical parameters results of taluka Qamber. − 3– − Sal Cl Alk TH T PO P NO 4 3 2− 3– − S: ID pH Cond µs/cm TDS mg/L ppt mg/L mg/L SO mg/L mg/L PO P mg/L mg/L –N mg/L NO –N µg/L COD mg/L 4 4 2 1 7.7 2368 1515 1.3 294 350 268 300 0.156 0.142 6.23 1.48 NA 2 7.73 1829 1170 1 311 210 191 260 0.115 0.093 3.33 1.39 NA 3 8.31 2729 1746 1.5 342 310 414 270 0.25 0.142 11.51 1.6 NA 4 7.46 10,860 6950 6.3 2713 390 1041 700 0.166 0.12 7.65 4.03 NA 5 8.23 2346 1501 1.2 274 360 198 220 0.45 0.246 6.47 3.66 NA 6 7.58 6900 4416 3.9 1325 480 580 1000 0.15 0.138 8.43 3.35 NA 7 7.68 5850 3744 3.3 1287 280 825 900 0.22 0.139 6.83 3.32 NA 8 7.37 11,580 7411 6.8 2819 300 1441 1600 0.365 0.21 5.52 4.29 NA 9 7.21 5660 3622 3.2 1162 400 891 700 0.24 0.135 8.85 3.37 NA 10 7.45 4100 2624 2.2 492 290 637 530 0.24 0.182 10.5 1.27 NA 11 7.93 1368 875 0.7 113 270 71 240 0.58 0.005 3.34 2.87 BDL 12 8.10 3960 2534 2.1 394 510 657 540 0.17 0.06 1.27 0.68 BDL 13 7.91 6430 4115 3.5 655 520 1206 800 0.093 0.07 0.36 0.43 BDL 14 7.73 1995 1276 1.0 219 350 88 300 0.118 0.083 0.97 0.6 41 15 8.34 3540 2265 1.9 259 380 694 460 0.15 0.141 2.61 0.22 BDL 16 7.76 497 318 0.2 28 150 24 150 0.25 0.11 0.43 0.34 6.4 17 8.29 2356 1507 1.2 311 310 195 300 0.25 0.23 0.6 0.12 4.8 18 8.34 2316 1482 1.2 280 290 264 300 0.141 0.08 0.46 0.41 11.2 19 8.12 1120 716 0.6 137 240 89 280 0.095 0.087 0.97 0.76 17 20 8.38 567 362 0.3 42 150 11 160 0.23 0.207 0.84 0.55 9.6 21 7.79 3970 2540 2.1 659 320 579 600 0.298 0.25 0.61 0.35 4.8 NA, not analyzed; BDL, below detection limit. 28 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. sulfur. The human body needs sodium to maintain In groundwater and surface water, manganese blood pressure, control ﬂuid levels, and for nerve and comes from soils and rocks. Manganese is essential muscle functioning. High blood pressure, stroke, car- at trace level for proper functioning of both humans diovascular disease, stomach cancer and kidney pro- and animals but higher intake can damage human blem are occurred due to the high intake of sodium nervous system and can cause lack of memory and (Strazzullo, 2009). The sodium was observed between hallucination. The high concentration of Mn can 25 and 1186 mg/L in the study area. The Na of 8 cause Parkinson infection, bronchitis and lung embo- samples were within and 13 samples above the per- lism (Seilkop & Oller, 2003). The manganese results missible limits of WHO (200 mg/L). were observed between BDL and 96.9 µg/L. The con- The natural water contains less amount of potas- centrations of Mn of all samples were found within sium than sodium. Potassium is very essential for the the permissible limits of WHO (100 µg/L). function of the heart, muscles, kidney, nerves, and The major sources of iron in natural water are digestive system. The high concentration of potas- mineral from rocks, sediment, oxidized metal, mining sium causes hypertension and kidney problems and manufacturing waste (Paul Supantha & Mishra (Dobrzański & Zawadzki, 1981). The results of potas- Umesh, 2011). The iron results were observed sium were observed between 06 and 117 mg/L in the between 10.6 and 133 µg/L. The concentrations of study area. The K of 9 samples were within and 12 Fe of all samples were within limits (300 µg/L). above the permissible limits of WHO (12 mg/L). Cobalt is found in earth’s crust and natural water. The source of Ca in water is gypsum, limestone Cobalt has beneﬁcial applications; it is an essential 2+ and other Ca comprising rocks, minerals and component of vitamin B and beneﬁcial for erythro- industrial waste (Karanth, 1987). Calcium and its cytes creation in prevention of anemic situation compounds have low toxicity; however, a high cal- (Sharma, 1998). Consumption of higher concentra- cium intake has been associated with kidney stone. tion of cobalt can damage liver, kidney, pancreases The calcium results were observed between 27 to and heart as well as the skeleton and skeleton muscles 590 mg/L. The Ca of 11 samples were within and 10 (Simonsen et al., 2012). The cobalt results were samples above the maximum permissible limits of observed between 12.8 and 49.1 µg/L. The concentra- WHO (2012) (150 mg/L). tions of Co of all samples were within limits Magnesium is an important mineral and cofactor (100 µg/L). in more than 300 enzyme systems that control var- The sources of nickel in water include weathering ious biological reactions in the human body, as well of rocks, and soils, forest ﬁres, fertilizers, industrial as protein, nerve and muscle functions, blood pres- wastes and municipal sewage. Daily intake of Ni sure and blood glucose regulator. The higher concen- through diet is approximately 300 µg. Excess level of tration of magnesium can cause vomiting, nausea, nickel in humans is known to cause liver, kidney, facial ﬂushing, holding of urine, depression, weakness brain damage, tissue damage, lung and can also of muscle, breathing trouble and irregular heart beat cause cancer of nasal (Babai et al., 2012). The nickel disease (Musso, 2009). The magnesium results were results were observed between BDL to 158 µg/L. The observed between 18 and 557 mg/L (Table 4). The Ni of 11 (52.38%) samples were above the permissible Mg of 11 samples were within and 10 samples above limits of WHO (2012) for drinking (50 µg/L). the maximum permissible limits of WHO (2012) Copper is an important source for humans It is (75 mg/L) (Figure 2). The cations and anions balance essential for human diet to conﬁrm worthy health in was calculated by adding cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) less amount. Nevertheless, at higher concentration it and anions (Cl, HCO , and SO ) in milequuvalent/L. may cause vomiting, diarrhea, liver, nausea and kid- 3 4 The results of cations and anions agreed each other ney damage (Pawlisz et al., 1992). The copper results with error within 5% (Figure 3). were observed between BDL to 92.2 µg/L. The con- centrations of Cu of all samples were within limits (100 µg/L). 3.4. Trace and toxic elements Cadmium in drinking water is generally a result of the deterioration of galvanized plumbing, industrial Chromium can enter the water supply in runoﬀ from waste and use of phosphate fertilizer. Cadmium is an steel, paper mills, leather, dyes industry, municipal extremely toxic element; the Cd in water can cause waste, corrosion of bushing and heaters or through nausea, vomiting, digestive issue, sensory distur- the erosion of natural deposits chromite ore (Dixit & bances and convulsions. High concentration of cad- Tiwari, 2008). The high concentration of Cr in water mium can cause kidney, liver, bone damage, cancer is harmful for lungs, liver and hemorrhage organs. and cardiovascular diseases (McLaughlin et al., 1999). The chromium results were observed between 9.2 and The cadmium results were observed between BDL to 138 µg/L. The Cr of 11 (52.38%) samples were found 29.4 µg/L. The Cd of 12 (57.14%) samples were to be above the permissible limits of WHO (2012) higher than permissible limits of WHO (3 µg/L). (50 µg/L). GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 29 Table 4. Essential, trace and toxic elements results of groundwater of taluka Qamber. Na K Ca Mg Cr Cd Fe Co Ni Cu F As S: NO mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L µg/L µg/L Mn µg/L µg/L µg/L µg/L µg/L Pb µg/L mg/L mg/L 1 180 13 140 45 ND BDL 4.3 12.1 12.8 49.2 24 7.2 3.88 0.005 2 190 15 110 38 ND BDL BDL 10.6 26.1 11.9 4.8 5.7 1.92 0.005 3 281 12 108 54 134 0.8 BDL 8.0 21.7 26.1 3.2 7.4 3.82 0.010 4 1186 117 411 287 9.2 28.0 7.3 22.4 36.5 14.8 30 33 21.80 0.005 5 220 12 110 52 10.5 4.0 20.4 110 34.6 BDL 14 23 4.13 0.010 6 586 20 380 280 50.0 12.9 BDL 117 49.1 35.8 13 8.7 8.57 0.005 7 387 18 420 285 107 15.7 16.1 119 36.6 33.8 6.7 15.7 7.76 0.00 8 889 36 590 557 138 7.2 BDL 34.1 38.1 16.0 31 30 18.30 0.00 9 375 10 350 262 41 1.8 8.0 25.2 41.4 15.1 25 6.2 8.14 0.005 10 310 7 175 97 68 BDL 23 106 13.3 19.0 20 1.14 5.68 0.005 11 90 10 70 42 107 14.8 22.9 60.4 15.8 56.9 92.1 0 0.55 0.005 12 279 26 220 112 39 28.2 ND 45.0 12.9 89.0 11.2 17 5.37 0.010 13 338 25 405 228 136 29.4 68.9 22.5 41.2 158 5.5 28.3 11.34 0.005 14 177 12 90 47 66 13.1 96.9 133 26.0 113 23 0 2.70 0.005 15 190 18 233 120 71 12.7 43.9 85.3 29.3 109 13 0 3.74 0.005 16 25 10 30 18 135 ND 13.0 57.7 24.7 93 17 0 0.39 0.010 17 230 18 110 58 40 ND 9.3 96.7 27.3 155 11.2 7.4 2.82 0.005 18 203 24 130 62 87 3.7 15.1 78.7 26.5 76 18.9 9.1 2.40 0.00 19 53 11 80 52 132 ND 50.7 91.4 20.2 133 19.1 0 0.78 0.005 20 30 6 27 23 41 2.0 17.0 101 ND 80.3 23.4 0 0.50 0.005 21 320 18 240 105 48 7.6 43.4 116 27.0 120 18 7.8 3.94 0.010 WHO 200 mg/L 12 mg/L 150 75 mg/L 50 µg/L 3.0 µg/L 100 µg/L 300 µg/L 100 µg/L 50 µg/L 100 µg/L 10 µg/L 1.5 mg/L 10 µg/L mg/L ND, not detected; BDL, below detection limits. 30 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 1718192021 No: of samples Na K Ca Mg Cl Alk SO4 Figure 2. Anions and cations of study area. Na SO4 14.12% 11.05% 0.6% HCO3 6.47% Sum of anions 38.64 meq/L. Sum of cations Ca 38.12 meq/L. 11.30% Error % 1.34 meq/L Cl 21.12% Mg 12.10% Na K Ca Mg Cl HCO3 SO4 Figure 3. Pie chart of anions and cations balance of major parameters. Automobile fumes consumed have been tested to (50 µg/L) and Ni (50 µg/L), but trace metals were explain for approximately 50% of over all inorganic found within the permissible limits of WHO (2010): lead absorbed by human. The excess level of lead can Mn (100 µg/L), Cu (200 µg/L), Co (100 µg/L) and Fe cause hearing loss, nervous system, aggressive beha- (300–1000 µg/L). Trace metals are not toxic but its vior, abdominal cramps and pain, kidney damage, higher concentration in drinking water may be harm- blood pressure and reduced sperm fertilization ful for living organism and cause many diseases). (Mohan & Hosetti, 1999). The lead results were observed between BDL to 60 µg/L (Table 4). The Pb 3.4.1. Arsenic of six (28.57%) samples were higher than permissible Arsenic is a very poisonous substance naturally found limits of WHO (2012) (10 µg/L) (Figure 4). in rocks, soil and water. Many aquifers comprise Muhammad Balal (Arain. et al., 2008) reported Fe higher concentration of arsenic containing salts so 1.5 to 5.05 mg/L at Manchar lake . The high con- that arsenic makes water contaminated. The WHO centration of iron (Fe) causes a brownish color to guideline for arsenic is 0.01 mg/L for drinking water. clean clothing and also Fe gives harsh taste to water The short term of arsenic exposure to high level of and also less concentration of iron (Fe) causes (As) in drinking may cause diarrhea, stomach, vomit- anemia. ing, muscular, weakness, skin rash, pain in feet and (Salma Bilal, & Sami ur Rahman, 2013 reported the also hands, loss of movements. The large period expo- Water quality of Hassan Abdal (Punjab), Pakistan with sure to higher concentration of (As) in drinking water Cr (11–41 µg/L), Mn (21–51 µg/L), Ni (1–6 µg/L) Cu may also cause discoloring of membrane, nausea, diar- (1–190 µg/L), respectively. The Cr of 39 samples and rhea, reduced creation of blood cells, heart regularity, Ni of 25 samples were above the WHO limits Cr and damage blood vessel. High level of (As) in mg/L GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 No: of samples Cr Cd Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Pb Figure 4. Trace metals of study area. drinking water may growth the threat of cancer in permissible limits for drinking purpose (3.0 mg/ tissues like liver, bladder and lungs (Wadhw, 2011). L) (Figure 5). 14 samples were above the permis- The arsenic results were observed between BDL to sible limits for drinking purpose (> 3 mg/L) 0.010 mg/L. The arsenic of all samples were within (Table 4). It is observed that the ﬂuoride varied the permissible limits of WHO (2012) (10 µg/L). with variation of TDS, the ﬂuoride increased with the values of TDS increased. Tahir and Rasheed (2013) reported that only 16% samples out of 747 3.4.2. Fluoride were found to be dangerous, whereas the 84 % Fluoride (F) is a natural element that is found in samples were found to be safe. The 747 samples soil and groundwater. The chief source of ﬂuoride were collected from tube wells, hand pumps, wells, in groundwater is ﬂuoride-bearing rocks like cryo- bores and water supply schemes of 16 cities of the lite, ﬂuorspar, hydroxyapatite, ﬂuorite and ﬂuora- Pakistan. patite (Meenakshi et al., 2004). Low level of ﬂuoride is beneﬁcial for human and it protects tooth enamel against the acids that cause tooth 3.4.3. Scatter diagram analysis decay. The high content of ﬂuoride in water may TheScatterdiagram drawstheplot ﬂuoride versus cause weaken bones, muscles and nervous pro- TDS with the help of (Microsoft excel 2013). A blems. The ﬂuoride results were observed between scatter diagram is used to know the relationship 0.39 and 21.80 mg/L. The ﬂuoride 4 samples were between two variables Y- and X-axes. If variables within the permissible limits of WHO for drinking are correlated to each other, the curve will be purpose (1.5 mg/L), 3 samples within the Figure 5. Fluoride of groundwater of study area. µg/L 32 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. Fluoride versus TDS 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 -5 TDS mg/L Figure 6. Scatter plot of ﬂuoride versus TDS of study area. Table 5. Correlation determination of parameters of taluka Qamber. − 2− + + 2+ 2+ − 2− pH EC TDS Cl TH Alk SO Na K Ca Mg F PO -P 4 4 pH 1.000 EC 0.600 1.000 TDS 0.600 1.000 1.000 −− Cl 0.633 0.960 0.960 1.000 TH 0.590 0.898 0.898 0.843 1.000 Alk 0.156 0.489 0.489 0.282 0.417 1.000 2−− SO 0.512 0.913 0.913 0.798 0.877 0.556 1.000 + − Na 0.557 0.947 0.947 0.960 0.743 0.396 0.763 1.000 + − K 0.277 0.689 0.689 0.725 0.341 0.281 0.491 0.836 1.000 2+ − Ca 0.585 0.947 0.947 0.875 0.955 0.525 0.945 0.808 0.491 1.000 2+ − Mg 0.600 0.934 0.934 0.913 0.971 0.369 0.883 0.807 0.451 0.962 1.000 −− F 0.316 0.778 0.778 0.759 0.610 0.352 0.681 0.787 0.713 0.692 0.677 1.000 2− − − − − − − − − − TPO -P 0.005 0.032 0.032 0.038 0.006 0.222 0.088 0.020 0.143 0.072 0.036 0.147 1.000 2+ linear; the diagram Y-axis represented the ﬂuoride and Ca but less correlated to other parameters. concentration and X-axis represented the TDS Potassium is less correlated to calcium and magne- value. The scatter diagram indicated the correlation sium. Chloride is less correlated to alkalinity and total of parameters in each others. The ﬁrst cluster of phosphate–phosphorous (<0.5). The correlation dots gathered between TDS 1000 and 2000 mg/L, showed that the major parameters were good corre- and second cluster of dots gathered between TDS lated to each other which indicated that these samples 2000 and 3000 mg/L. It is observed that the con- were within similar geological locations. centration of ﬂuoride increased with the value of TDS increased (Figure 6). 3.4.5. Hierarchical cluster analysis The cluster analysis is a process that enables the combi- 3.4.4. Correlation determination nation of related locations on the basis of distance Correlation is used to determine the degree of close- conditions and speciﬁc aggregative procedure in direc- ness between the dissimilar variables (Nesrine et al., tion to create a topology which describes the similarities 2015). Table 5 shows the correlation of parameters of between the classes and dissimilarities between the dif- taluka Qamber to each other. The EC is good corre- ferent classes. The value of cluster supports the under- lated with TDS, total hardness, sulfate, calcium, mag- standing the data and pattern (Sneath & Sokal, 1973). nesium (>0.7), moderate correlated to potassium and The cluster analysis is designed consecutively by open- ﬂuoride (0.5–0.7) but less correlated to pH and phos- ing with the related pair of objects and creating higher phate (<0.5). The pH was negative correlated to all groups step by step going to the bottom. The hierarch- 2- parameters. Alkalinity is moderate correlated to SO ical clusters are completed on the normalized data set Fluoride mg/L GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 33 Figure 7. Dendrogram of anions and cations of study area. Figure 8. Piper diagram of anions and cations of study area. (average value) by using wards method (Sneath & Sokal, 3.4.6. Hydrochemical composition 1973). The piper diagram drawn with the help of The cluster analysis method was used for the 21 Aquachem software and is used to describe the groundwater samples of taluka Qamber to known the hydrochemical compositional structures in two similarity among sampling locations (Figure 7). The similar triangles along with diamond to top of the samples were observed to be grouped into three clus- (Figure 8)(VikasTomar et al., 2012). The anions − 2- − ters in dendrogram. Group A is divided into A1 and grouped HCO ,SO and Cl are indicated in 3 4 + + 2+ A2, group A1 is based on 11 samples with sample triangle right and cations grouped Na ,K ,Ca , 2+ numbers 16, 20, 11, 19, 5, 17, 1, 18, 2, 14, 3 and A2 Mg in triangle left and diamond to top of the contain 4 samples with numbers 10, 21, 12 and 15. The ﬁgure established in a trilinear diagram indicates 2+ 2+ − −2 cluster B contains 4 samples 7, 9, 6, and 13. The cluster the Ca ,Mg and Cl ,SO and the nature of C contains 2 samples 4 and 8. It is observed that group groundwater. The triangle right showed predomi- − − 2- C samples have higher values for most of parameters nance of Cl toward HCO and SO and triangle 3 4 + + than group A and B. Similarly, the group B has higher left showed predominance of Na and K toward 2+ 2+ values in terms of average concentration then group A. Ca and Mg . 34 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. Table 6. Rotated principal component analysis. be used to evaluate the leading of hydrogeochemical Rotated component matrix process. Component The component 1 which is based on load 12 3 43.019% indicated for parameters conductivity, pH −0.607 −0.323 0.480 TDS,chloride,sulfate,total hardness,sodium, Cond 0.950 0.152 0.254 calcium, magnesium, and cobalt with high posi- TDS 0.950 0.152 0.254 Cl 0.935 −0.188 tive loading (0.767–0.961), potassium, chromium Alk 0.468 0.381 0.647 and cadmium medium positive loading (0.512– SO4 0.846 0.262 0.375 Na 0.896 −0.110 0.328 0.583) and alkalinity, ﬂuoride, NO ,NO ,Ni, 3 2 K 0.583 0.473 0.458 Mn and Pb low positive loading (0.132–0.468). Ca 0.957 0.157 0.121 Mg 0.961 Similarly the component 2 Which has 15.996% TH 0.846 0.375 indicated high loading only for nickel (0.956), TPO4 −0.296 −0.650 moderate positive loading for Cd and Mn OPO4 −0.184 −0.562 0.234 NO3 0.167 −0.831 −0.213 (0.506–0.576) and low positive loading for con- NO2 0.229 −0.862 −0.243 ductivity, TDS, calcium, total hardness, sulfate, F 0.385 0.313 0.122 Cr 0.512 0.164 −0.255 potassium, ﬂuoride and alkalinity (0.152–0.473). Cd 0.569 0.506 0.209 The component 3 which has loading of 11.088% Co 0.767 0.120 Mn 0.132 0.576 −0.293 has moderate positive loading for alkalinity, As Fe −0.113 −0.116 −0.566 (0.647–0.696) and low positive loading for pH Ni 0.134 0.956 Cu −0.303 −0.498 conductivity, TDS, Ca, Na, SO , total hardness, Pb 0.349 −0.249 0.695 K, Cd, F and O PO , (0.121–0.480). It reﬂects As −0.341 −0.296 0.696 the composition of the components within the Eigen values 10.755 3.999 2.772 % of variance 43.019 15.996 11.088 water bodies at taluka Qamber. Cumulative % 43.019 59.015 70.103 3.5. Suitablity of Water for irrigation The 21 groundwater samples were applied for the 3.5.1. Salinity Hazards diagram. The right side of triangle indicated approxi- The salinity hazards calculated othe basis of EC, mately all groundwater samples were rich in chloride, According to results only two samples were in low and indicated chloride type water within 60–100%. and medium salinity categories EC less than 500 and The left side of triangle indicated slightly sodium type 2+ 2+ − 2- 500 to 1000 uS/cm respectively, 7 samples in high EC water. The Ca ,Mg and Cl ,SO were found at 1000-3000 and 10 samples were in very high EC both sides simultaneously and arrows raised upward above than 3000 uS/cm salinity categories respec- within diamond shape of diagram. The most of sam- 2+ − tively (Figure 9). ples gathered upward Ca and Cl and also indicated that the water samples were calcium and chloride 3.5.2. Sodium percentage (Na%) type also. For calculation of sodium percentage of water sam- ples, Doneen method was used. The Na % was deter- 3.4.7. Principal component analysis mined as follows: Principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out + + 2+ 2+ + Na% = [(Na +K )/(Ca +Mg +Na + with SPSS 22 Software. It is powerful tool that + K )] ×100 attempts to describe the variance of the large dataset of inter correlated variables with the smaller dataset The concentrations of sodium percentage were of independent variables (Simeonov et al., 2003). expressed in meq/L. Sodium percentage results of PCA extracts an eigenvalues from covariance matrix natural water are divided into three categories: of original variables and weighted linear combination (good) 20–40 Na%, (permissible) 40–60 Na%, of original variables. The rotated components matrix and (doubtful) 60–80 Na% (Doneen, 1964). The for 25 physicochemical parameters for the water sam- Na% were found between 23.6 and 55.8 Na %; 11 ples of taluka Qamber are shown in (Table 6). It (52.38%) samples were in good (20–40 Na %), 10 includes loading components for rotated matrix, per- (47.62%) samples were permissible (40–60 Na %) cent and cumulative percent of variance described by and no sample was in doubtful (60–80 Na %) each component. It shows that the rotated principal categories. components account together for 70.103% of the total variance of the dataset. In which the ﬁrst component 3.5.3. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR) is 43.019%, second component 15.996% and third SAR value is used to calculate the quality of water for component 11.088% of total variance. The eigenva- crops and irrigation and to determine the alkali/Na lues of three components are greater than 1, and can threat to crops. The alkali/hazard is usually indicated GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 35 Figure 9. Salinity hazards of groundwater of study area. + 2+ as SAR. This index calculates the ratio of Na to Ca with higher Na ratio is not suitable for crops and 2+ and Mg ions in the water sample (Masood Alam irrigation (Sundaray, Nayak, & Bhatta, 2009). The et al., 2012): value of KI is expressed in meq/L as follows: + +2 +2 Na KI = Na /Ca +Mg SAR ¼ vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ CaþþMg þþ KI in the study area were found between 0.28 and 1.23 meq/L. It was observed from the study that 85.71% samples were suitable for agriculture and 14.28% samples were unsuitable for irrigation. All ions were shown in meq/L. The SAR also aﬀects inﬁltration rate of natural water. Therefore, low SAR is essential. If SAR value is less than 6 the sample is 3.5.5. Permeability index (PI) suitable for irrigation and if SAR value is greater than The permeability index (PI) of water and soil is 6 the sample is not suitable for irrigation. threatening by continuous use for irrigation. + 2+ 2+ The SAR values were between 0.81 and 10.94 meq/ Groundwater is aﬀected by Na ,Ca ,Mg and L. A total of 19 analyzed groundwater samples were HCO substances in water and soil. The measure within permissible limits for irrigation and two sam- for considering the permeability of water for crops ples were above the permissible limits. is based on PI (Bashir et al, Huda, Naseem, Hamza, & Kaleem, 2015). The PI is determined as follows: 3.5.4. Kelly’s index (KI) + − +2 +2 + PI = [(Na + HCO )/(Ca +Mg +Na )] × 100 Kelly’s index (KI) is used for arrangement of ground- The PI in the study area were found between 36.4 and water for crops and irrigation. The Na determined 2+ 2+ 100 meq/L. It was observed from the study that the against (Ca ) and (Mg ) is used to calculate the KI 38.1% samples were in high permissibility PI (75%) for irrigation. The KI (>1) shows a higher concentra- Class I which was good for irrigation and 42.86% tion of Na in the water (Kelly, 1940). Consequently, samples were between 50% to 75% (Class II), which water with a KI (<1) is good for crops and the water 36 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. Table 7. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation of taluka Qamber. SAR Na% PI KI RSC CA1 Cl/SO4 Cl/HCO S:1d meq/L meq/L meq/L meq/L meq/L meq/L Ratio meq/L Ratio meq/L 1 3.37 43.1 80.0 0.73 −3.75 0.01 1.48 1.42 2 3.97 50.0 73.5 0.95 −4.46 0.01 1.44 2.50 3 5.50 55.8 83.2 1.23 −3.7 −0.30 0.70 1.86 4 10.94 55.1 62.0 1.16 −36.6 0.28 2.95 13.26 5 4.32 50.1 86.4 0.97 −2.63 −0.28 1.80 3.16 6 5.53 38.0 51.7 0.62 −32.4 0.30 4.48 5.63 7 3.56 27.8 36.4 0.38 −39.2 0.52 1.62 7.77 8 6.27 34.2 39.0 0.51 −69.9 0.50 3.02 17.00 9 3.67 29.6 43.6 0.41 −31.3 0.49 1.56 5.32 10 4.64 44.7 63.5 1.23 −11.0 0.01 0.90 3.32 11 2.10 37.3 85.3 0.56 −1.6 −0.31 2.35 0.64 12 3.81 38.6 68.7 0.59 −10.1 −0.15 0.89 1.29 13 3.31 28.1 46.5 0.37 −28.8 0.17 0.54 1.56 14 3.75 48.7 91.1 0.91 −1.41 −0.29 7.61 1.06 15 2.52 28.7 53.0 0.38 −14.1 −0.19 0.50 0.96 16 0.90 31.3 100 0.36 0.0 −0.69 1.60 0.26 17 4.40 50.3 79.6 0.97 −4.1 −0.20 2.16 1.41 18 3.66 44.7 71.4 0.76 −5.86 −0.19 1.43 1.36 19 0.81 23.6 66.7 0.28 −5.53 0.33 2.10 0.80 20 1.02 30.8 94.1 0.40 −0.23 −0.24 5.13 0.40 21 4.32 41.0 58.6 0.67 −14.3 0.23 1.54 2.90 was suitable for irrigation uses and 19.04% samples agriculture purposes (Janardhana Raju, 2007). The were in less than 50% permissibility (Class III) which value of RSC is calculated as follows: was unsuitable for irrigation uses. − −2 +2 +2 RSC = (HCO +CO ) (Ca +Mg ) 3 3 – The RSC is divided into three categories for irriga- 3.5.6. Chloro alkaline indices (CAI-1) tion: “safe” (< 1.25), “marginal” (1.25–2.5) and It is necessary to identify the chemical arrangement “unsuitable” (>2.5). The RSC values of all samples of natural water changes when it is passing through were found to be in “safe” category (<1.25 meq/L), subsurface, the ion conversation among the water negative, so that water of study area was suitable for and its environment through residence can be irrigation and crops. known by learning the CAI-1 (Schoeller, 1977). The CAI-1 is determined as follows: 3.5.9. Chloride bicarbonate ratio − + + (CAI-1) = [Cl −(Na +K )]/Cl− Chloride bicarbonate ratio is used to calculate the If CAI-1 is negative, it means there is base exchange suitability of water for irrigation and agriculture. If + + 2+ among (Na and K ) in the water with (Ca and chloride bicarbonate ratio is greater than 1, the water 2+ Mg ) in soils and rocks. If CAI-1 ratio is positive, it sample is salty (Al-Harbi, 2009). All ions were shown means there cannot be base exchange. in meq/L. The chloro alkaline indices 1 indicates that 47.38% Chloride bicarbonate is calculated as follows: of the water were negative ratios and 52.38% water − − Chloride bicarbonate = Cl /HCO samples were positive ratios. The chloride bicarbonates in the study area were found to be between 0.26 and 17.00 meq/L. The 3.5.7. Chloride sulfate ratio 76.19% samples chloride bicarbonate ratio was Chloride sulfate ratio is used to calculate the suitability greater than 1 and 23.81% samples were less than 1. of water for irrigation and agriculture. If chloride sulfate The overall results indicate that 75–90% samples ratio is greater than 1, the water sample is salty (Omar A are suitable for irrigation. It is therefore suggested Al-Harbi, 2009). All ions were shown in meq/L. that the water may be used for irrigation with care, Chloride sulfate ratio is calculated as follows: keeping in view of the quality of water (Table 7). − −2 Chloride sulfate = Cl /SO The chloride sulfates in the study area were found 4. Conclusion between 0.50 and 7.61 meq/L. The 76.19% samples chloride sulfate ratio was greater than 1 and 23.81% The present study analyzed the groundwater of taluka samples were less than 1. Qamber of District Qamber Shahdadkot. The samples analyzed were compared with standard values of 3.5.8. Residual sodium carbonate (RSC) WHO for drinking water. The pH values of all sam- The residual sodium carbonate (RSC) is used to mea- ples of talukas Qamber were found within the per- −2 sure the harmful inﬂuence of carbonate (CO ) and missible limits. The results of EC and total dissolved bicarbonate (HCO ) on the suitability of water for solids of 81% were found above the WHO limits. The 3 GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 37 concentration of anions and cations of Qamber about American Public Health Association. (1992). WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and half of samples were found above the limits. The wastewater. American Public Health Association/ ﬂuoride 19.05% samples were suitable for drinking, American Water Works Association/Water Environment 14.28% samples within maximum permissible limits Federation (18th ed). Washington, DC. for drinking and 66.66% samples were above the American Public Health Association. (1995). WPCF, maximum permissible limits for drinking. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington DC, USA: American Public The heavy metals like Fe, Mn, Co and Cu of all Health Association/American Water Works samples were within permissible limits of WHO but Association/Water Environment Federation. concentration of Cr and Ni 52.38%, Cd 57.14%, and American Public Health Association, American Water Pb 28.57% samples were higher than permissible lim- Works Association, Water Pollution Control its of WHO. The high concentration of chromium is Federation, & Water Environment Federation. (1913). due to the industrial, drainage and agriculture Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington, DC: American Public Health wastage in the study area. The heavy metals were Association. decreasing order Fe>Ni>Cr>Co>Mn> Cu>Cd>Pb. Anurag, T., Ashutosh, D., & Aviral, T. (2010). A study on The concentrations of NO -N, T -PO - -P and O 2 4 physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater quality. -PO - -P, COD and arsenic were within permissible Journal ChemicalPharmacologyResearch, 2(4), 510–518. limits of WHO. The concentration of chloride 76.1%, Arain., M. B., Kazi., T. G., Jamali., M. K., Afridi., H. I., Baig., J. A., Nusrat, J., & Shah., A. Q. (2008). Evaluation nitrate-N 9.52%, hardness 43%, alkalinity and K + 2- of physico-chemical parameters of Manchar lake water 57.1%, Na and SO 62%, Ca and Mg 47.6% were and their comparison with other global published higher than permissible limits of WHO. The water values,” Pak. Journal of Anal Environmental Chemistry, quality of taluka Qamber at majority of places is not 9(2), 101–109. suitable for human consumption. Babai,K.S.,Poongothai,S.,Lakshmi,K.S., The Na%, SAR, KI, PI, RCS, CAI-1, chloride bicar- Punniyakotti, J., & Meenakshisundaram, V. (2012). Estimation of indoor radon levels and absorbed dose bonate ratio, chloride sulfate ratio to know the suit- rates in air for Chennai city, Tamilnadu, India. Journal ability of water for irrigation. According to current of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 293(2), work, 40– 90% of water samples of study area were 649–654. suitable for irrigation purposes. Bashir, E., Huda, S. N., Naseem, S., Hamza, S., & Kaleem, Maltivariant analysis techniques, cluster analysis, M. (2015). Geochemistry and quality parameters of dug and tube well water of Khipro, district Sanghar, Sindh, principal component analysis and piper diagram were Pakistan. Applied Water Science, 7(4), 1645-1655. used to calcutate the similarity among the sampling Chandio, N. H., & Anwar, M. (2009). Impacts of climate on stations, the variation among the large dataset and Agriculture and it’s causes: A Case study of Taluka hydrochemical composition of the anions and cations Kamber, Sindh, Pakistan. Sindh University Research respectively. Journal (Science Series), 41(2), 59–64. Dixit, S. & Tiwari, S. (2008). Impact assessment of heavy metal pollution of Shahpura Lake, Bhopal, India. International Journal of Environmental Research, 2(1), Acknowledgments 37–42. Dobrzański, B., & Zawadzki, S. (1981). Pedology (pp. 613). The authors thank University of Sindh for their support. Warszawa: PWR. Doneen, L. D. (1964). Notes on water quality in Agriculture, Paper 4001 ed. Department of Water Sciences and Disclosure statement Engineering, University of California: Published as a Water Science and Engineering. No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the Gale, R. P., Champlin, R. E., Feig, S. A., & Fitchen, J. H. authors. (1981). Aplastic anemia biology and treatment. Annals of Internal Medicine, 95(4), 477–494. Jahangir, T. M., Khuhawar, M. Y., Leghari, S. M., Mahar, References M. T., & Khaskheli, A. A. (2013). Chemical assessment of natural springs of Sindh Pakistan. Canadian Journal Abbulu., R. (2013). A study on physico-chemical charac- of Pure and Applied Sciences Senra Academic Publishers, teristics of groundwater in the industrial zone of British Columbia, 7(2), 2431–2449. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. American Journal of Jain, C. K., Kumar, C. P., & Sharma, M. K. (2003). Engineering Research, 2(10), 112–116. Groundwater qualities of Ghataprabha command area Agarwal, B. R., Mundhe, V., Hussain., S., & Pradhan., V. Karnataka. Indian Journal Environ and Ecoplan, 7(2), (2012). Assessment of bore well water quality in and 251–262. around Badnapur Dist. Jalna. Journal of Chemical and Jameel, A. (2002). Evaluation of drinking water quality in Pharmaceutical Research, 4, 4025–4027. Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Al-Harbi, O. A, Hussain, G., & Lafouza, O. (2009). Environmental Health, 44(2), 108–112. Irrigation water quality evaluation of Al-Mendasah Jayalakshmi, V., Lakshmi, N., & Singara Charya, M. A. groundwater and drainage water, Al-Madenah Al- (2011). Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Monawarah region, Saudi Arabia. International of Soil water and waste waters in and around Vijayawada. Science, 4, 123–141. 38 M. F. LANJWANI ET AL. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality: Biomedical Sciences, 2(3), 1040–1046. Environmental Toxicolog, 12(2), 123-183.. Kandhro, A. J., Rind, A. M., Mastoi, A. A., Almani, K. F., Raju., J. (2007). Hydrogeochemical parameters for assess- Meghwar,S.,Laghari, M.A.,& Rajpout,M.S. (2015). ment ofgroundwater quality in the upper Gunjanaeru Physico-chemical assessment of surface and ground water River basin, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, South for drinking purpose in Nawabshah city, Sindh, Pakistan. India. Environmental Geology, 52, 1067–1074. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 41,62–69. Raveneau, R., & Burrough, P. A. 1988. Principles of geogra- Karanth, K. R. (1987). Groundwater assessment, develop- phical information systems for land ressources assessment ment and management (p. 455). New Delhi: Mcgraw Hill 193. Oxford: Oxford university press. Cahiers de Publishing Company Limited. géographie du Québec, vol. 32, no. 85, p. 76 Kelly, W. P., (1940). Permissible composition and concen- Sajil Kumar, P. J., & James, E. J. (2013). Physicochemical tration of irrigated waters. Proceeding of the ASCF, 66, parameters and their sources in groundwater in the 607. Thirupathur region, Tamil Nadu, south India. Applied Khan, A. R., Haq, I. U., Khan, W. A., Akif, M., Khan, M., & Water Science, 3(1), 219–228. Riaz, M. (2000). Quality characteristics of potable water Salma, B., & Ur Rahman, S. (2013). Determination of trace of Mardan city (Pakistan) and surrounding areas. elements in the drinking water of Hassan Abdal, Punjab, Journal-Chemical Society of Pakistan, 22(2), 87–93. Pakistan. Journal of Scientiﬁc and Innovative Research, 2, Khan, A. R., Marwat, G. A., & Riaz, M. (2005). Potable 02. water quality characteristics of the urban areas of Samina, J., Jaﬀar, M., & Shah, M. H. (2004). Physico-che- Peshawar (Pakistan) part 2: Well water. Journal of the mical proﬁling of ground water along Hazara strip, Chemical Society of Pakistan, 27(3), 239–245. Pakistan. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, Lodi—Ii, Z. H., Akif, M., & Kalsoom, U. (2003). Evaluation 26(3), 288–292. of drinking water from diﬀerent sources in Skardu- Satish Kumar, K. (2015). Water availability assessment in Northern area with special reference to heavy metals. Shipra river. International Journal of Research in Journal of Chemical Society Pakistan, 25,2. Engineering and Technology, 04(11), 126–130. Nov. Mahmood., K., Alamgir., A., Khan., M. A., Shaukat., S. S., 2015. Anwar, M., & Khan Sherwani, S. (2014). Seasonal varia- Schoeller, H. (1977). Geochemistry of groundwater. In tion in water quality of lower Sindh, Pakistan. FUUAST Ground water studies-An international guide for research Journal of Biology, 4(2), 147–156. and practice (Ch. 15, pp. 1–18). Paris: UNESCO. Majidano, S. A., Khuhawar, M. Y., & Channar, A. H. Seilkop, S. K., & Oller, A. R. (2003). Respiratory cancer (2010). Quality assessment of surface and groundwater risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: An inte- of Taluka Daur, District Nawabshah, Sindh, Pakistan. grated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 32(6), 745. mechanistic data. Regulatory Toxicology and Majidano, S. A., Majidano, A., & Khuhawar, M. Y. (2008). Pharmacology, 37(2), 173–190. Physico-chemical study of surface and ground water of Sharma, Y. R. (1998). Elementary organic spectroscopy. New Taluka Nawabshah, District Nawabshah, Sindh, Delhi: S. Chand and Company. Pakistan. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, Shehzadi, R., Raﬁque, H. M., Abbas, I., Sohl, M. A., Ramay, 30(6), 951. S. M., & Mahmood, A. (2014). Assessment of drinking Masood, A., Rais., S., & Aslam., M. (2012). Hydrochemical water quality of Tehsil Alipur, Pakistan. Desalination investigation and quality assessment of groundwater in and Water Treatment, 55(8), 2253–2264. rural areas of Delhi, India. Environment Earth Science, Simeonov, V., Stratis, J. A., Samara, C., Zachariadis, G., 66, 97. Voutsa, D., & Anthemidis, A. (2003). Assessment of the McLaughlin, M. J., Parker, D. R., & Clarke, J. M. (1999). surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Metals and micronutrients – Food safety issues. Field Research, 37, 4119–4124. Crops Research, 60(1–2), 143–163. Simonsen, L. O., Harbak, H., & Bennekou, P. (2012). Meenakshi, G., Karik, R., & Malik, A. (2004). Groundwater Cobalt metabolism and toxicology-A brief update. The quality in some villages in Haryana, India: Focus on Science of the Total Environment, 432, 210–215. ﬂuoride and ﬂuorosis. Journal Hazardous Material, 106, Sittig, A. C., Van der Gon, J. J. D., & Gielen, C. C. A. M. 85–97. (1985). Separate control of arm position and velocity Mohan, B. S., & Hosetti, B. B. (1999). Aquatic plants for demonstrated by vibration of muscle tendon in man. toxicity assessment. Environmental Research, 81(4), 259– Experimental Brain Research, 60(3), 445–453. Nov. 274. Sneath, P. H., & Sokal, R. R. (1973). Numerical taxonomy Murali, K., & Elangovan, R. (2013). Assessment of ground- the principles and practice of numerical classiﬁcation (pp. water vulnerability in Coimbatore South Taluk, 573). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Tamilnadu, India using DRASTIC approach. Strazzullo, P., D’Elia, L., Kandala, N., & Cappuccio, F. P. International Journal of Scientiﬁc and Research (2009). Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: Publications, 3(6), 1. Meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ, 339(nov24 Musso, C. G. (2009). Magnesium metabolism in health and 1), b4567–b4567. Nov. disease. International Urology and Nephrology, 41(2), Sundar, M. L., & Saseetharan, M. K. (2008). Groundwater 357–362. quality in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu along Noyyal River. Nesrine, N., Rachida, B., & Ahmed, R. (2015). Multivariate Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering, 50(3), statistical analysis of saline water a case study: Sabkha 187–190. Oum LeKhialate (Tunisia). International Journal of Sundaray, S. K., Nayak, B. B., & Bhatta, D. (2009). Environmental Science Development, 6(1), 40–43. Environmental studies on river water quality with refer- Pawlisz, A. V., Kent, R. A., Schneider, U. A., & Jeﬀerson, C. ence to suitability for agricultural purposes: Mahanadi (1997). Canadian water quality guidelines for chromium. river estuarine system, India–A case study. GEOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND LANDSCAPES 39 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 155(1–4), Trivedy, R. K., & Goel, P. K. (1984). Chemical and biologi- 227–243. cal methods for water pollution studies (pp. 1– Supantha., P., & Umesh., M. (2011). Assessment of under- 211). Karad: Environmental Publications. ground water quality in North Eastern region of India: A Ur-Rahman, A., & Khan, A. R. (2000). Potable water qual- case study of Agartala City. International Journal of ity characteristics of the urban areas of Peshawar Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 850–862. (Pakistan) part 1: Tubewell water. Journal of the Tahir, M. A., & Rasheed, H. (2013). Fluoride in the drinking Chemical Society of Pakistan, 22(3), 171–177. water of Pakistan and the possible risk of crippling ﬂuoro- Wadhwa,S. K.,Kazi,T.G.,Chandio,A.A.,Afridi,H.I., sis. Drinking Water Engineering and Science, 6(1), 17–23. Kolachi,N. F.,Khan,S.,...Baig,J.A.(2011). Tariq, S. R., Shah, M. H., Shaheen, N., Jaﬀar, M., & Comparative study of liver cancer patients in arsenic Khalique, A. (2008). Statistical source identiﬁcation of exposed and non-exposed areas of Pakistan. Biological metals in groundwater exposed to industrial contamina- Trace Element Research, 144(1–3), 86–96. tion. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 138(1– Wara Rao, V. (2011). Physicochemical analysis of selected 3), 159–165. Hazara strip, 2004. ground water samples of Vijayawada rural and urban in Tomar,V.,Kumar,A.,&Khajuria.,V.(2012). Hydro-chemical Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2, 710–714. in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. International WHO. (2012). Progress on drinking water and sanitation. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(2), 756. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Geology Ecology and Landscapes – Taylor & Francis
Published: Jan 2, 2020
Keywords: Fluoride; heavy metals; groundwater; physicochemical assessment; Qamber; Sindh, Pakistan.
Access the full text.
Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.